World Geography Chapter 34 The Pacific World  and Antarctica Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pr...
World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All righ...
Australia <ul><li>How did various migrations to Australia affect population and land use? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Austral...
A History of Migration 1
A History of Migration <ul><li>The  Aborigines  migrated to Australia about 50 thousand years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The f...
Patterns of Settlement 1
Patterns of Settlement <ul><li>Australia’s hot, dry climate affected the country’s settlement and land use patterns. </li>...
Environmental Change <ul><li>Aborigines believe that humans were given responsibility for the earth, and they learned to s...
Section 1 Review <ul><li>Why did the first European settlers come to Australia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They were looking...
Section 1 Review <ul><li>Why did the first European settlers come to Australia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They were looking...
New Zealand and the Pacific Islands <ul><li>How has New Zealand’s European majority affected the minority Maori group’s wa...
New Zealand <ul><li>The Maori, the first people to come to New Zealand, lived by farming and fishing in fiercely territori...
The Pacific Islands 2
The Pacific Islands <ul><li>Many Pacific Islands are high islands, the tops of underwater mountains, while others are low ...
Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did European settlement affect Maori culture?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Maori were exterm...
Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did European settlement affect Maori culture?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Maori were exterm...
Antarctica <ul><li>How do the climate and ice-covered terrain of the continent of Antarctica affect wildlife habitation an...
The Frozen Continent <ul><li>Covered in ice, Antarctica is the only major landmass on the earth without permanent human se...
Interacting With the Land <ul><li>Because of its remote location and harsh climate, Antarctica was the last continent to b...
Section 3 Review <ul><li>How do the Antarctic ice sheets affect the climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The ice keeps the te...
Section 3 Review <ul><li>How do the Antarctic ice sheets affect the climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The ice keeps the te...
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Chapter 34

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Chapter 34

  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 34 The Pacific World and Antarctica Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Australia Section 2: New Zealand and the Pacific Islands Section 3: Antarctica Chapter 34: The Pacific World and Antarctica
  3. 3. Australia <ul><li>How did various migrations to Australia affect population and land use? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is Australia’s population clustered in and around its major cities? </li></ul><ul><li>How have European settlers changed Australia’s environment? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. A History of Migration 1
  5. 5. A History of Migration <ul><li>The Aborigines migrated to Australia about 50 thousand years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The first European settlers were British prisoners, many of whom stayed in Australia after their sentences were finished. </li></ul><ul><li>The Aborigines suffered great losses from European diseases and weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, many immigrants came not just from Britain but also from other European countries and from Southeast Asia. </li></ul>1
  6. 6. Patterns of Settlement 1
  7. 7. Patterns of Settlement <ul><li>Australia’s hot, dry climate affected the country’s settlement and land use patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of Australians live in the Urban Rim in the southeast, and 90 percent of the population lives with 100 miles of the ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s population clusters around the seven state capitals and the national capital, Canberra. </li></ul><ul><li>Sydney and Melbourne are Australia’s oldest and largest cities, competing for trade and commerce for most of their history. </li></ul>1
  8. 8. Environmental Change <ul><li>Aborigines believe that humans were given responsibility for the earth, and they learned to survive in the harsh outback without destroying the fragile ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of gold in the outback sparked a gold rush in 1851. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, Australia is a source of many minerals, including bauxite, oil, and natural gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Many gold seekers stayed to build farms and sheep ranches, and sheep and cattle stations account for most economic activity in the outback today. </li></ul><ul><li>In the northern regions, artesian wells provide water to cattle stations, and new breeds of cattle are making Australia one of the world’s leading producers of cattle. </li></ul>1
  9. 9. Section 1 Review <ul><li>Why did the first European settlers come to Australia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They were looking for land to farm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) They were looking for gold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) They were prisoners transported from Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They came in search of a milder climate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the main economic activity in the outback? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Mineral extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Sheep and cattle herding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Commercial farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Forestry </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  10. 10. Section 1 Review <ul><li>Why did the first European settlers come to Australia? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) They were looking for land to farm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) They were looking for gold. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) They were prisoners transported from Britain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) They came in search of a milder climate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the main economic activity in the outback? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Mineral extraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Sheep and cattle herding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Commercial farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Forestry </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  11. 11. New Zealand and the Pacific Islands <ul><li>How has New Zealand’s European majority affected the minority Maori group’s way of life and sense of group identity and the economy of this region? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of physical characteristics distinguish the two types of Pacific Islands—namely, the high islands and the low islands? </li></ul>2
