Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Physical Geography Looking at the Earth Geography involves the study of places: their locations, their characteristics, and how humans use and move around them. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 The Five Themes of Geography SECTION 2 The Geographer’s Tools Physical Geography Looking at the Earth NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography • Geographers view the world in terms of the use of space. • Geographers study the world by looking at location, place, region, movement, and human-environment interaction. NEXT
  4. 4. The Geographer’s Perspective Geographers and Historians • Historians look at events over time • Geographers look at: - use of space on Earth - interactions that take place there - patterns and connections between people and land • Geography is the study of the distribution and interaction of: - physical features on Earth - human features on Earth SECTION 1 Continued . . . The Five Themes of Geography NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 Methods of Geography • Geographers use a variety of tools: - maps - photographs - charts, graphs, tables - scale models - five themes of geography continued The Geographer’s Perspective NEXT
  6. 6. Theme: Location Where is it? • Absolute location—exact place where a geographic feature is found • Relative location—location of a place compared to places around it SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  7. 7. SECTION 1 Absolute Location • Earth is divided into two equal halves, vertically and horizontally • Each vertical and horizontal half is called a hemisphere • An imaginary line, the Equator, divides north and south halves • Another imaginary line, the Prime Meridian, divides east and west continued Theme: Location Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 Latitude Lines • Geographers use latitude lines to locate places north and south • Latitude—imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator continued Theme: Location Continued . . . Longitude Lines • Geographers use longitude lines to mark positions east and west • Longitude—imaginary lines that go over the poles • Where latitude and longitude lines cross is the absolute location NEXT
  9. 9. SECTION 1 Relative Location • How a place is related to its surrounding environment continued Theme: Location NEXT
  10. 10. Theme: Place What is it Like? • Place includes physical features and cultural characteristics: - physical features include climate, landforms, vegetation - cultural characteristics include dams, highways, houses SECTION 1 NEXT
  11. 11. Theme: Region How are Places Similar or Different? • A region is an area united by similar characteristics • Unifying characteristics—physical, political, economic, cultural • Three types of regions: - formal - functional - perceptual SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 1 Formal Regions • Defined by a limited number of related characteristics • Formal regions of the world: - The United States and Canada - Latin America - Europe - Russia and the Republics - Africa - Southwest Asia - South Asia - East Asia - Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica continued Theme: Region Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 1 Functional Regions • Organized around interactions and connections between places • Example: a city and its suburbs are connected through human movement continued Theme: Region Perceptual Regions • Region with characteristics people perceive in much the same way • Example: the American Midwest • Sometimes perceptions differ: Does Midwest begin in Ohio or Illinois? NEXT
  14. 14. Theme: Human-Environment Interaction How Do People Relate to the Physical World? • A relationship exists between people and their environment • People use and change the environment to meet their needs • People adapt to environmental conditions they cannot change • Often, people in similar environments adapt in different ways SECTION 1 NEXT
  15. 15. Theme: Movement How Do People, Goods, and Ideas Get from One Place to Another? • Geographers use three types of distance to analyze movement: - linear distance - time distance - psychological distance SECTION 1 Linear Distance and Time Distance • Linear distance—how far a person, product, or idea travels • Time distance—how long it takes for person, product, idea to travel Continued . . . NEXT
  16. 16. SECTION 1 Psychological Distance • Refers to the way people perceive distance • Example: unfamiliar places may seem farther away than familiar ones continued Theme: Movement NEXT
  17. 17. Section 2 The Geographer’s Tools • Geographers use two- and three-dimensional tools to learn about the earth. • Geographers use computer-assisted technology to study the use of the earth’s surface. NEXT
  18. 18. Maps and Globes Visualizing Earth • Oldest known map: Babylonian clay tablet, circa 500 B.C. • Maps show locations of places, landforms, bodies of water The Geographer’s Tools SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  19. 19. SECTION 2 Two or Three Dimensions • Globe—a three-dimensional representation (a sphere) of Earth • Map—a two-dimensional graphic representation of Earth’s surface • Cartographer (mapmaker) tries to accurately reflect earth’s surface • Map projection—way of showing Earth’s curved surface on a flat map continued Maps and Globes Continued . . . NEXT
  20. 20. SECTION 2 Types of Maps • Three types of maps: general reference, thematic, navigational • A topographic map is one kind of general reference map • Topographic map—shows natural and man-made features of earth • Thematic map—shows specific data such as climate, population density • A navigation map is used by sailors, pilots continued Maps and Globes NEXT
  21. 21. The Science of Mapmaking Surveying • Surveyors observe, measure, record what they see in a specific area • Remote sensing, gathering geographic data from a distance, includes: - aerial photography - satellite imaging The Geographer’s Tool SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  22. 22. SECTION 2 Satellites • Best known satellites are Landsat and GOES • Landsat is a series of satellites; can scan entire planet in 16 days • Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES): - orbits in sync with Earth’s rotation - gathers images of atmospheric conditions continued The Science of Mapmaking Continued . . . NEXT
  23. 23. SECTION 2 Geographic Information Systems • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a digital geographic database • Combines and displays information from many sources continued The Science of Mapmaking Global Positioning System (GPS) • Uses series of 24 Navstar satellites to beam information to Earth • Hand-held GPS receivers on Earth display exact position • GPS used by explorers, sailors, drivers; also used to track animals NEXT
  24. 24. This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
  25. 25. Print Slide Show 1. On the File menu, select Print 2. In the pop-up menu, select Microsoft PowerPoint If the dialog box does not include this pop-up, continue to step 4 3. In the Print what box, choose the presentation format you want to print: slides, notes, handouts, or outline 4. Click the Print button to print the PowerPoint presentation CONTINUE

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