Chapter 31

2,889 views
2,749 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,889
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
174
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
44
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 31

  1. 1. World Geography Chapter 31 China Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: The Emergence of Modern China Section 2: Regions of China Section 3: China's People and Culture Section 4: China's Neighbors Chapter 31: China
  3. 3. The Emergence of Modern China <ul><li>What were the results of China’s early contacts with Western powers? </li></ul><ul><li>What conflicts within China have left the country open to a Communist takeover? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the purposes and results of the program known as the Great Leap Forward? </li></ul><ul><li>How did a series of modernizations attempt to change China? </li></ul>1
  4. 4. Early Contacts With the West <ul><li>Lack of military technology was a serious disadvantage in the 1800s, as industrialized countries used their military strength to force their way into China. </li></ul><ul><li>Western powers carved China up into spheres of influence, in which these countries had some political and economic control, but did not govern directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Amid disagreement about the extent to which Western culture should be adopted, the Nationalist People’s party emerged as a political force. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalists seized power in 1911, forced the emperor to abdicate, and then declared China a republic. </li></ul>1
  5. 5. A Struggle for Power 1
  6. 6. A Struggle for Power <ul><li>In the 1920s, a split developed in the Nationalists Party as some members adopted Communist ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>When Nationalist President Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Communists in the Nationalist party killed, they fled into the mountains and were later pursued in the Long March. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1930s, the Nationalists and Communists united to fight against the Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, the Communists forced the Nationalists to flee to Taiwan and renamed the country the People’s Republic of China. </li></ul>1
  7. 7. A Communist Nation <ul><li>The Great Leap Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Collective farms were combined into large-scale People’s Communes that contained both farms and industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of increasing, production fell, as the communes offered no incentive to work hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad weather also hindered production. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Leap Forward was abandoned after two years. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao called for even more drastic measures. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Guard was formed to destroy the Four Olds: old ideology, old thought, old habits, old customs. </li></ul><ul><li>All those who disagreed with Mao were punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm and factory production fell and schools were closed, resulting in an economic disaster for China. </li></ul>Mao Zedong wanted to increase productivity and replace private ownership with common ownership. 1
  8. 8. Modernization and Political Upheaval <ul><li>Deng Xiaoping began the Four Modernizations program, intended to improve agriculture, industry, science, and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The contract responsibility system allowed farmers to sell surplus crops, resulting in dramatically increased farm output. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of industry changed to light industry, or the manufacture of consumer goods, and a system of rewards was established to increase productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth was uneven, with the coastal cities growing rich but the interior lagging behind. </li></ul><ul><li>As economic reform continued, some Chinese demanded political freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>The government responded harshly to the Tiananmen Square protests, killing many demonstrators, and rounding up suspected leaders for execution. </li></ul>1
  9. 9. Section 1 Review <ul><li>What was the result of the Great Leap Forward? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Agricultural output vastly increased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Industrial output increased modestly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Production fell dramatically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) There was no noticeable result. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did Deng increase agricultural output? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He completely privatized land ownership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) He created even larger collective farms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  10. 10. Section 1 Review <ul><li>What was the result of the Great Leap Forward? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Agricultural output vastly increased. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Industrial output increased modestly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Production fell dramatically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) There was no noticeable result. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did Deng increase agricultural output? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) He completely privatized land ownership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) He created even larger collective farms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  11. 11. Regions of China <ul><li>In the past, how has China’s Northeast region served as the center of population, industry, and government? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the Southeast region of China ideal for agriculture and transportation? </li></ul><ul><li>In what way did the Silk Road promote development of China’s barren Northwest region? </li></ul><ul><li>What effect has Communist rule had on China’s Southwest region? </li></ul>2
  12. 12. The Northeast <ul><li>The Northeast has formed China’s core for centuries, containing the capital Beijing and the greatest concentration of China’s population. </li></ul><ul><li>The Northeast was the site of one of the world’s original culture hearths, centered on the Huang He. </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing is a major industrial center, but the Special Economic Zones have been so successful that investment money is going south. </li></ul><ul><li>The Northeast has an agricultural area made fertile by wind-blown loess from Mongolia and the Gobi Desert. </li></ul><ul><li>The Huang He serves as a transportation route, but has also created so much destruction through flooding that it is called “China’s Sorrow.” </li></ul>2
  13. 13. The Southeast <ul><li>The climate and fertile soil of the Southeast allow farmers in some areas to practice double cropping, or growing more than one crop a year on the same land. </li></ul><ul><li>The Yangzi valley is the location of China’s most productive farmland, and the river serves as an east-west highway connecting the interior with the coast. </li></ul><ul><li>The government has set up Special Economic Zones in this region to lure foreign investment and technical expertise with low tax rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Many have migrated to the Southeast to benefit from the economic boom the region is experiencing. </li></ul>2
  14. 14. The Northwest 2
  15. 15. The Northwest <ul><li>The Northwest is dry, barren, and rugged. </li></ul><ul><li>Population in the region is low. </li></ul><ul><li>The Silk Road crossed Northwest China, and way stations developed around oases along the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Some way stations eventually developed into towns. </li></ul><ul><li>In the oasis towns, people live by farming, but nomadic herding is the major economic activity in the region. </li></ul>2
  16. 16. The Southwest <ul><li>The Plateau of Tibet, the highest region in the world, dominates the Southwest Region. </li></ul><ul><li>Tibet has a distinctive society based on the Buddhist religion. </li></ul><ul><li>For most of their history, Tibetans have lived as farmers and herders under the theocratic leader the Dalai Lama. </li></ul><ul><li>China invaded Tibet in 1950, and the Dalai Lama was driven into exile. </li></ul><ul><li>After an uprising in 1959, the Chinese government instituted a policy designed to destroy Tibetan culture and later, designated Tibet an autonomous region. </li></ul><ul><li>Tibetans still hold onto their traditions and culture despite efforts by the Chinese government. </li></ul>2
