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Chapter 31 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. World Geography Chapter 31 China Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  • 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: The Emergence of Modern China Section 2: Regions of China Section 3: China's People and Culture Section 4: China's Neighbors Chapter 31: China
  • 3. The Emergence of Modern China
    • What were the results of China’s early contacts with Western powers?
    • What conflicts within China have left the country open to a Communist takeover?
    • What were the purposes and results of the program known as the Great Leap Forward?
    • How did a series of modernizations attempt to change China?
    1
  • 4. Early Contacts With the West
    • Lack of military technology was a serious disadvantage in the 1800s, as industrialized countries used their military strength to force their way into China.
    • Western powers carved China up into spheres of influence, in which these countries had some political and economic control, but did not govern directly.
    • Amid disagreement about the extent to which Western culture should be adopted, the Nationalist People’s party emerged as a political force.
    • The Nationalists seized power in 1911, forced the emperor to abdicate, and then declared China a republic.
    1
  • 5. A Struggle for Power 1
  • 6. A Struggle for Power
    • In the 1920s, a split developed in the Nationalists Party as some members adopted Communist ideas.
    • When Nationalist President Chiang Kai-shek ordered the Communists in the Nationalist party killed, they fled into the mountains and were later pursued in the Long March.
    • In the 1930s, the Nationalists and Communists united to fight against the Japanese.
    • After World War II, the Communists forced the Nationalists to flee to Taiwan and renamed the country the People’s Republic of China.
    1
  • 7. A Communist Nation
    • The Great Leap Forward
    • Collective farms were combined into large-scale People’s Communes that contained both farms and industries.
    • Instead of increasing, production fell, as the communes offered no incentive to work hard.
    • Bad weather also hindered production.
    • The Great Leap Forward was abandoned after two years.
    • The Cultural Revolution
    • After the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao called for even more drastic measures.
    • The Red Guard was formed to destroy the Four Olds: old ideology, old thought, old habits, old customs.
    • All those who disagreed with Mao were punished.
    • Farm and factory production fell and schools were closed, resulting in an economic disaster for China.
    Mao Zedong wanted to increase productivity and replace private ownership with common ownership. 1
  • 8. Modernization and Political Upheaval
    • Deng Xiaoping began the Four Modernizations program, intended to improve agriculture, industry, science, and technology.
    • The contract responsibility system allowed farmers to sell surplus crops, resulting in dramatically increased farm output.
    • The focus of industry changed to light industry, or the manufacture of consumer goods, and a system of rewards was established to increase productivity.
    • Economic growth was uneven, with the coastal cities growing rich but the interior lagging behind.
    • As economic reform continued, some Chinese demanded political freedom.
    • The government responded harshly to the Tiananmen Square protests, killing many demonstrators, and rounding up suspected leaders for execution.
    1
  • 9. Section 1 Review
    • What was the result of the Great Leap Forward?
      • a) Agricultural output vastly increased.
      • b) Industrial output increased modestly.
      • c) Production fell dramatically.
      • d) There was no noticeable result.
    • How did Deng increase agricultural output?
      • a) He completely privatized land ownership.
      • b) He created even larger collective farms.
      • c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops.
      • d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  • 10. Section 1 Review
    • What was the result of the Great Leap Forward?
      • a) Agricultural output vastly increased.
      • b) Industrial output increased modestly.
      • c) Production fell dramatically.
      • d) There was no noticeable result.
    • How did Deng increase agricultural output?
      • a) He completely privatized land ownership.
      • b) He created even larger collective farms.
      • c) He punished farmers who were not producing enough crops.
      • d) He allowed farmers to sell surplus crops.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  • 11. Regions of China
    • In the past, how has China’s Northeast region served as the center of population, industry, and government?
    • Why is the Southeast region of China ideal for agriculture and transportation?
    • In what way did the Silk Road promote development of China’s barren Northwest region?
    • What effect has Communist rule had on China’s Southwest region?
    2
  • 12. The Northeast
    • The Northeast has formed China’s core for centuries, containing the capital Beijing and the greatest concentration of China’s population.
