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Today’s Issues:
Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica
Colonization and industrialization in Southeast
Asia and the Pacif...
SECTION 1 Aboriginal Land Claims
SECTION 2 Industrialization Sparks Change
Today’s Issues:
Southeast Asia, Oceania, and An...
Section 1
Aboriginal Land
Claims
• The Aboriginal people of Australia lost their
ancestral lands to European colonists.
• ...
Aboriginal People Lose Land
British Policy
• Australian Aboriginal people didn’t farm, herd
animals like Europeans
- hunte...
SECTION
1
Stolen Land
• Europeans began settling in 1788 and chose most
fertile regions
• Aborigines fought invasion of th...
SECTION
1
Stolen Children
• From 1909 to 1969, 100,000 mixed-race children
were taken
- raised by white families to promot...
Land Claims
Hard-Won Victories
• Aboriginal people are not recognized as full citizens
until 1967
- in 1967, 91% vote to p...
SECTION
1
The Mabo Case
• In 1992, High Court of Australia rules in important
land-claims case
• Eddie Mabo is a Torres St...
SECTION
1
The Wik Case
• Aboriginal Wik people claim land used by ranchers,
mining companies
• Government tracts of land a...
Section 2
Industrialization Sparks
Change
• The growth of industry in Southeast Asia has
produced positive results such as...
Moving to Find Jobs
From Farms to Cities
• In struggle to escape poverty, any job is better than
none
- even if it means l...
SECTION
2
Push Factors
• Lost resources—rural soil erosion, deforestation,
water overuse
• Scarcity of land—in Philippines...
SECTION
2
Pull Factors
• Industry—opportunity for factory jobs
- many move to city temporarily, send money
home to rural a...
SECTION
2
Impact on Cities
• Southeast Asian cities have trouble dealing with
numerous immigrants
• Housing availability c...
Other Results of Industrialization
Economic Effects
• Several countries have had rapid industrial growth
since 1960s
- res...
SECTION
2
Environmental Effects
• Industry damages environment; factories pollute air,
water, soil
- burn fossil fuels, du...
Case Study Global Environmental Change
BACKGROUND
• Human activities, like burning fossil fuels, harm
the environment
• Al...
Case Study
Global Warming
• Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2
)
into atmosphere
- CO2
is greenhouse gas—tr...
Case Study
Ozone Hole
• Ozone layer is high in the atmosphere
- absorbs most of sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays
• In 1970s...
Case Study
Long-Term Effects
• Global warming fear: small temperature increase
could melt ice caps
- rising seas may swamp...
Case Study
Taking Action
• In 1992, UN holds Earth Summit; 178 nations
attend conference
- discuss economic development wh...
This is the end of the chapter presentation of
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Print Slide Show
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2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint
If the dialog box do...
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Chapter 32

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Transcript of "Chapter 32"

  1. 1. Today’s Issues: Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica Colonization and industrialization in Southeast Asia and the Pacific have brought ethnic, economic, and environmental challenges to the region. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Aboriginal Land Claims SECTION 2 Industrialization Sparks Change Today’s Issues: Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica Case Study Global Environmental Change NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 Aboriginal Land Claims • The Aboriginal people of Australia lost their ancestral lands to European colonists. • Recently they have regained some of that land through court cases. NEXT
  4. 4. Aboriginal People Lose Land British Policy • Australian Aboriginal people didn’t farm, herd animals like Europeans - hunted and gathered; depended on nature • British colonists saw no Aboriginal ties to land - declared Australia Terra Nullius—“empty land” - British government decided to take land without making treaties SECTION 1 Continued . . . Aboriginal Land Claims NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 Stolen Land • Europeans began settling in 1788 and chose most fertile regions • Aborigines fought invasion of their land, lost to superior weapons - some forced onto reserves—tracts of less productive land - others lived on edges of settlements, adopted European ways continued Aboriginal People Lose Land Continued . . . NEXT
  6. 6. SECTION 1 Stolen Children • From 1909 to 1969, 100,000 mixed-race children were taken - raised by white families to promote assimilation - assimilation—minority group gives up culture, adopts majority culture • Aborigines angrily call these children the Stolen Generation continued Aboriginal People Lose Land NEXT
  7. 7. Land Claims Hard-Won Victories • Aboriginal people are not recognized as full citizens until 1967 - in 1967, 91% vote to pass special Aboriginal rights laws • Land Rights Act of 1976—Aborigines can claim Northern Territory land - Aboriginals gain ownership of reserves, other unoccupied lands SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 The Mabo Case • In 1992, High Court of Australia rules in important land-claims case • Eddie Mabo is a Torres Strait Islander - his family doesn’t own their traditional lands in the Murray Islands - but Mabos have worked the land for generations • In the Mabo Case, the court upholds Mabo’s claim - recognizes that Aborigines owned land before British arrived - case overturns the doctrine of Terra Nullius continued Land Claims NEXT Continued . . .
