Chapter 32

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Chapter 32

  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 32 Japan and the Koreas Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: Japan: Land of the Rising Sun Section 2: Japan's Economic Development Section 3: The Koreas: A Divided Peninsula Chapter 32: Japan and the Koreas
  3. 3. Japan: The Land of the Rising Sun <ul><li>What are Japan’s chief physical characteristics? </li></ul><ul><li>What geographic factors contribute to the variety of climates found in Japan? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors encourage national unity and identity among the majority of the Japanese people? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. Physical Characteristics 1
  5. 5. Physical Characteristics <ul><li>Japan is an archipelago with many small islands and four large islands, which are actually the peaks of an underwater mountain range. </li></ul><ul><li>The surrounding seas have isolated and protected Japan from invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the mountainous terrain, only 13 percent of the land is arable. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is part of the Ring of Fire, and seismographs detect about 7,500 earthquakes in Japan annually. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan also has a number of active volcanoes. </li></ul>1
  6. 6. Climates <ul><li>Japan’s climates vary according to latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Monsoons, or prevailing winds, bring heavy rains and hot temperatures in summer and cool, dry air in winter. </li></ul><ul><li>Typhoons, hurricanes that form over the Pacific Ocean, often cause floods and landslides from the summer to early fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean currents also affect Japan’s climate. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japan Current, flowing northward from the tropics, warms the air and results in long growing seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>The Oyashio Current, flowing southeastward along the coast of Hokkaido and northern Honshu, supports high fish harvests. </li></ul>1
  7. 7. People and Culture <ul><li>Population density affects housing and family patterns and has caused problems with pollution and waste disposal. </li></ul><ul><li>Shared ancestry makes most of Japan’s population homogeneous, or uniform, enabling the Japanese to build a strong sense of national unity and identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Japan’s people share similar religious beliefs that reflect Shinto, Buddhist, and Confucian influences. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of Japan’s people belong to a highly educated middle class, with social and economic uniformity contributing to Japanese homogeneity. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese popular culture is influenced both by Japanese traditions and ideas from the West. </li></ul>1
  8. 8. Section 1 Review <ul><li>How does the Japan Current affect climate in some parts of Japan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It makes the climate cooler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It makes the growing season shorter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) It makes the climate warmer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) It does not affect the climate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How has Japan’s island location affected Japanese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Japan is a nation of sailors and explorers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Japanese have a sense of their own separate identity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Japanese belong to many diverse ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Japanese have always been open to outside influences. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  9. 9. Section 1 Review <ul><li>How does the Japan Current affect climate in some parts of Japan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It makes the climate cooler. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It makes the growing season shorter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) It makes the climate warmer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) It does not affect the climate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How has Japan’s island location affected Japanese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Japan is a nation of sailors and explorers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Japanese have a sense of their own separate identity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Japanese belong to many diverse ethnic groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The Japanese have always been open to outside influences. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  10. 10. Japan’s Economic Development <ul><li>Why did Japan isolate itself from the West, and what happened when new relations were established in the 1800s? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Japan attempt to gain control of neighboring countries? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Japan’s role in World War II, and how did it affect Japan’s status at the war’s end? </li></ul><ul><li>How was Japan able to prosper economically after World War II? </li></ul>2
  11. 11. The Closure of Japan and the Meiji Era <ul><li>At the time of its first contact with the West, Japan had a highly developed civilization and a prosperous nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese welcomed European traders and missionaries, but soon began to worry that European nations might try to conquer them and closed its doors to the West in 1639. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning in 1853, Western governments forced Japan to sign unequal treaties that gave all the economic advantages to foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Meiji era, Japan modernized and became a major industrial power. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1900, Japan was strong enough to end the unequal treaties with the West. </li></ul>2
  12. 12. Japanese Imperialism <ul><li>Lack of natural resources was an obstacle to Japan’s goal of becoming an industrial power. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan adopted imperialist policies, and began efforts to gain control of weaker countries that were rich in resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan fought China and Russia at the turn of the century, gaining new trading rights and territory, and took over German colonies after World War I. </li></ul><ul><li>Militarists gained control of the government, and Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan gradually became a military dictatorship, and the new leaders promoted militarism, or the glorification of the military and a readiness for war. </li></ul>2
  13. 13. World War and Military Occupation <ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s leaders sided with Nazi Germany in World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan seized French and Dutch colonies in Southeast Asia when France and the Netherlands fell to the Nazis. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan attacked the United States fleet at Pearl Harbor in 1941. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States and its allies gradually destroyed Japan’s ability to wage war. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan quickly surrendered after the United States dropped atomic bombs on two Japanese cities. </li></ul><ul><li>American Military Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>From 1945 to 1952, Japan was occupied by the United States army. </li></ul><ul><li>The military leaders were removed from power, and the emperor was stripped of political powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was forbidden to rebuild its military. </li></ul><ul><li>A democratic constitution was introduced, giving women legal equality with men. </li></ul><ul><li>Large farms and businesses were broken up and sold to poor citizens. </li></ul>2
