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Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
Chapter 20
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  • 1. Today’s Issues: Africa European colonialism of the 1800s has left most of today’s independent African nations with economic, health, educational, and political problems. NEXT
  • 2. SECTION 1 Economic Development SECTION 2 Health Care Today’s Issues: Africa Case Study Effects of Colonialism NEXT
  • 3. Section 1 Economic Development • Africa’s history of colonization has had long-term effects on its economy. • Barriers to African economic development include illiteracy, foreign debt, and a lack of manufacturing industries. NEXT
  • 4. Africa’s Economy Today A History of Problems • Most countries do little manufacturing - sell raw materials to industrialized countries • European colonizers exploited Africa’s resources, people - millions sold into slavery or died from harsh working conditions • Land was mined, drilled; environment was ignored • All this has limited Africa’s economic growth, political stability SECTION 1 Economic Development Continued . . . NEXT
  • 5. SECTION 1 continued Africa’s Economy Today Africa’s Economic Status • Most African countries are worse off today than in 1960 - average incomes have decreased - worldwide: accounts for 1% of total GNP, 1.5% of exports • Lack crucial infrastructure (roads, airports, railroads, ports) • Little access to computers or high technology NEXT
  • 6. On the Road to Development Reducing Debt and Increasing Cooperation • Newly independent countries borrowed money to build economies - total debt of sub-Saharan governments was $227 billion by 1997 - many Western leaders push to forgive Africa’s debts • Trying to improve economies through regional cooperation - Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - Southern African Development Community (SADC) - groups promote trade, improvement of infrastructure SECTION 1 NEXT Continued . . .
  • 7. SECTION 1 continued On the Road to Development Building Industries • “One-commodity” countries rely on export of one or two commodities - commodity—agricultural or mining product that can be sold - value varies daily based on worldwide supply and demand - this makes “one-commodity” nations’ economies unstable • Economists want Africans to diversify—create variety in economies - promote manufacturing to achieve economic growth and stabilty • East Africa’s Djibouti established shipping center on Gulf of Aden NEXT
  • 8. Educating Workers Improving Education • Uneducated populace is a large barrier to economic development • Average schooling time for women up only 1.2 years in last 40 years • In Angola and Somalia, civil wars have destroyed school systems • But in Algeria, 94% get a formal education - 83% of Mauritians over 15 are literate SECTION 1 NEXT Reversing the Brain Drain • Many professionals migrate to Western nations - International Organization for Migration urges return
  • 9. Section 2 Health Care • Epidemic diseases are killing Africa’s people in huge numbers. • African nations and countries around the world are using a variety of methods, including education, to eradicate disease. NEXT
  • 10. Disease and Despair Serious Diseases • Cholera—sometimes fatal infection - spread by poor sanitation, lack of clean water • Malaria—often-fatal infectious disease marked by chills, fever - carried by mosquitoes; resistant to drugs due to overuse • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)— caused by HIV virus - 70% of adult, 80% of child AIDS cases are in Africa - often paired with tuberculosis—infectious respiratory infection SECTION 2 Health Care NEXT
  • 11. AIDS Stalks the Continent Africa Bears the Brunt • 3 million died from AIDS worldwide in 2000 - 2.4 million lived in sub-Saharan Africa • In Swaziland, 3 of 4 deaths were from AIDS - life expectancy has fallen from 58 years to 39 • In 2000, 26 million people in Africa had HIV or AIDS SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  • 12. SECTION 2 continued AIDS Stalks the Continent A High Price to Pay • Widespread disease has economic consequences - sick people work less or not at all, earn less, slip into poverty • AIDS is lowering South Africa’s GDP - by 2010, it could be 17% lower compared to without AIDS • Medical care for AIDS patients is expensive - UNAIDS estimates $4.63 billion needed to fight AIDS in Africa - UNAIDS—United Nations program studying AIDS epidemic NEXT
  • 13. Nations Respond A Variety of Answers • Since 1930s, spraying programs used to reduce insect numbers - fight malaria, other insect-borne diseases • In 2000, the Global Fund for Children’s Vaccines pledged money - $250 million over next 5 years for worldwide immunizations • Gabon using oil revenues to upgrade its health care system • African Development Fund loaned Mozambique $12.3 million dollars - money to be used to upgrade public health facilities SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  • 14. SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Strategies Against AIDS • South Africa, Brazil work together on AIDS prevention, care - Brazil has public health policies to fight AIDS, other diseases - Brazil’s policies are considered a model for developing nations NEXT Continued . . .
  • 15. SECTION 2 continued Nations Respond Success Stories • Uganda and Senegal have reduced spread of HIV - in 1997, Uganda offers same-day HIV tests, education programs - infection rates among 15 to 24 year olds have dropped 50% • Senegal controls spread of AIDS with intensive education program - infection rates have been below 2% since mid- 1980s • UNAIDS says HIV infection rates in sub-Saharan Africa are down - 1999–2000: dropped by 200,000 cases, but figure may be misleading NEXT
  • 16. Case Study How can African nations bring peace and stability to their people? NEXT Effects of Colonialism BACKGROUND • Early 19th century Africa was home to great empires, rich cultures • By the end of the 19th century—poverty and violence • Many of Africa’s problems stem from European colonialism
  • 17. Case Study Colonizing Africa Europeans in Africa • Portuguese establish coastal trading stations in the 1400s • By mid-1800s, Europeans seek Africa’s rich natural resources - need raw materials for industrial economies, markets to sell goods • Berlin Conference (1884-85) sets rules for dividing up Africa NEXT Effects of Colonialism Continued . . .
  • 18. Case Study NEXT continued Colonizing Africa Europeans in Africa • European control begins to fade in 20th century - most countries gain independence in 1960s • Long-term damage to cultural and ethnic boundaries, economy
  • 19. Case Study Challenges of Independence Colonial Transition • Departing Europeans did not leave Africa with stable governments - newly established nations suffered dictators and civil wars • Europeans did not understand Africa’s ethnic diversity - drew country boundaries combining historical enemies NEXT Continued . . .
  • 20. Case Study NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . . Colonial Transition • Germany and Belgium aggravated historically tense ethnic relations - Rwanda, Burundi include Hutu, Tutsi groups; war erupts in 1990s - this ethnic conflict took the lives of hundreds of thousands
  • 21. Case Study Colonial Transition • Colonial boundaries create problems for many African governments - difficult to get different ethnic groups to cooperate • Dictators like Mobutu Sese Seko became common - Mobutu ruled what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo • Many Africans have no experience living in democratic governments NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . .
  • 22. Case Study Cause for Hope • Primary goal is to establish democratic traditions - political stability needed for peace and prosperity • Some progress is being made, for example in South Africa - white minority government yielded power to black majority in 1994 - ended decades of government-sanctioned racial discrimination NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Continued . . .
  • 23. Case Study NEXT continued Challenges of Independence Cause for Hope • In 2001, Ghana peacefully elected a new president - a change from the coups, assassinations of previous governments
  • 24. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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