Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1. Physical Geography Looking at the Earth Geography involves the study of places: their locations, their characteristics, and how humans use and move around them. NEXT
  2. 2. SECTION 1 The Five Themes of Geography SECTION 2 The Geographer’s Tools Physical Geography Looking at the Earth NEXT
  3. 3. Section 1 The Five Themes of Geography • Geographers view the world in terms of the use of space. • Geographers study the world by looking at location, place, region, movement, and human-environment interaction. NEXT
  4. 4. The Geographer’s Perspective Geographers and Historians • Historians look at events over time • Geographers look at: - use of space on Earth - interactions that take place there - patterns and connections between people and land • Geography is the study of the distribution and interaction of: - physical features on Earth - human features on Earth SECTION 1 Continued . . . The Five Themes of Geography NEXT
  5. 5. SECTION 1 Methods of Geography • Geographers use a variety of tools: - maps - photographs - charts, graphs, tables - scale models - five themes of geography continued The Geographer’s Perspective NEXT
  6. 6. Theme: Location Where is it? • Absolute location—exact place where a geographic feature is found • Relative location—location of a place compared to places around it SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  7. 7. SECTION 1 Absolute Location • Earth is divided into two equal halves, vertically and horizontally • Each vertical and horizontal half is called a hemisphere • An imaginary line, the Equator, divides north and south halves • Another imaginary line, the Prime Meridian, divides east and west continued Theme: Location Continued . . . NEXT
  8. 8. SECTION 1 Latitude Lines • Geographers use latitude lines to locate places north and south • Latitude—imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator continued Theme: Location Continued . . . Longitude Lines • Geographers use longitude lines to mark positions east and west • Longitude—imaginary lines that go over the poles • Where latitude and longitude lines cross is the absolute location NEXT
  9. 9. SECTION 1 Relative Location • How a place is related to its surrounding environment continued Theme: Location NEXT
  10. 10. Theme: Place What is it Like? • Place includes physical features and cultural characteristics: - physical features include climate, landforms, vegetation - cultural characteristics include dams, highways, houses SECTION 1 NEXT
  11. 11. Theme: Region How are Places Similar or Different? • A region is an area united by similar characteristics • Unifying characteristics—physical, political, economic, cultural • Three types of regions: - formal - functional - perceptual SECTION 1 Continued . . . NEXT
  12. 12. SECTION 1 Formal Regions • Defined by a limited number of related characteristics • Formal regions of the world: - The United States and Canada - Latin America - Europe - Russia and the Republics - Africa - Southwest Asia - South Asia - East Asia - Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica continued Theme: Region Continued . . . NEXT
  13. 13. SECTION 1 Functional Regions • Organized around interactions and connections between places • Example: a city and its suburbs are connected through human movement continued Theme: Region Perceptual Regions • Region with characteristics people perceive in much the same way • Example: the American Midwest • Sometimes perceptions differ: Does Midwest begin in Ohio or Illinois? NEXT
  14. 14. Theme: Human-Environment Interaction How Do People Relate to the Physical World? • A relationship exists between people and their environment • People use and change the environment to meet their needs • People adapt to environmental conditions they cannot change • Often, people in similar environments adapt in different ways SECTION 1 NEXT
  15. 15. Theme: Movement How Do People, Goods, and Ideas Get from One Place to Another? • Geographers use three types of distance to analyze movement: - linear distance - time distance - psychological distance SECTION 1 Linear Distance and Time Distance • Linear distance—how far a person, product, or idea travels • Time distance—how long it takes for person, product, idea to travel Continued . . . NEXT
  16. 16. SECTION 1 Psychological Distance • Refers to the way people perceive distance • Example: unfamiliar places may seem farther away than familiar ones continued Theme: Movement NEXT
  17. 17. Section 2 The Geographer’s Tools • Geographers use two- and three-dimensional tools to learn about the earth. • Geographers use computer-assisted technology to study the use of the earth’s surface. NEXT
  18. 18. Maps and Globes Visualizing Earth • Oldest known map: Babylonian clay tablet, circa 500 B.C. • Maps show locations of places, landforms, bodies of water The Geographer’s Tools SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  19. 19. SECTION 2 Two or Three Dimensions • Globe—a three-dimensional representation (a sphere) of Earth • Map—a two-dimensional graphic representation of Earth’s surface • Cartographer (mapmaker) tries to accurately reflect earth’s surface • Map projection—way of showing Earth’s curved surface on a flat map continued Maps and Globes Continued . . . NEXT
  20. 20. SECTION 2 Types of Maps • Three types of maps: general reference, thematic, navigational • A topographic map is one kind of general reference map • Topographic map—shows natural and man-made features of earth • Thematic map—shows specific data such as climate, population density • A navigation map is used by sailors, pilots continued Maps and Globes NEXT
  21. 21. The Science of Mapmaking Surveying • Surveyors observe, measure, record what they see in a specific area • Remote sensing, gathering geographic data from a distance, includes: - aerial photography - satellite imaging The Geographer’s Tool SECTION 2 Continued . . . NEXT
  22. 22. SECTION 2 Satellites • Best known satellites are Landsat and GOES • Landsat is a series of satellites; can scan entire planet in 16 days • Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite (GOES): - orbits in sync with Earth’s rotation - gathers images of atmospheric conditions continued The Science of Mapmaking Continued . . . NEXT
  23. 23. SECTION 2 Geographic Information Systems • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a digital geographic database • Combines and displays information from many sources continued The Science of Mapmaking Global Positioning System (GPS) • Uses series of 24 Navstar satellites to beam information to Earth • Hand-held GPS receivers on Earth display exact position • GPS used by explorers, sailors, drivers; also used to track animals NEXT
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