Chapter 26

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Chapter 26

  1. 1. Today’s Issues: South Asia South Asia faces the challenges of rapid population growth, destructive weather, and territorial disputes caused by religious and ethnic differences. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Population Explosion SECTION 2 Living with Extreme Weather Today’s Issues: South Asia Case Study Territorial Dispute NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 Population Explosion • Explosive population growth in South Asia has contributed to social and economic ills in the region. • Education is key to controlling population growth and improving the quality of life in South Asia. NEXT
  4. 4. Growing Pains Rapid growth • In 2000, India’s population reached 1 billion • Rapid growth means many citizens lack life’s basic necessities - food, clothing, shelter • South Asia must manage population growth so economies can develop SECTION 1 Continued . . . Population Explosion NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 Population Grows • India’s population was 300 million in 1947; has since tripled • So large that even 2% growth rate produces population explosion • Unless rate slows, India will have 1.5 billion by 2045 - would be the world’s most populous country (passing China) • India, Pakistan, Bangladesh among top 10 most populous countries - region has 22% of world’s population, lives on 3% of world’s land continued Growing Pains Continued . . . NEXT
  6. 6. SECTION 1 Inadequate Resources • Region has widespread poverty, illiteracy—inability to read or write - poor sanitation, health education lead to disease outbreaks • Every year, to keep pace, India would have to: - build 127,000 new schools and 2.5 million new homes - create 4 million new jobs - produce 6 million more tons of food continued Growing Pains NEXT
  7. 7. Managing Population Growth Smaller Families • India spends nearly $1 billion a year encouraging smaller families • Programs have only limited success - Indian women marry before age 18, start having babies early - to poor, children are source of money (begging, working fields) - children can later take care of elderly parents - have more kids to beat high infant mortality SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 Education is a Key • Growth factors can be changed with education, but funds are limited - India spends under $6 per pupil a year on education - U.S. spends $6,320 per pupil a year • Education could break cycle of poverty, raise living standards - improves females’ status with job opportunities - better health care education could lower infant mortality rates continued Managing Population Growth NEXT
  9. 9. Section 2 Living with Extreme Weather • South Asia experiences a yearly cycle of floods, often followed by drought. • The extreme weather in South Asia leads to serious physical, economic, and political consequences. NEXT
  10. 10. The Monsoon Seasons Summer and Winter Wind Systems • Annual cycle of extreme weather makes life difficult • Monsoon is wind system, not a rainstorm; two monsoon seasons • Summer monsoon—blows moist from southwest, across Indian Ocean - blows June through September, causes rainstorms, flooding • Winter monsoon—blows cool from northeast, across Himalayas, to sea - blows October through February, can cause drought Living with Extreme Weather SECTION 2 NEXT
  11. 11. Impact of the Monsoons Physical Impact • Summer monsoons nourish rain forests, irrigate crops - floodwaters bring rich sediment to soil, but can also damage crops • Cyclones are common with summer monsoons - called hurricanes in North America - cause flooding, widespread destruction - 1970 Bangladesh cyclone killed 300,000 • Winter monsoon droughts turn lush lands into arid wastelands SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 2 Economic Impact • Floods, droughts make agriculture difficult - countries buy what they can’t grow; famine looms • Weather catastrophes also destroy homes, families - people often too poor to rebuild, governments lack funds to help • People build: houses on stilts, concrete cyclone shelters, dams • Region gets international aid and billions of dollars in loans - aid can’t keep up with disasters, debts result continued Impact of the Monsoons NEXT Continued . . .
  13. 13. SECTION 2 Political Tensions • Weather conditions also cause political disputes • India builds Farakka dam across Ganges before it enters Bangladesh - India wants to bring water to city of Kolkata - dam leaves little water for Bangladesh - many of Bangladesh’s farmers lose land, illegally flee to India - dispute is settled in 1997 with a treaty specifying water rights continued Impact of the Monsoons NEXT
  14. 14. Case Study Territorial Dispute BACKGROUND • Kashmir territory is strategically located at foot of Himalayas • Territory of 12 million people surrounded by Pakistan, China, India • India and Pakistan have fought three wars over Kashmir since 1947 • Dispute threatens region’s stability, countries’ economic well-being • Danger increases now that both countries have nuclear weapons How Can India and Pakistan Resolve Their Dispute Over Kashmir? NEXT
  15. 15. Case Study Partitioning • British left India in 1947 and partitioned—divided— the subcontinent - created two independent countries - India is predominantly Hindu, Pakistan is mostly Muslim • Britain lets each Indian state choose which country to join - Muslim states join Pakistan, Hindu states remain in India NEXT A Controversy Over Territory Continued . . .
  16. 16. Case Study Politics and Religion • Kashmir’s problem: population is Muslim, but its leader was Hindu • Maharajah of Kashmir wants an independent nation - but is forced to cede territory to India in 1947 • Pakistan invades; a year later India still controls much of Kashmir • India, Pakistan fight two more wars over Kashmir in 1965, 1971 - dispute remains unresolved; each country still controls part - China has had a small portion since 1962 NEXT continued A Controversy Over Territory Continued . . .
  17. 17. Case Study A Question of Economics • Indus River flows through Kashmir - many of its tributaries originate in the territory • Indus is critical source of drinking, irrigation water in Pakistan - Pakistan doesn’t want India to control that resource • Kashmir is a strategic prize neither side will give up continued A Controversy Over Territory NEXT
  18. 18. Case Study Dangerous Testing • India and Pakistan each test nuclear weapons in 1998 - raise fears that the 50-year-old dispute could go nuclear - after tests, both countries vow to seek political solution • Border clashes continue - Pakistan supports Kashmir Muslims fighting Indian rule NEXT A Nuclear Nightmare Continued . . .
  19. 19. Case Study A Question of Priorities • Both India and Pakistan have large populations, widespread poverty - both overspend on troops, arms, nuclear programs - that money could be used for education and social programs • Resolving Kashmir problem would bring peace - the quality of people’s lives could start improving - resolution could reduce the region’s political tensions continued A Nuclear Nightmare NEXT
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