Chapter 27
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Chapter 27 Chapter 27 Presentation Transcript

  • Physical Geography of East Asia: A Rugged Terrain The mountainous landscape, open ocean, and harsh climate of East Asia isolate the region and present challenges for the people living there. NEXT
  • SECTION 1 Landforms and Resources SECTION 2 Climate and Vegetation NEXT SECTION 3 Human-Environment Interaction Physical Geography of East Asia: A Rugged Terrain
  • NEXT Section 1 Landforms and Resources • East Asia has a huge mainland area that includes rugged terrain. • East Asia has a number of important islands off its eastern coast.
  • Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus A Survey of the Region • East Asia stretches from western China to the east coast of Japan - also includes Mongolia, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea • Landscape has high mountains, deserts, cold climate, Pacific waters • Rugged terrain created by tectonic plates colliding - natural barriers limit human movement, increase isolation Landforms and Resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  • SECTION 1 NEXT Mountain Ranges of the Region • High mountains limited China’s contact with rest of Asia - world’s highest mountains located on western edge of region • Kunlun Mountains are located in west China - source of Huang He (Yellow) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze) rivers • Qinling Shandi Mountains divide northern China from the south continued Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus Continued . . .
  • SECTION 1 NEXT Plateaus and Plains • Mountainous area includes some sparsely populated basins, deserts - includes Plateau of Tibet (Xizang Plateau) - western China’s Tarim Pendi Basin and Taklimakan Desert • Gobi Desert stretches from northwest China into Mongolia - covers 500,000 square miles • Mongolian Plateau is in northeastern China • Northern China includes Manchurian Plain, North China Plain continued Landforms: Mountains and Plateaus
  • Peninsulas and Islands The Coast of China • Eastern coast of China has several peninsulas - Shandong, Leizhou, and Macao Peninsulas - Portugal owned Macao; returned it to Chinese control in 1999 • China’s long coastline has several major port cities like Shanghai • Korean Peninsula is on eastern border of China - contains independent nations of North Korea and South Korea SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  • SECTION 1 NEXT The Islands of East Asia • East of China is continental shelf—the submerged border of continent • Isolation of shelf islands allows them to develop in peace, security • Chinese islands include Hainan and part of Hong Kong - Hong Kong was Britain’s; returned to China’s control in 1997 • Japan is a small island nation with large economic power • Taiwan once belonged to mainland China, which still claims it today continued Peninsulas and Islands
  • River Systems The Huang He • Huang He (Yellow River)—northern China river - starts in Kunlun Mountains in west, winds east for 3,000 miles - empties into Yellow Sea, named for yellow silt the river carries SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . The Chang Jiang • Chang Jiang (Yangtze River)—longest river in Asia - flows 3,900 miles from Xizang (Tibet) to East China Sea - major trade route; floods often causing great damage
  • SECTION 1 NEXT The Xi Jiang • Xi Jiang (West River) flows southeast through south China - joins Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) to flow into South China Sea - Xi Jiang, three other rivers form estuary between Hong Kong, Macao continued River Systems Other Rivers of the Region • Yalu Jiang river flows 500 miles along North Korea, China border - Chinese troops cross it in 1950 - attack UN forces, enter Korean War
  • Resources of East Asia Uneven Distribution • China, Mongolia, North Korea have natural, mineral resources • Japan, South Korea, Taiwan have limited natural resources SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . . Land and Forests • Limited farmland in sparsely populated, mountainous, western areas • Most Chinese are in fertile eastern river basins where rice is grown • Abundant forests in China, Japan, Taiwan, North and South Korea - Japan reserves forests by buying timber from other regions
  • SECTION 1 NEXT Mineral and Energy Resources • China has large petroleum, coal, natural gas reserves - energy resources make China self-sufficient • China’s mineral resources include iron ore, tungsten, manganese - also molybdenum, magnesite, lead, zinc, copper • North and South Korea have coal, tungsten, gold, silver reserves • Japan has lead, silver, coal, but must trade for most resources continued Resources of East Asia Continued . . .
  • SECTION 1 Water Resources • China’s long river systems are important to its economy - provide crop irrigation, hydroelectric power, transportation - Three Gorges Dam on Chang Jiang will control floods, create power - Huang He and Xi Jiang provide hydroelectric power, transportation • Sea is important food source for East Asia - Japan has one of world’s largest fishing industries continued Resources of East Asia NEXT
  • NEXT Section 2 Climate and Vegetation • East Asia has a dry highland climate in the west. • The region has a humid climate in the east.
