a non-military battle of diplomacy and propaganda between the United States and Soviet Union
Lasted from 1945-1990
led to “hot” wars around globe
in Korea, Vietnam
- Many of the smaller wars were called proxy wars because the U.S. and U.S.S.R. never fought face to face
U.S. vs. USSR (Soviet Union)
U.S . U.S.S.R
Private property State owns
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan ]
Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”
Bi-Polarization of Europe [ NATO vs. Warsaw Pact ]
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
CONTAINMENT POLICY: The U.S. would work to stop the spread of communism.
1. Truman Doctrine
2. Marshall Plan
3. NATO and other alliances
4. The Truman Doctrine & Domino Theory
Truman Doctrine: U.S. would aid countries around the world who are fighting communism (like Greece and Turkey).
Domino Theory: If the U.S. doesn’t fight communism, then countries will fall to communism like dominos.
The ‘Truman Doctrine’
Truman had been horrified at the pre-war Allied policy of appeasement and was determined to stand up to any Soviet intimidation. The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” .
Triggered by British inability to hold the line in Greece, it was followed by aid to Greece and Turkey, and also money to help capitalists to stop communists in Italy and France. It signalled the end of “isolationst” policies.
The Marshall Plan 1948
Plan to aid Europe—in ruins
Prevent countries from falling to communists
Aid American business
$17 billion to 16 countries in Europe (not Soviet Union)
The ‘Marshall Plan’
The Marshall Plan offered huge sums to enable the economies of Europe to rebuild after World War II, and, by generating prosperity, to reject the appeal of Communism.
The Soviet Union (USSR) prevented Eastern European countries from receiving American money.
NATO vs. WARSAW PACT
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: defense alliance among U.S. and Europe against the Soviet Union. Still exists.
Warsaw Pact: Defense alliance among Soviet Union and its satellite governments in Eastern Europe.
N orth A tlantic T reaty O rganization (1949)
1952: Greece & Turkey
1955: West Germany
Warsaw Pact (1955)
U. S. S. R.
Nuremburg Trials for war crimes
Divided into 4 zones:
West Germany – U.S., Britain, and France
East Germany- Soviets
Capitol city of Berlin divided into 4 zones (in East Germany)
Berlin Airlift: In 1948-49, the U.S. and Europe flew food and supplies to save West Berlin, until Soviets reopened roads.
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The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West. Divided Germany
Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
West Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East Germany
The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communists
The Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was felt by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries
Post War Japan:
U.S. occupied – under General MacArthur
Democracy with Emperor as figurehead
Abolished army and navy
Tokyo trials convicted war criminals
The Red Scare
Intense fear of Communists taking over U.S.
China became a Communist country in 1949.
Soviets developed an atomic bomb in 1949.
Rosenbergs convicted of selling atomic secrets to Soviet Union. Executed 1953.
In 1950, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin claimed that he had “lists” of communists in the U.S. government.
Falsely accused hundreds of people of being active Communists, ruining lives.
When hearings were televised, people saw that McCarthy was wrongly accusing many people.
Censured (punished) by Senate.
Korean War [1950-1953]
Korean War [1950-1953] Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “ Domino Theory”
U.S. General Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. force, approximately 80% of which were U.S. soldiers.
MacArthur at Inch'on landing
Korean War, 1950-53
Divided north and south at 38 th parallel at end of WWII.
In 1950, Communist North Korea invaded South Korea.
The U.S. and United Nations, aided the South; China aided the North Koreans.
Treaty signed in 1953, keeping dividing line at 38 th parallel (still today).
33,000 American soldiers died, 100,000 wounded.
The Shifting Map of Korea [1950-1953]
Ending the War:
President Truman disagreed with MacArthur about attacking China.
Gen. MacArthur wanted to attack China with support of Chinese nationalists.
U.N. troops regained South Korea by March of 1951.
Truman fired MacArthur for defying him by publicly taunting and threatening the Chinese.
In July of 1953, the Korean War ended
Began when Soviets beat the U.S. into space
Soviet satellite Sputnik launched in 1957
Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, was launched in 1958.
The National Defense Act of 1958 approved federal funding of education in math, science and foreign languages.
Reforms in education –
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.
Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
Nuclear Arms Race
Hydrogen bomb invented – both U.S. and Soviets had them
1,000 times more powerful than atomic bomb—vaporized an island.
Dangers of fallout and radiation
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The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
National Defense Budget [1940-1964]
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China?
Growing Interest in China Nationalists Led by Chiang Kai-shek Communists Led by Mao Zedong
People’s Republic of China:
In the 1940’s, China was embroiled in a civil war.
The U.S. gave the Chiang Kai-shek millions of dollars, but the communists won the war.
China became a communist country, and Chiang Kai-shek and his forces fled to Taiwan.