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Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
Chapter 17
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Chapter 17

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  • 1. Today’s Issues: Russia and the Republics The collapse of the powerful Soviet government has left many of its former republics facing difficult ethnic, economic, and environmental challenges. NEXT
  • 2. SECTION 1 Regional Conflict SECTION 2 The Struggle for Economic Reform Today’s Issues: Russia and the Republics Case Study The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy NEXT
  • 3. Section 1 Regional Conflict • Regional tensions, once under Soviet control, have flared up in Russia and the Republics. • Some of the most violent conflicts have occurred in the Caucasus region. NEXT
  • 4. A Troubled Caucasus Land of Great Complexity • Collapse of Soviet government weakens central authority in Republics - crime and religious or ethnic conflict increase • Caucasus—area of Caucasus Mountains between Black, Caspian seas - north: Russian republics Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia - south: independent countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia • California-size area is home to dozens of languages, 50 ethnic groups • Groups fight violently for independent territories after USSR falls SECTION 1 Regional Conflict Continued . . . NEXT
  • 5. SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Chechnya • Chechnya republic remains part of Russia after USSR collapse • Russia invades twice in 1990s to block Chechnyan independence - invades in 1994 and soon controls 2/3 of country, capital of Grozny - rebels fight from mountain hideouts, force 1996 peace agreement - bombings in Moscow lead Russia to invade again in 1999 NEXT Continued . . .
  • 6. SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Georgia • Georgia’s Ossetian people fight the Georgian army in early 1990s - seek to unite South Ossetia (Georgia) with North Ossetia (Russia) • Abkhazia region of Georgia declares independence in 1992 - rebels force Georgian population (250,000) to leave - Georgian troops driven out, but region still in ruins NEXT Continued . . .
  • 7. SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Armenia and Azerbaijan • South of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan fight over territory - Armenia wants Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous area in Azerbaijan - region is 3/4 ethnic Armenian • Dispute rages in early 1920s, but kept under control by Soviets - fighting resumed in late 1980s until 1994 cease-fire - by then tens of thousands dead, nearly a million refugees NEXT
  • 8. Hope on the Horizon? Can the Conflicts be Stopped? • U.S. hosts Armenia-Azerbaijan peace talks in 2001 • Chechnyan fighting causes high casualties for Russians, Chechnyans - once-high public support for war is declining - economic cost of war is a burden SECTION 1 NEXT
  • 9. Section 2 The Struggle for Economic Reform • Russia has struggled to move from a command economy to a market economy. • Russia’s enormous size and widespread criminal activity have made economic reform difficult. NEXT
  • 10. Steps Toward Capitalism Privatization • After Soviet collapse Russia embraces capitalism - removes price controls in 1992; prices of goods increase 250% • Also in 1992, Russia begins process of privatization - sells government-owned businesses to private individuals, companies • Public buy businesses with vouchers to be repaid with future profits - business failures, unpaid vouchers lead to 1998 economic crash • Still, by 2000, 60% of workforce employed in private sector SECTION 2 Continued . . . The Struggle for Economic Reform NEXT
  • 11. SECTION 2 continued Steps Toward Capitalism The High Cost of Economic Change • Since the 1998 crash, Russia’s economy has slowly recovered • In spite of this, 40% of Russians still far below poverty line • Some wonder if things had maybe been better under Soviets NEXT
  • 12. Obstacles to Economic Reform Distance Decay • Distance decay—long-distance communication, transportation are hard - Russia spans 11 time zones, has 89 regional governments - central government in Moscow is weak - difficult to get distant officials to enforce national reform programs • President Vladimir Putin creates 7 large federal districts in 2000 - governor-generals will force regional officials to follow reform orders SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
  • 13. SECTION 2 continued Obstacles to Economic Reform Organized Crime • “Russian mafia” criminal organizations grow rapidly in 1990s - control 40% of private companies, 60% of state- owned companies - mafia creates own economy, expands outside of Russia • Organized crime slows economic reform by rewarding illegal activity - government cannot tax such activity NEXT Future Prospects • Rising tax, customs revenues could lead to higher living standards
  • 14. Case Study The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy NEXT BACKGROUND • The former Soviet Union’s nuclear programs have become a problem • poorly constructed nuclear power stations are not being maintained • nuclear waste dumps are decaying • These issues pose a threat to the region’s people and environment The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy
  • 15. Case Study An Unwelcome Legacy Nuclear Uncertainties • Break up of USSR leaves fate of Soviet nuclear weapons unclear - instead of 1 country with weapons, there are 15 independent republics - Where are the weapons? Are they safe? Where are the nuclear scientists? • Also facing problems with aging, poorly built nuclear reactors - many are same design as one at 1986 Chernobyl disaster NEXT
  • 16. Case Study The Consequences of Collapse Political Tensions • Nuclear issues create tension between regions, other nations, U.S. • U.S. task force in 2000 highlights nuclear security threat - fears grow that Russian nuclear materials could be stolen, misused - recommends $30 billion package to help keep weapons safe NEXT Continued . . .
  • 17. Case Study Economic Health • Many regional leaders reluctant to shut down Soviet nuclear reactors - it would be too expensive to build new non- nuclear plants • Some republics’ steps to revive their economies are questionable - in 2001, Russia’s Duma (legislature) approved nuclear dump plan - hope to earn $21 billion by storing other countries’ nuclear waste - Russian environmentalists are upset over the plan NEXT continued The Consequences of Collapse Continued . . .
  • 18. Case Study Environmental Prospects • Some hope that region’s environmental outlook can improve • In 2000, Ukraine shut down last active Chernobyl reactor - hope to build protective dome for disaster site • In 2000, a U.S.-funded treatment plant opened near the White Sea - facility treats radioactive waste from Russian nuclear submarines - submarine nuclear waste formerly dumped in the sea NEXT continued The Consequences of Collapse
  • 19. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
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