Historical Overview <ul><li>China had the most influence in the region because it was the birthplace of Confucianism and Daoism, and was united into huge empires throughout its history. </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans colonized parts of the region, and after building up their militaries, extracted concessions, or exemptions from local law, from China. </li></ul><ul><li>After industrializing, Japan conquered a large portion of the region before it was defeated by Western allies in World War II and stripped of its colonial possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Several countries established communist governments after World War II, but non-communist countries, and China after it adopted some capitalist reforms, enjoyed rapid growth and prosperity under market economies. </li></ul>East and Southeast Asia were the sites of some of humanity’s earliest technological advances 1
Physical Characteristics <ul><li>The collision of tectonic plates has raised the Himalayas, Tibet, and a series of mountain chains in China. </li></ul><ul><li>Southeast Asia has a complex geography of mountain chains, river valleys, peninsulas, and islands. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pacific Ocean near Australia is dotted with volcanic islands that are part of the Ring of Fire. </li></ul>East Asia and the Pacific islands have widely varying physical features. 2
Climates <ul><li>Tropical wet, Tropical wet and dry stretch across Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and northern Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Humid subtropical covers southern portions of China, Korea and Japan, as well as the east coast of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Arid and Semiarid lie in northern China and Mongolia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean and Marine west coast stretch across southern Australia and New Zealand. </li></ul>Across much of the region, rain falls seasonally. 3
Ecosystems <ul><li>Tropical rain forests cover Indonesia and parts of Southeast Asia, China, and Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical grasslands and Temperate grasslands stretch across large parts of China and Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Desert and Desert scrub spread throughout parts of China and Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-latitude forests cover Japan and the Korean peninsula, New Zealand, and parts of China and Australia. </li></ul>This region has a rich variety of plants and animals in many different environments. 4
People and Cultures <ul><li>The wide variety of religions in East Asia reflects the region’s great cultural diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Although China is densely settled, most of its population is rural, while most people in sparsely-populated Australia live in cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily life is a blend of local culture and international influence. </li></ul>East and Southeast Asia are some of the most heavily populated parts of the world, while Australia is the world’s most sparsely inhabited continent. 5
Economies, Technology, and Environment <ul><li>Commercial farming and subsistence farming are predominant in China, Southeast Asia, and Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and trade are the most important industries in Japan, parts of China, and Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Livestock raising is practiced throughout much of Australia, while Nomadic herding characterizes much of China. </li></ul><ul><li>China is the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the region. </li></ul>Highly industrialized Japan and Australia contrast sharply with large populations of subsistence farmers in China and Southeast Asia. 6
Database <ul><li>China’s road and railroad networks are the largest in the region, and are often overcrowded. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan has almost as many roads and airports as China, and Japan’s railroad system includes the reliable bullet train, which travels at speeds greater than 160 miles per hour. </li></ul><ul><li>Australia has almost as large a road network as China, but far more airports, many of which are unpaved airstrips that service isolated communities in the country’s interior. </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand’s road network is very crowded, and Thailand has about half as many airports as China, even though its population and area are far smaller than China’s. </li></ul>7
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