  17. 17. Section 2 Review <ul><li>What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The country’s capital is located there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Southeast is sparsely populated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) China has designated it an autonomous region. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The region is rich in mineral resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Farmland in the region is excellent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the frontier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  18. 18. Section 2 Review <ul><li>What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The country’s capital is located there. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The Southeast is sparsely populated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) China has designated it an autonomous region. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) The region is rich in mineral resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Farmland in the region is excellent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the frontier. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  19. 19. China’s People and Culture <ul><li>Through the years, how has China’s Communist government changed its attitudes about population growth? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors create a common culture throughout China, encouraging unity across the nation? </li></ul>3
  20. 20. A Huge Population 3
  21. 21. A Huge Population <ul><li>Mao believed that power lay in numbers, so he encouraged the Chinese people to have more children. </li></ul><ul><li>After finally recognizing the problems of overcrowding, Mao called for a two-child policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Deng set a one-child goal, offering rewards and fines to encourage people to follow this policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda did not convince rural Chinese to follow the policy, because contract responsibility shifted production to family labor. </li></ul>3
  22. 22. Chinese Culture <ul><li>About 56 ethnic minority groups live in China, but 92 percent of China’s population belong to the Han ethnic group. </li></ul><ul><li>The written form of Chinese uses ideograms, or pictures representing a thing or idea, and all Chinese students are taught Chinese characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Daoism is based on the writings of Laozi, who wrote that the path to true happiness lies in living in harmony with the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism is a philosophy based on the teachings of Confucius, who believed that society functions best if people respect the laws and behave according to their positions in society. </li></ul><ul><li>China is officially an atheist state, but many people continue to practice their religions. </li></ul><ul><li>Although Western medicine is practiced in China, many prefer traditional Chinese medicine, which includes the use of herbal remedies, breathing exercises, special diets, and acupuncture. </li></ul>3
  23. 23. Section 3 Review <ul><li>What result did Mao’s population policy have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) China’s population remained stable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations exploded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) People across China can always communicate in writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The common writing system encourages conformity. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  24. 24. Section 3 Review <ul><li>What result did Mao’s population policy have? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) China’s population remained stable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations exploded. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) People across China can always communicate in writing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) The common writing system encourages conformity. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  25. 25. China’s Neighbors <ul><li>How did Taiwan become an industrial power in Asia? </li></ul><ul><li>In what way does Hong Kong’s relationship with China make Hong Kong’s future uncertain? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the standard of living in Mongolia improved in recent years? </li></ul>4
  26. 26. Taiwan: A World Apart <ul><li>Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan and set up a temporary provisional government that was repressive but allowed free enterprise to flourish. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalist government in Taipei was recognized as the legitimate government of China until 1971, when mainland China was admitted to the UN and Taiwan was expelled. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalists instituted a sweeping land-reform program to put land in the hands of tenant farmers and encouraged them to modernize their farming practices. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nationalists also encouraged industrial development, and with the help of foreign investment Taiwan experienced rapid growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan has in recent years concentrated on high-technology industries such as electronics, and rapid economic growth has led to a high standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Contact between China and Taiwan was renewed in 1987, but relations between the two remain tense. </li></ul>4
  27. 27. Hong Kong Returns to China <ul><li>The Growth of Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>In 1898, Britain forced China to agree to lease Hong Kong. </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong’s location and harbor helped the port become a center of trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong also became a center of manufacturing, specializing in textiles and electrical appliances. </li></ul><ul><li>The exodus of refugees from China provided a vast supply of labor for the factories of Hong Kong. </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong’s trade is estimated at the same value as that of China. </li></ul><ul><li>The End of the Lease </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong developed with little interference from the mainland. </li></ul><ul><li>The British lease ended in 1997, and Hong Kong was returned to China. </li></ul><ul><li>Fears of political repression after the handover have not come to pass. </li></ul><ul><li>China follows a policy of “one country, two systems” to allow Hong Kong’s economy to flourish. </li></ul>4
  28. 28. Mongolia <ul><li>Mongolia is a vast, dry land, with desert in the south and steppe in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Genghiz Khan and his descendants, the Mongols ruled a huge empire, but Mongolia eventually became a Chinese province. </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia remained a province of China until 1911, ten years later adopted communism, and then held democratic elections in the early 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Herding still ranks as the major economic activity on Mongolia’s steppes, but the country is also developing some industries. </li></ul><ul><li>With industrialization, Mongolia has become more urban, with 63 percent of the population living in urban centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Mongolians still live as nomads, but are becoming increasingly connected to the world through modern technology. </li></ul>4
  29. 29. Section 4 Review <ul><li>Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic success? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) rich natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) strategic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) vast oil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in world trade? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It was already a manufacturing center. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Special Economic Zones were established in China. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 4
  30. 30. Section 4 Review <ul><li>Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic success? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) rich natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) strategic location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) vast oil deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) foreign investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in world trade? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) It was already a manufacturing center. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Special Economic Zones were established in China. </li></ul></ul>Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 4

×