Chapter 29

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Chapter 29

  1. 1. Today’s Issues: East Asia The issues facing East Asian nations include earthquakes, economic recessions, growing populations, and rapidly changing societies. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 The Ring of Fire SECTION 2 Trade and Prosperity Today’s Issues: East Asia Case Study Population and the Quality of Life NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 The Ring of Fire • The islands of Japan form part of a geologically active area called the Ring of Fire. • Because of its location, Japan has faced disastrous earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. NEXT
  4. 4. Physical Forces in the Ring of Fire Shifting Plates • Many Japanese cities are threatened by earthquakes - Japan is on the Ring of Fire—chain of volcanoes around Pacific Rim • Subduction—oceanic plate slides under continental plate • In East Asia, Pacific oceanic plate meets Eurasian continental plate - crumpled continental crust forms mountains, volcanoes - stress builds where plates meet; sudden slip creates earthquake SECTION 1 The Ring of Fire NEXT
  5. 5. The Geology of Japan Volcanoes • Subduction of Pacific plate under Eurasian plate created volcanoes - volcanoes formed Japanese islands • Since first records, at least 60 Japanese volcanoes have been active - best-known Japanese landform, Mt. Fuji, is a volcano SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  6. 6. SECTION 1 Earthquakes and Tsunamis • An average of 1,000 earthquakes occur in Japan each year - most are mild, but some cause many deaths, great destruction • 1923 Great Kanto earthquake and its fires killed 140,000 people - left Tokyo in ruins, damaged or destroyed 700,000 homes • Underwater earthquakes move ocean floor; can create tsunami - huge wave of great destructive power that can reach over 100 feet continued The Geology of Japan NEXT
  7. 7. Preparing for Disasters Problems • Older buildings won’t withstand earthquakes as well as newer ones - some are built on less stable ground or landfill • Underground gas lines are likely to rupture in an earthquake - leaking gas can catch fire • Crowded blocks and narrow streets hinder rescue operations SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 Solutions • Japan has strict building code - engineers study how different buildings withstand quakes - studies affect codes governing construction materials, techniques - this makes newer buildings safer than older ones • Schoolchildren have yearly disaster drills with firemen continued Preparing for Disasters NEXT
  9. 9. Section 2 Trade and Prosperity • East Asian economies became global powerhouses in the 1970s and 1980s. • The decline of Asian economies in the 1990s created a crisis that spread around the globe. NEXT
  10. 10. Opening Doors Opening to the West • East Asian nations are isolated from world until 1500s - Europeans use various means, including force, to end isolation • By 1800s, treaties give Europeans spheres of influence in East - exclusive areas where specific nations control trade • Commodore Matthew Perry sails to Japan in 1853 to open U.S. trade - U.S. warships intimidate Japan into opening up to U.S., West Trade and Prosperity SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  11. 11. SECTION 2 Industrialization and Globalization • After WWII, nations industrialize, East-West trade increases - “Made in China,” “Made in Japan” labels are common in West • Regional economies merge, global economy develops - global economy—nations are interdependent for goods, services • Japan imports resources, exports manufactured goods worldwide • East Asian nations use cheap labor to become manufacturing powers continued Opening Doors NEXT
  12. 12. Powerful Economies of East Asia Zone of Prosperity • Many Asian economies do very well in 1980s, early ’90s • Economically powerful nations in Pacific Rim zone of prosperity - called the Jakota Triangle—Japan, Korea (South), Taiwan • But by mid-1990s these economies are having problems SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 Economic Problems Arise • Asian economies run on efficiency, innovation, and cheap labor • 1995 report from UNICEF (the United Nations Children’s Fund) - over 500,000 East Asian children work in factories, beg on streets • Bank, business bankruptcies in mid-1990s panic foreign investors - they sell Asian stocks; riots occur; governments topple • Japan enters recession—an extended decline in business activity continued Powerful Economies of East Asia NEXT Continued . . .
  14. 14. SECTION 2 A Global Ripple Effect • Many of the world’s economies are interconnected - Asian economic crisis spreads through the world - creates concern on New York Stock Exchange, other exchanges • Steps are taken to prevent global economic downturn - World Bank, International Monetary Fund step in - they lend money to East Asian countries that promise reform • The economic downslide begins to reverse continued Powerful Economies of East Asia NEXT Continued . . .
  15. 15. SECTION 2 The Promise of Reform • Crisis shows East Asia that serious reform is needed - increased wages for adult workers - ban on child-labor, forced-labor practices • Reform also requires an end to using sweatshops - places where people work long hours in poor conditions for pennies continued Powerful Economies of East Asia NEXT
  16. 16. Case Study Population and the Quality of Life BACKGROUND • Some East Asian countries, cities are among world’s most prosperous • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan have high incomes, life spans, literacy • Economies are strong, but today’s problem is managing population What Pressures Does Population Put on the Environment? NEXT
  17. 17. Case Study The Situation at Mid-Century • In mid-1900s, East Asian nations are among world’s least developed - poor health, literacy, economic statistics - widespread poverty, short life expectancy • High fertility rates, but also high infant and maternal death rates - in 1950, region’s women marry young, average six children • Economies remain rural through mid-century NEXT Patterns of Population
  18. 18. Case Study Environmental Stress • Policy makers know population control is key to solving problems • Unrestricted population growth strains quality of life, environment - food production is barely adequate - lack of sanitation fouls water supplies - water tables are drained to low levels • East Asian governments move to prevent catastrophe NEXT Addressing Population Problems Continued . . .
  19. 19. Case Study Problems and Policies • Aggressive family planning programs level, then lower birth rates - by 2000, region’s women marry later, average 2.5 children • In China, 1950-55 birth rate was 6.2 children per woman - drops down to 1.82 children per woman in 2000 continued Addressing Population Problems NEXT Impressive Results • Drop in birth rate, industrialization lead to fast economic growth - life expectancy, literacy rates are now among world’s highest
  20. 20. Case Study Some Ongoing Problems • Region’s huge populations still put pressure on environment - a 1% growth rate in China equals 13 million people each year • Population growth is concentrated in cities - more people require more housing, sanitation, transportation • Citizens don’t always like family planning programs - feel China’s one-child-per-family policy compromises rights NEXT The Quality of Life
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