  • High Latitude Climate Zones Subarctic • Small subarctic zones on Mongolia’s and China’s Russian borders • Summers are cool or cold; winters are brutally cold; climate is dry • Vegetation is northern evergreen forest, mosses, lichens Climate and Vegetation SECTION 2 NEXT Highland • Western China’s highland zone temps vary with latitude, elevation • Vegetation also varies; forests, alpine tundra are typical • Tundras have no trees, frozen soil a few feet below surface - only mosses, lichens, shrubs grow on tundras
  • Mid-Latitude Zones Humid Continental • Climate zone includes northeastern China, northern Japan - also North Korea, northern South Korea • Forests are coniferous; temperate grasslands provide grazing - agriculture has replaced many forests SECTION 2 NEXT Humid Subtropical • Southeastern China, southern South Korea, south Japan, north Taiwan • Deciduous forests in north, coniferous in southern, sandy soil
  • Dry Zones Semiarid • Includes parts of Mongolian Plateau • Vegetation is mostly short grasses, food for grazing animals SECTION 2 NEXT Desert • Most of region’s deserts are in west central mainland • Taklimakan Desert—in west China, between Tian Shan, Kunlun mountains • Gobi Desert—in north China, southeast Mongolia - prime area for dinosaur fossils
  • Tropical Zones Tropical Wet • Typhoon—tropical storm that occurs in western Pacific • Tropical climate zone in East Asia is small - strip of land along China’s southeastern coast - island of Hainan, southern tip of Taiwan • High temperatures, heavy rainfall, high humidity all year • Tropical rain forest has tall, dense forests of broadleaf trees SECTION 2 NEXT
  • NEXT Section 3 Human-Environment Interaction • The Chinese are building the Three Gorges Dam to control flooding. • The Japanese have developed creative ways to use their limited amounts of land.
  • The Three Gorges Dam An Engineering Feat • In 1993, China began construction of the Three Gorges Dam - being built on China’s Chang Jiang river - should reduce flooding, generate power • China’s largest construction project will be world’s biggest dam - will be 600 feet high, spanning a mile-wide valley - will create 400-mile-long reservoir, covering 1,000 towns Human-Environment Interaction SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  • SECTION 3 NEXT Positive Effects • Government believes dam will control Chang Jiang flooding - river irrigates half of China’s crops, drains one-fifth of land • Giant turbines should generate 10% of China’s electrical power • Will make it easier for ships to reach China’s interior through locks - river carries more than half the goods moved on China’s waterways - dam, locks will increase shipping capacity, decrease costs continued The Three Gorges Dam Continued . . .
  • SECTION 3 NEXT Negative Effects • Most observers feel dam will also have negative effects - negative environmental impact may outweigh any benefits • One to two million people will have to move - hundreds of historical sites, scenic spots will be submerged • Dam could cost $75 billion rather than original $11 billion estimate - costs scare away many potential investors continued The Three Gorges Dam Continued . . .
  • SECTION 3 Negative Effects • In building dam, government has not protected the environment • New reservoir will flood land, reduce animal habitats - submerged factories could leak chemicals into water - region’s climate, temperature will be affected - some species (alligator, river dolphin, others) may vanish • International groups slow to invest due to environmental concerns continued The Three Gorges Dam NEXT
  • Use of Space in Urban Japan Crowded Living and Working Spaces • 60% of 127 million people live on 3% of land along coastal plains - 80% live in largest cities: Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo - 25 million in Tokyo, one of world’s largest cities • Cities poisoned with mercury, PCBs—factory pollutants—in 1950s, ’60s - PCBs build up in animal tissue; cause disease, birth defects - PCBs banned in 1977 SECTION 3 NEXT Continued . . .
  • SECTION 3 NEXT Adapting to Limited Space • Houses are small, sparsely furnished • Many in cities live in apartments - family of four in a one-bedroom apartment is common • Some move to suburbs, but must commute several hours to work • Coastal cities reclaim land with landfill - landfill is solid waste buried in layers of dirt - Tokyo puts factories, refineries on landfill continued Use of Space in Urban Japan
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