    • The Northeast was the site of one of the world’s original culture hearths, centered on the Huang He.
    • Beijing is a major industrial center, but the Special Economic Zones have been so successful that investment money is going south.
    • The Northeast has an agricultural area made fertile by wind-blown loess from Mongolia and the Gobi Desert.
    • The Huang He serves as a transportation route, but has also created so much destruction through flooding that it is called “China’s Sorrow.”
    2
  • 13. The Southeast
    • The climate and fertile soil of the Southeast allow farmers in some areas to practice double cropping, or growing more than one crop a year on the same land.
    • The Yangzi valley is the location of China’s most productive farmland, and the river serves as an east-west highway connecting the interior with the coast.
    • The government has set up Special Economic Zones in this region to lure foreign investment and technical expertise with low tax rates.
    • Many have migrated to the Southeast to benefit from the economic boom the region is experiencing.
    2
  • 14. The Northwest 2
  • 15. The Northwest
    • The Northwest is dry, barren, and rugged.
    • Population in the region is low.
    • The Silk Road crossed Northwest China, and way stations developed around oases along the road.
    • Some way stations eventually developed into towns.
    • In the oasis towns, people live by farming, but nomadic herding is the major economic activity in the region.
    2
  • 16. The Southwest
    • The Plateau of Tibet, the highest region in the world, dominates the Southwest Region.
    • Tibet has a distinctive society based on the Buddhist religion.
    • For most of their history, Tibetans have lived as farmers and herders under the theocratic leader the Dalai Lama.
    • China invaded Tibet in 1950, and the Dalai Lama was driven into exile.
    • After an uprising in 1959, the Chinese government instituted a policy designed to destroy Tibetan culture and later, designated Tibet an autonomous region.
    • Tibetans still hold onto their traditions and culture despite efforts by the Chinese government.
    2
  • 17. Section 2 Review
    • What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors?
      • a) The country’s capital is located there.
      • b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks.
      • c) The Southeast is sparsely populated.
      • d) China has designated it an autonomous region.
    • What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest?
      • a) The region is rich in mineral resources.
      • b) Farmland in the region is excellent.
      • c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the frontier.
      • d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  • 18. Section 2 Review
    • What makes the Southeast attractive to foreign investors?
      • a) The country’s capital is located there.
      • b) The Special Economic Zones offer tax breaks.
      • c) The Southeast is sparsely populated.
      • d) China has designated it an autonomous region.
    • What has contributed to the growth of towns in the Northwest?
      • a) The region is rich in mineral resources.
      • b) Farmland in the region is excellent.
      • c) Garrisons were established in the Northwest to defend the frontier.
      • d) Way stations developed at oases along the Silk Road.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  • 19. China’s People and Culture
    • Through the years, how has China’s Communist government changed its attitudes about population growth?
    • What factors create a common culture throughout China, encouraging unity across the nation?
    3
  • 20. A Huge Population 3
  • 21. A Huge Population
    • Mao believed that power lay in numbers, so he encouraged the Chinese people to have more children.
    • After finally recognizing the problems of overcrowding, Mao called for a two-child policy.
    • Deng set a one-child goal, offering rewards and fines to encourage people to follow this policy.
    • Propaganda did not convince rural Chinese to follow the policy, because contract responsibility shifted production to family labor.
    3
  • 22. Chinese Culture
    • About 56 ethnic minority groups live in China, but 92 percent of China’s population belong to the Han ethnic group.
    • The written form of Chinese uses ideograms, or pictures representing a thing or idea, and all Chinese students are taught Chinese characters.
    • Daoism is based on the writings of Laozi, who wrote that the path to true happiness lies in living in harmony with the natural world.
    • Confucianism is a philosophy based on the teachings of Confucius, who believed that society functions best if people respect the laws and behave according to their positions in society.
    • China is officially an atheist state, but many people continue to practice their religions.
    • Although Western medicine is practiced in China, many prefer traditional Chinese medicine, which includes the use of herbal remedies, breathing exercises, special diets, and acupuncture.
