Chapter 23


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Chapter 23

  1. 1. Today’s Issues: Southwest Asia Oil and religion have shaped modern Southwest Asia, but they’ve also brought the region lasting, often devastating conflicts and challenges. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 Population Relocation SECTION 2 Oil Wealth Fuels Change Today’s Issues: Southwest Asia Case Study Religious Conflict Over Land NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 Population Relocation • Economic growth brings foreign workers to the region. • Political factors have shifted the region’s population. NEXT
  4. 4. New Industry Requires More Workers The Oil Boom Changes Economies and Lives • Life in Southwest Asia doesn’t change much from 1100–1900 - some people live in villages, cities; others live nomadic lives • Petroleum, natural gas discovered in early 20th century - Western oil companies leased land, brought in technology, workers • Oil profits bring wealth to countries, urbanization begins - road construction makes cities accessible - thousands migrate to cities for jobs SECTION 1 Continued . . . Population Relocation NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 Foreign Workers • Oil creates so many jobs that local workers can’t fill them all - oil companies employ “guest workers” from South, East Asia - mostly unskilled laborers; do jobs native peoples find unacceptable • In places, immigrant works outnumber native workers - 90% of United Arab Emirates’ workers are immigrants continued New Industry Requires More Workers Continued . . . NEXT
  6. 6. SECTION 1 Problems of Guest Workers • Cultural differences exist between guest workers, employers - misunderstandings over customs can bring severe penalties • Often, workers live in special districts away from Arab population - some are abandoned or don’t get wages for months • Concerns over intolerance, violence toward workers • Some fear immigrants weaken countries’ national identities continued New Industry Requires More Workers NEXT
  7. 7. Political Refugees Face Challenges Stateless Nation • After WWI, land intended for Kurds was kept by Turkey, Iraq, Syria • Kurds a stateless nation—people without land to legally occupy • Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria try unsuccessfully to absorb Kurds - Kurds resist governments’ control, are forcibly moved • Iraq forces Kurdish migration, uses chemical weapons on settlements - In 2000, 70,000 Kurds are displaced, many forced into camps SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 Palestinian Refugees • Palestinians—Arabs and descendents who lived in Palestine—displaced - stateless nation; living in relocation camps in Israel, elsewhere • When Israel is created, Palestinian Arabs are promised a homeland - during Israeli war of 1948, Israel occupies some of those lands • As many as 1 million Palestinians flee Israel, become refugees - 52 camps in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria, West Bank, Gaza Strip continued Political Refugees Face Challenges Continued . . . NEXT
  9. 9. SECTION 1 Palestinian Refugees • West Bank—strip of land on west side of Jordan River - originally controlled by Jordan, but lost to Israel in 1967 • Gaza Strip—along Mediterranean Sea northeast of Sinai Peninsula - occupied by Israel in 1967 • Refugees unable to return to Israeli areas they claim - 8.2 million worldwide by 2005 • Their demand to return to Palestine is at heart of many regional conflicts continued Political Refugees Face Challenges NEXT
  10. 10. Section 2 Oil Wealth Fuels Change • Oil wealth brings political and economic changes to the region. • To achieve a diversified economy, countries need to improve infrastructure and resource use. NEXT
  11. 11. Meeting the Global Demand The Pros and Cons of “Black Gold” • Oil (“black gold”) fuels world industries, transportation, economies - strategic commodity—important resource nations will fight over • Region has 64% of world’s oil deposits, 34% of natural gas reserves - by 2020 will provide 50% of world demand • Oil prices rise, fall unpredictably; revenue not assured - makes steady economic growth difficult; nations need to diversify Oil Wealth Fuels Change SECTION 2 NEXT
  12. 12. Using Oil Wealth to Diversify Modernizing the Infrastructure • Saudi Arabia builds roads, irrigation networks, agricultural storage - also, desalinization plants to remove salt from seawater • Other nations build airports, malls, ports - efforts are not always well planned - UAE builds four international airports that are underused • Nations have made an effort to build information technology systems SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 2 Developing Resources • Nations seek to diversify, develop non-oil resources, agriculture - governments build dams, dig wells to tap underground reservoirs • Saudi Arabia uses oil profits to improve agriculture, water supplies - by 1985 it met its demand for dairy, meat, poultry, eggs - by 1992 it produced enough grain for own needs, some export • Oman revives copper, chromium industries, reduces oil dependence continued Using Oil Wealth to Diversify NEXT Continued . . .
  14. 14. SECTION 2 Human Resources • Human resources—skills and talents of a nation’s people - nations must invest in people, including women - must provide education, technology training - Kuwait has free education through university level - Kuwait also pays fees, expenses if students study abroad • Many societies have strict rules about women’s roles - hard to get education or jobs; shortages create opportunities continued Using Oil Wealth to Diversify NEXT
  15. 15. Case Study Religious Conflict Over Land BACKGROUND • Land conflicts between Jews, Arabs disrupt life in Southwest Asia • Jerusalem is sacred to Jews, Christians, and Muslims • The issue of control of the city affects the area’s politics, people Who Should Control Jerusalem? NEXT
  16. 16. Case Study Conflicts Over Holy Sites • After WWII, the UN designated Jerusalem an international city - intended to be controlled by international body • City is divided in 1948 after the Arab-Israeli war - Arabs take Old City, East Jerusalem in West Bank - Israelis control West Jerusalem, then after 1967 capture rest of city • Muslims keep control of Haram ash-Sharif (Temple Mount to Jews) • Israelis settle nearby Arab lands; Palestinian Arabs flee - UN Resolution 194 supports Palestinians’ “right of return” NEXT Control of Jerusalem
  17. 17. Case Study A Difficult Problem to Solve • Emotional issue: both sides claim city as their capital; solutions? • Palestinians could retain control of parts of East Jerusalem - Israel would annex several nearby settlements, expand territory • Israel retains control of West Jerusalem, Jewish Quarter of Old City - Palestinians would retain control of Old City, East Jerusalem • Palestinians control Temple Mount, give up refugees’ right of return • International agency controls all holy sites NEXT Proposed Solutions to the Conflict
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