  12. 12. New Zealand <ul><li>The Maori, the first people to come to New Zealand, lived by farming and fishing in fiercely territorial groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The Maori began to see themselves as a nation after European settlers arrived and are attempting to reclaim lands that were once theirs. </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand’s national identity is rooted in both its British and Polynesian past. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming and cattle and sheep herding are important to the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of people live in cities along the coast, and three out of four New Zealanders live on North Island. </li></ul>2
  13. 13. The Pacific Islands 2
  14. 14. The Pacific Islands <ul><li>Many Pacific Islands are high islands, the tops of underwater mountains, while others are low islands, ring-shaped atolls in which coral reefs surround an inner lagoon. </li></ul><ul><li>The islands are divided into three groups: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming, fishing, and tourism are the major economic activities of the islands. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, many islands were divided into trust territories, and most were granted independence in the 1960s and 1970s. </li></ul>2
  15. 15. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did European settlement affect Maori culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Maori were exterminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Maori fragmented into a number of competing groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Maori were forced to flee New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Maori came to see themselves as a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are high islands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) underwater mountains that break the surface of the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) offshore pieces of continental crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) rings of coral reefs with inner lagoons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) large sand bars </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  16. 16. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did European settlement affect Maori culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The Maori were exterminated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Maori fragmented into a number of competing groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Maori were forced to flee New Zealand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Maori came to see themselves as a nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are high islands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) underwater mountains that break the surface of the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) offshore pieces of continental crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) rings of coral reefs with inner lagoons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) large sand bars </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  17. 17. Antarctica <ul><li>How do the climate and ice-covered terrain of the continent of Antarctica affect wildlife habitation and human exploration? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do many scientists consider Antarctica to be a land of valuable natural resources? </li></ul>3
  18. 18. The Frozen Continent <ul><li>Covered in ice, Antarctica is the only major landmass on the earth without permanent human settlements, and few plants and animals can survive the frigid conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Thick ice sheets reflect sunlight rather than absorbing heat, making temperatures frigid, and the climate is also very dry. </li></ul><ul><li>Moister and warmer conditions near the coasts and mountains permit glaciers to flow. </li></ul><ul><li>In several places, thick ice shelves extend out into the ocean, and large blocks often break off into the ocean as icebergs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pack ice, a mix of icebergs and other ice, fringes most of Antarctica. </li></ul><ul><li>In the convergence zone, nutrient-rich deep waters rise and feed krill, which provide food for fish and whales. </li></ul>3
  19. 19. Interacting With the Land <ul><li>Because of its remote location and harsh climate, Antarctica was the last continent to be discovered and explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the first half of the twentieth century, various nations claimed parts of Antarctica out of national pride or to keep other countries from claiming the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctica has coal and other mineral resources, but it would cost too much to exploit them. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific information is considered Antarctica’s most valuable resource, and the Antarctic Treaty provides for the peaceful use of the continent and the sharing of scientific research. </li></ul>3
  20. 20. Section 3 Review <ul><li>How do the Antarctic ice sheets affect the climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The ice keeps the temperature above freezing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The thick ice raises the surface to warmer elevations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The ice makes the air very moist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The ice reflects heat from the sun, making Antarctica very cold. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which resource is considered the most valuable in Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) scientific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) uranium </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  21. 21. Section 3 Review <ul><li>How do the Antarctic ice sheets affect the climate? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The ice keeps the temperature above freezing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The thick ice raises the surface to warmer elevations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The ice makes the air very moist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The ice reflects heat from the sun, making Antarctica very cold. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which resource is considered the most valuable in Antarctica? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) scientific information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) uranium </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
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