  9. 9. SECTION 1 The Wik Case • Aboriginal Wik people claim land used by ranchers, mining companies • Government tracts of land are rented to ranchers in pastoral leases • Whites feel that the pastoral leases erase any native land claims • In 1996 Wik Case—Aborigines can claim pastoral- lease land • Afraid of paying Aborigines for land use, government amends Wik - wipes out many land claims; Aboriginal groups threaten lawsuits continued Land Claims NEXT
  10. 10. Section 2 Industrialization Sparks Change • The growth of industry in Southeast Asia has produced positive results such as new jobs and higher wages. • The growth of industry also produced negative results such as overcrowded cities and pollution. NEXT
  11. 11. Moving to Find Jobs From Farms to Cities • In struggle to escape poverty, any job is better than none - even if it means long hours, low pay, abusive managers • Growth of cities is linked to industrialization— growth of industry • People move to cities because of push-pull factors - push factors—forces that push people out of homelands - pull factors—forces that pull people to a new place Industrialization Sparks Change SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 2 Push Factors • Lost resources—rural soil erosion, deforestation, water overuse • Scarcity of land—in Philippines 3% of landowners hold 25% of land - 60% of rural families don’t have enough land to earn a living farming • Population growth—as populations grow, land shortages increase - farmers divide land among heirs—plots become too small continued Moving to Find Jobs Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 Pull Factors • Industry—opportunity for factory jobs - many move to city temporarily, send money home to rural area - in 1993, Filipino workers sent home $2.2 billion - Thai workers sent home $983 million • Other benefits—cities offer education, government services - desire for education is usually related to desire for jobs continued Moving to Find Jobs Continued . . . NEXT
  14. 14. SECTION 2 Impact on Cities • Southeast Asian cities have trouble dealing with numerous immigrants • Housing availability can’t keep pace—many immigrants live in slums • Traffic increases due to workers driving, trucks hauling goods - creates more pollution, particulates - in Bangkok, Thailand, 5,000 a year die from breathing polluted air • Most cities don’t have adequate sewage treatment continued Moving to Find Jobs NEXT
  15. 15. Other Results of Industrialization Economic Effects • Several countries have had rapid industrial growth since 1960s - results in increase in trade and exports • Growing industry means higher incomes for some citizens - middle class expands in some countries • Income gap between rich and poor remains high - few people have wealth; many live in poverty - leads to rising crime rates, social unrest SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  16. 16. SECTION 2 Environmental Effects • Industry damages environment; factories pollute air, water, soil - burn fossil fuels, dump toxic materials • Hard to control pollution due to nature of Southeast Asian industry - cities have thousands of small factories - 30,000 in Jakarta, Indonesia • Industry uses up resources like water and trees continued Other Results of Industrialization NEXT
  17. 17. Case Study Global Environmental Change BACKGROUND • Human activities, like burning fossil fuels, harm the environment • Also, use of chemicals—chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in aerosol cans • Scientists fear these activities change the worldwide environment How Have People Changed the Atmosphere? NEXT
  18. 18. Case Study Global Warming • Burning fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2 ) into atmosphere - CO2 is greenhouse gas—traps sun’s heat • Some scientists fear atmosphere now has too many greenhouse gases - CO2 emissions have increased 50% since 1970s - atmosphere might trap too much heat, raising temperatures • Many disagree with global warming theory - say temperature increases are natural NEXT Damage to the Environment Continued . . .
  19. 19. Case Study Ozone Hole • Ozone layer is high in the atmosphere - absorbs most of sun’s damaging ultraviolet rays • In 1970s, scientists found thinning of ozone layer over Antarctica - called it a hole in the ozone • Chemicals like chlorine in CFCs destroy ozone - many governments restrict use of such chemicals - others delay passing laws because they are costly for industry NEXT continued Damage to the Environment
  20. 20. Case Study Long-Term Effects • Global warming fear: small temperature increase could melt ice caps - rising seas may swamp coastal cities, Oceania’s low islands • Warming might change evaporation, precipitation patterns - create violent storms like typhoons and increase droughts - shift climate zones and agricultural regions, upset economies • Ozone hole lets in more ultraviolet rays - cause skin cancer, eye damage, crop damage NEXT Continued . . . Looking Toward the Future
  21. 21. Case Study Taking Action • In 1992, UN holds Earth Summit; 178 nations attend conference - discuss economic development while protecting environment • In 1997, UN convention in Kyoto, Japan, discusses climate change - writes Kyoto Protocol and 165 nations sign treaty - guidelines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions • U.S. signs treaty, but Senate doesn’t ratify it NEXT continued Looking Toward the Future
  22. 22. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
  23. 23. Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format you want to print: slides, notes, handouts, or outline 4. Click the Print button to print the PowerPoint presentation CONTINUE
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