  14. 14. Sources of Success <ul><li>After World War II, Japan experienced rapid economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has a highly educated work force: almost all Japanese students attend high school and a third go on to college. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional patterns of loyalty and team spirit are changing as many Japanese workers are now finding themselves downsized, or fired, as companies try to trim costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan is at the center of active trade networks as other Asian nations develop economically. </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese government takes an active role in business and has controlled trade through tariffs and quotas on imported goods. </li></ul>2
  15. 15. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did the Meiji government promote industrialization? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It encouraged foreign investment in Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It established large collectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) It adopted Western models for all political and economic institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) It paid for the development of new industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the early 1900s, how did Japan obtain natural resources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) trading with other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) mining the mineral-rich mountains of Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) conquering countries with needed natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) ocean-bed mining operations </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  16. 16. Section 2 Review <ul><li>How did the Meiji government promote industrialization? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It encouraged foreign investment in Japan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It established large collectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) It adopted Western models for all political and economic institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) It paid for the development of new industries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the early 1900s, how did Japan obtain natural resources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) trading with other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) mining the mineral-rich mountains of Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) conquering countries with needed natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) ocean-bed mining operations </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  17. 17. The Koreas: A Divided Peninsula <ul><li>What cultural elements did the Koreans adapt from the Chinese? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the Korean Peninsula become two separate countries? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the physical characteristics of North Korea and South Korea differ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is reunification a challenge to both North Korea and South Korea? </li></ul>3
  18. 18. A Common Culture <ul><li>Through more than 2,000 years of history, invading armies have swept through the Korean Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans adapted Chinese cultural ways, borrowing from the Chinese writing system and adapting many Chinese words. </li></ul><ul><li>Koreans adopted Daoism and Confucianism from China, and later modified Buddhist teachings to their own culture. </li></ul>3
  19. 19. The Korean War <ul><li>After World War II, Korea became caught up in the Cold War struggle between Communist and non-Communist powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union administered northern Korea, and the United States administered southern Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union established a Communist government in North Korea, and in South Korea an election was held. American troops pulled out in 1949. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea to unite the country under a Communist government, and United Nations forces came to the aid of South Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>A cease-fire agreement was signed in 1953 establishing the division between North and South Korea, separated by a demilitarized zone. </li></ul>3
  20. 20. Different Environments 3
  21. 21. Different Environments <ul><li>North Korea, located closer to the Asian mainland, has a climate similar to southern Siberia. </li></ul><ul><li>The land of North Korea is mountainous and rugged, and contains some of the richest natural resources in East Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea is very densely populated. </li></ul><ul><li>The climate of South Korea is moderated by the surrounding seas, and some areas have a subtropical climate. </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea has fewer mountains and more plains, and is better suited to agriculture than North Korea. </li></ul>3
  22. 22. Challenges to Reunification <ul><li>A Changing Economy </li></ul><ul><li>After 1953, South Korea was economically disadvantaged, as most industries were in North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>With aid from the U.S. and Japan, South Korea industrialized. </li></ul><ul><li>Communist North Korea lags far behind South Korea in its standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>With the fall of the Soviet Union, North Korea lost its major trading partner, and shortages of supplies and food have made the situation dire. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning for the Future </li></ul><ul><li>North and South Korea have discussed reunification, but have not been able to agree on conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea wanted an exclusively Communist Korea, while South Korea wanted to maintain its high standard of living and free system of government. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea’s withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1993 alarmed many nations. </li></ul><ul><li>After the succession of Kim Jong Il in North Korea, the two Koreas again began to talk of reunification. </li></ul>3
  23. 23. Section 3 Review <ul><li>Korea adopted religious beliefs and other cultural ways from which of the following countries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which countries administered Korea after World War II? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the Soviet Union and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) China and the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the United States and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the Soviet Union and the United States </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  24. 24. Section 3 Review <ul><li>Korea adopted religious beliefs and other cultural ways from which of the following countries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which countries administered Korea after World War II? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) the Soviet Union and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) China and the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) the United States and Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) the Soviet Union and the United States </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3

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