    3
  • 23. Section 3 Review
    • What result did Mao’s population policy have?
      • a) China’s population remained stable.
      • b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose.
      • c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations exploded.
      • d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding.
    • How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture?
      • a) People across China can always communicate in writing.
      • b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel.
      • c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture.
      • d) The common writing system encourages conformity.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  • 24. Section 3 Review
    • What result did Mao’s population policy have?
      • a) China’s population remained stable.
      • b) The Chinese population shrank and standards of living rose.
      • c) Urban populations remained stable, but rural populations exploded.
      • d) China’s population exploded, resulting in overcrowding.
    • How does a common system of writing affect Chinese culture?
      • a) People across China can always communicate in writing.
      • b) The Chinese writing system encourages minorities to rebel.
      • c) The writing system has no effect upon Chinese culture.
      • d) The common writing system encourages conformity.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 3
  • 25. China’s Neighbors
    • How did Taiwan become an industrial power in Asia?
    • In what way does Hong Kong’s relationship with China make Hong Kong’s future uncertain?
    • How has the standard of living in Mongolia improved in recent years?
    4
  • 26. Taiwan: A World Apart
    • Chiang Kai-shek fled to Taiwan and set up a temporary provisional government that was repressive but allowed free enterprise to flourish.
    • The Nationalist government in Taipei was recognized as the legitimate government of China until 1971, when mainland China was admitted to the UN and Taiwan was expelled.
    • The Nationalists instituted a sweeping land-reform program to put land in the hands of tenant farmers and encouraged them to modernize their farming practices.
    • The Nationalists also encouraged industrial development, and with the help of foreign investment Taiwan experienced rapid growth.
    • Taiwan has in recent years concentrated on high-technology industries such as electronics, and rapid economic growth has led to a high standard of living.
    • Contact between China and Taiwan was renewed in 1987, but relations between the two remain tense.
    4
  • 27. Hong Kong Returns to China
    • The Growth of Hong Kong
    • In 1898, Britain forced China to agree to lease Hong Kong.
    • Hong Kong’s location and harbor helped the port become a center of trade.
    • Hong Kong also became a center of manufacturing, specializing in textiles and electrical appliances.
    • The exodus of refugees from China provided a vast supply of labor for the factories of Hong Kong.
    • Hong Kong’s trade is estimated at the same value as that of China.
    • The End of the Lease
    • Hong Kong developed with little interference from the mainland.
    • The British lease ended in 1997, and Hong Kong was returned to China.
    • Fears of political repression after the handover have not come to pass.
    • China follows a policy of “one country, two systems” to allow Hong Kong’s economy to flourish.
    4
  • 28. Mongolia
    • Mongolia is a vast, dry land, with desert in the south and steppe in the north.
    • Under Genghiz Khan and his descendants, the Mongols ruled a huge empire, but Mongolia eventually became a Chinese province.
    • Mongolia remained a province of China until 1911, ten years later adopted communism, and then held democratic elections in the early 1990s.
    • Herding still ranks as the major economic activity on Mongolia’s steppes, but the country is also developing some industries.
    • With industrialization, Mongolia has become more urban, with 63 percent of the population living in urban centers.
    • Many Mongolians still live as nomads, but are becoming increasingly connected to the world through modern technology.
    4
  • 29. Section 4 Review
    • Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic success?
      • a) rich natural resources
      • b) strategic location
      • c) vast oil deposits
      • d) foreign investment
    • Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in world trade?
      • a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor.
      • b) It was already a manufacturing center.
      • c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong.
      • d) Special Economic Zones were established in China.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 4
  • 30. Section 4 Review
    • Which of the following contributed to Taiwan’s economic success?
      • a) rich natural resources
      • b) strategic location
      • c) vast oil deposits
      • d) foreign investment
    • Which of the following helped Hong Kong become a leader in world trade?
      • a) It has a central location and a deep natural harbor.
      • b) It was already a manufacturing center.
      • c) China invested heavily in Hong Kong.
      • d) Special Economic Zones were established in China.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 4