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Automatic Assessment In Math Education

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Matti Pauna

Matti Pauna

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  • 1. Workshop: Automatic Assessment in Mathematics Education Matti Pauna, University of Helsinki, JEM 1
  • 2. Supporting learning with web-based practicing and assessment exercises 2
  • 3. Outline !! Introduction and background !! Using web based assessment in learning !! Mobile assessment !! Authoring exercises and building assignments !! Case studies and results !! Hands on 3
  • 4. Background !! WebALT project 2005 – 2006 !! JEM (Joining Educational Mathematics) network 2006 – 2009 !! Coordinator: University of Helsinki, department of Mathematics and Statistics !! Expertise on using TEL in the field of mathematics, focusing on the use of interactive exercises for practicing and assessment !! WebALT: build a multilingual database of exercises using language independent encoding grammar (OpenMath & GF) and tools to author exercises 4
  • 5. linalg1:determinant(linalg2:matrix( linalg2:matrixrow(a,b), linalg2:matrixrow(c,d))) Linguistic hints for mood,tense and directive 5
  • 6. JEM Thematic Network quot; ! JoiningEducational Mathematics 2006-2009 quot; ! Continues dissemination quot; ! EU funded network quot; ! Gathers technology developers, authors and users of e-content c!
  • 7. http://jem-thematic.net 7
  • 8. Exercises !! Currently implemented in MapleTA, powered by the Maple computer algebra system !! Different types: multiple choice, open answer, fill in blanks… !! Most of the exercises allow answering by a mathematical formula whose correctness the system evaluates !! Exercises are algorithmic and randomized !! Problems include hints and complete solutions !! Grading is done automatically, using Maple to evaluate student’s response against defined criteria 8
  • 9. Exercises !! To assess and practice basic mathematical skills !! Illustrative graphs and images 9
  • 10. Question Banks !! Questions are divided into banks according to the MathTax classification !! Manual and ad hoc encoding, the system does not provide support for sufficient metadata !! Repository supporting LOM was developed for better management of eContent 10
  • 11. Examples of use !! Best suited for practicing Homework Weekly tests basic skills which are the tools required to build understanding and Diagnostic Remedial problem solving e-tests studies !! High-schools, first year college level mathematics Distance Virtual online learning classes 11
  • 12. Some benefits of the system !! Easy to use, only web browser is needed !! Allows individual practicing at own time, place, and pace in a “neutral” environment !! Grading is done automatically by the computer which saves time of the instructors !! Immediate feedback for students !! Students gain understanding of their learning process and can concentrate on the weak points and practice more !! Diagnostic testing helps to design the teaching, for example, dividing students into groups according to their individual learning needs 12
  • 13. Exercises on Mobile Devices Smartphones SMS quizzes 13
  • 14. Quizzes in iPod or Smartphones 14
  • 15. SMS Exercises !! Questions, answers and feedback as text messages !! Developed a Moodle module to cater quizzes via SMS gateway !! For true time and place independent practicing !! Just in time classroom quizzes !! In many countries mobile phones are much more common than computers with internet access 15
  • 16. Real time quizzes with phones as personal response system (clickers) 16
  • 17. Real time SMS quizzes activate students !! Immediate feedback to correct mistakes right in the beginning !! Raises the level of attention: students follow the presentation more carefully knowing that they have to answer questions after it !! Everybody gets involved !! Eliminates the need for special devices, which often cause configuration and other technical problems 17
  • 18. Authoring interactive exercises and quizzes Exercise structure Algorithms Setting up quizzes 18
  • 19. Question components Question text Correct answer Question text with algorithmic parameters All of these elements are instantiated from the algorithmic parameters 19
  • 20. Authoring questions !! Question bank editor !! LaTeX macros begin{question}{MultipleChoice} name{example 1} qutext{Given $f(x)=(x+3)^2$, find $f(x+5)$} choice*{$(x+8)^2$} choice{$x^2+6x+14$} choice{$x^2+10x+24$} choice{none of these} end{question} !! Editing the source (EDU) code 20
  • 21. Source format 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. Algorithm $a = range(-5,5); condition:ne($a,0); $b = range(-3,3); condition:ne($b,0); condition:le(abs($b-($a)),5); $f = maple(quot;($a)*x+($b)quot;); $p1=maple(quot;[0,($b)]quot;); $p2=maple(quot;[0,($b)-($a)]quot;); $p3=maple(quot;[-1, ($b)-($a)]quot;); $y1=($b)-($a); $y2=if(lt($b,0), quot;($b)quot;, $b); $deltay= -($a); $plot = plotmaple(quot;plots:-display([plot($f, x = -5 .. 5, y = -5 .. 5, color = blue, thickness=2), plots:-coordplot(cartesian, [-5 .. 5, -5 .. 5], color = [gray, gray], linestyle = [solid, solid], grid = [11, 11])], axes = normal, tickmarks=[11,11], labels=[``,``], numpoints=300)quot;); 23
  • 24. Algorithm editor 24
  • 25. Evaluating correctness of answer Cannot analyze student’s response, partial grading not possible 25
  • 26. Equations !! Encoded in MathML 1.! LaTeX converted to MathML 2.! MathML source 3.! mathml function $Deq = mathml(“$a*x^2+$b*x+$c”); 4.! Maple call $Drad = maple(“printf(MathML[ExportPresentation]( sqrt(a +b)<>sqrt(a)+sqrt(b) )) ”); 5.! Equation editor !! Displayed as images on the web page 26
  • 27. Equation editor 27
  • 28. Setting up assignments !! Collect questions into quizzes !! Set policies 28
  • 29. Case studies 30
  • 30. 1. Exercises for Single Variable Calculus !! First year university course !! About 100 exercises for limits, differentiation, integration, series, etc. !! Maple T.A. exercises used as homework assignments and also a diagnostic test as self-assessment before the course !! Bonus points were given to students from homeworks and they could take the assignment any number of times, the best attempt counted
  • 31. !quot;#$%&'()&*+ ,-./0$1/+2$%+ 3%4*0*&1#+54/&*+ '.*(1&,-./+$2+ 64quot;*-quot;-/+
  • 32. 2. High School exercises !! Exercise sets for all 10 long term math courses in the Finnish curriculum developed since 2005 !! Algorithmic exercises for training basic methods and techniques !! Students do not usually practice enough which is needed to learn mathematics and solve more demanding problems
  • 33. 74/&*+,-./0$1/+ 2%$)+8&9.%.1'+ '$3&*/+&1+(&#(+ /*($$quot;+)4'(+
  • 34. Essay questions !! For expressing mathematical thinking verbally !! For self evaluation !! Implemented as essay questions or essay parts in exercises and they cannot be graded automatically
  • 35. 3. Diagnostic Testing at Polytechnic schools !! To assess the level of mastering basic mathematics skills of new students, both for students themselves and instructors !! Problem: Students have very varied background and teaching needs to be designed accordingly !! A diagnostic test is organized in computer lab, first week of the semester, a brief introduction to the system was given !! Algorithmic questions are different for each student, so cheating is harder
  • 36. Results :&/'%&5-0$1+;<=>+?+=@>+?+A=>++$2+3$&1'/BC+ 39
  • 37. Research: Kari Lehtonen Diagnostic tests and practicing in technical engineering school. Results in the test before and after practicing. Purple (four groups) n = 80, not using online assignments. Blue group n = 40, using online assignments. http://jem-thematic.net/en/node/872