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Chapter 17
 

Chapter 17

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    Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Presentation Transcript

    • Today’s Issues: Russia and the Republics The collapse of the powerful Soviet government has left many of its former republics facing difficult ethnic, economic, and environmental challenges. NEXT
    • SECTION 1 Regional Conflict SECTION 2 The Struggle for Economic Reform Today’s Issues: Russia and the Republics Case Study The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy NEXT
    • Section 1 Regional Conflict • Regional tensions, once under Soviet control, have flared up in Russia and the Republics. • Some of the most violent conflicts have occurred in the Caucasus region. NEXT
    • A Troubled Caucasus Land of Great Complexity • Collapse of Soviet government weakens central authority in Republics - crime and religious or ethnic conflict increase • Caucasus—area of Caucasus Mountains between Black, Caspian seas - north: Russian republics Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia - south: independent countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia • California-size area is home to dozens of languages, 50 ethnic groups • Groups fight violently for independent territories after USSR falls SECTION 1 Regional Conflict Continued . . . NEXT
    • SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Chechnya • Chechnya republic remains part of Russia after USSR collapse • Russia invades twice in 1990s to block Chechnyan independence - invades in 1994 and soon controls 2/3 of country, capital of Grozny - rebels fight from mountain hideouts, force 1996 peace agreement - bombings in Moscow lead Russia to invade again in 1999 NEXT Continued . . .
    • SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Georgia • Georgia’s Ossetian people fight the Georgian army in early 1990s - seek to unite South Ossetia (Georgia) with North Ossetia (Russia) • Abkhazia region of Georgia declares independence in 1992 - rebels force Georgian population (250,000) to leave - Georgian troops driven out, but region still in ruins NEXT Continued . . .
    • SECTION 1 continued A Troubled Caucasus Armenia and Azerbaijan • South of Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan fight over territory - Armenia wants Nagorno-Karabakh, a mountainous area in Azerbaijan - region is 3/4 ethnic Armenian • Dispute rages in early 1920s, but kept under control by Soviets - fighting resumed in late 1980s until 1994 cease-fire - by then tens of thousands dead, nearly a million refugees NEXT
    • Hope on the Horizon? Can the Conflicts be Stopped? • U.S. hosts Armenia-Azerbaijan peace talks in 2001 • Chechnyan fighting causes high casualties for Russians, Chechnyans - once-high public support for war is declining - economic cost of war is a burden SECTION 1 NEXT
    • Section 2 The Struggle for Economic Reform • Russia has struggled to move from a command economy to a market economy. • Russia’s enormous size and widespread criminal activity have made economic reform difficult. NEXT
    • Steps Toward Capitalism Privatization • After Soviet collapse Russia embraces capitalism - removes price controls in 1992; prices of goods increase 250% • Also in 1992, Russia begins process of privatization - sells government-owned businesses to private individuals, companies • Public buy businesses with vouchers to be repaid with future profits - business failures, unpaid vouchers lead to 1998 economic crash • Still, by 2000, 60% of workforce employed in private sector SECTION 2 Continued . . . The Struggle for Economic Reform NEXT
    • SECTION 2 continued Steps Toward Capitalism The High Cost of Economic Change • Since the 1998 crash, Russia’s economy has slowly recovered • In spite of this, 40% of Russians still far below poverty line • Some wonder if things had maybe been better under Soviets NEXT
    • Obstacles to Economic Reform Distance Decay • Distance decay—long-distance communication, transportation are hard - Russia spans 11 time zones, has 89 regional governments - central government in Moscow is weak - difficult to get distant officials to enforce national reform programs • President Vladimir Putin creates 7 large federal districts in 2000 - governor-generals will force regional officials to follow reform orders SECTION 2 NEXT Continued . . .
    • SECTION 2 continued Obstacles to Economic Reform Organized Crime • “Russian mafia” criminal organizations grow rapidly in 1990s - control 40% of private companies, 60% of state- owned companies - mafia creates own economy, expands outside of Russia • Organized crime slows economic reform by rewarding illegal activity - government cannot tax such activity NEXT Future Prospects • Rising tax, customs revenues could lead to higher living standards
    • Case Study The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy NEXT BACKGROUND • The former Soviet Union’s nuclear programs have become a problem • poorly constructed nuclear power stations are not being maintained • nuclear waste dumps are decaying • These issues pose a threat to the region’s people and environment The Soviet Union’s Nuclear Legacy
    • Case Study An Unwelcome Legacy Nuclear Uncertainties • Break up of USSR leaves fate of Soviet nuclear weapons unclear - instead of 1 country with weapons, there are 15 independent republics - Where are the weapons? Are they safe? Where are the nuclear scientists? • Also facing problems with aging, poorly built nuclear reactors - many are same design as one at 1986 Chernobyl disaster NEXT
    • Case Study The Consequences of Collapse Political Tensions • Nuclear issues create tension between regions, other nations, U.S. • U.S. task force in 2000 highlights nuclear security threat - fears grow that Russian nuclear materials could be stolen, misused - recommends $30 billion package to help keep weapons safe NEXT Continued . . .
    • Case Study Economic Health • Many regional leaders reluctant to shut down Soviet nuclear reactors - it would be too expensive to build new non- nuclear plants • Some republics’ steps to revive their economies are questionable - in 2001, Russia’s Duma (legislature) approved nuclear dump plan - hope to earn $21 billion by storing other countries’ nuclear waste - Russian environmentalists are upset over the plan NEXT continued The Consequences of Collapse Continued . . .
    • Case Study Environmental Prospects • Some hope that region’s environmental outlook can improve • In 2000, Ukraine shut down last active Chernobyl reactor - hope to build protective dome for disaster site • In 2000, a U.S.-funded treatment plant opened near the White Sea - facility treats radioactive waste from Russian nuclear submarines - submarine nuclear waste formerly dumped in the sea NEXT continued The Consequences of Collapse
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