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Chapter 22

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  • 1. World Geography Chapter 22 The Caucasus and Central Asia Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved.
  • 2. World Geography Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Section 1: The Caucasus Nations Section 2: The Central Asian Nations Chapter 22: The Caucasus and Central Asia
  • 3. The Caucasus Nations
    • What climatic and political conditions have influenced economic activities in Georgia?
    • How have political and religious differences with neighboring nations affected the people of Armenia?
    • How do demands for economic recovery conflict with environmental issues in Azerbaijan?
    1
  • 4. Georgia 1
  • 5. Georgia
    • The subtropical climate of the Black Sea coast supports the production of fruits, wine, tea, silk, and tobacco.
    • The continental climate of the east supports production of grains and vegetables.
    • The economy suffered after the fall of communism, and the GDP dropped by nearly three quarters.
    • Since the mid-1990s, the economy has improved through the development of its coal, petroleum, and natural gas industries.
    • Minority ethnic groups in the north have pressed for more autonomy, or independence.
    1
  • 6. Armenia
    • Armenia is a small, mountainous, land-locked country.
    • The Armenians are an ancient Indo-European people, and the majority of Armenians are Orthodox Christians.
    • At the beginning of World War I, the Turks attempted to deport the entire Armenian population, and about one third of Armenia’s total population died en route or were massacred in an act of genocide.
    • Inspired by nationalism and religion, Armenians have fought with the predominantly Islamic Azeris in neighboring Azerbaijan.
    • In the early 1990s, conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has forced many refugees to flee the area..
    1
  • 7. Azerbaijan
    • Economic Problems
    • Conflict with Armenia has led to severe economic problems.
    • Azerbaijan has vast oil reserves near the Caspian Sea, but foreign investors are hesitant because the area is prone to earthquakes.
    • Azerbaijan is a country without direct access to the Black or Mediterranean seas.
    • Attempts to build an oil pipeline have met with political resistance from Russia, which is wary of competition.
    • Environmental Change
    • Petroleum and related chemical industries have caused environmental problems.
    • The Caspian Sea has been badly polluted by sewage and petroleum wastes for decades..
    • Pollution has reduced the number of fish surviving in the Caspian Sea.
    • Other forms of pollution include air pollution and overuse of pesticides on farms.
    Almost half of the nation’s inhabitants live in rural areas, and the irrigated lowlands produce many agricultural goods. 1
  • 8. Section 1 Review
    • How did the fall of communism affect the economy of Georgia?
      • a) The economy grew quickly.
      • b) The economy grew slowly.
      • c) The economy suffered.
      • d) The economy was unaffected.
    • How has Russia affected the economy of Azerbaijan?
      • a) Russia gave large amounts of aid for development.
      • b) Russia tried to block the construction of a new oil pipeline.
      • c) Russia provided Azerbaijan with a large market for its goods.
      • d) Russia blockaded Azerbaijan.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  • 9. Section 1 Review
    • How did the fall of communism affect the economy of Georgia?
      • a) The economy grew quickly.
      • b) The economy grew slowly.
      • c) The economy suffered.
      • d) The economy was unaffected.
    • How has Russia affected the economy of Azerbaijan?
      • a) Russia gave large amounts of aid for development.
      • b) Russia tried to block the construction of a new oil pipeline.
      • c) Russia provided Azerbaijan with a large market for its goods.
      • d) Russia blockaded Azerbaijan.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 1
  • 10. The Central Asian Nations
    • What are some major physical characteristics of the Central Asian nations?
    • How does Islam influence the peoples of Central Asia?
    • How did the economic activities of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan change under the control of the former Soviet Union?
    • How has the excessive irrigation and the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers changed the region’s environment?
    2
  • 11. Physical Characteristics 2
  • 12. Physical Characteristics
    • The terrain varies considerably, from the mountains in the southeast to much flatter land in the west.
    • The climate of the region is mostly arid or semiarid, with precipitation ranging from 3 to 10 inches annually.
    • Two of Asia’s largest deserts, the Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum, lie to the east of the Caspian Sea.
    • In northern Kazakhstan, the steppes create a rich topsoil called chernozem.
    • Parts of the region have large reserves of oil and natural gas.
    2
  • 13. People and Culture
    • The Central Asian countries are home to a mixture of peoples, and Russians form a large minority in several countries of the region.
    • Kazaks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, and Kyrgyz speak related Turkic languages, while the Tajiks speak a language related to Farsi, the language of Iran.
    • Many people also speak Russian, once the official language.
    • Most people in the region are Muslims.
    • The connection between these people and the Arabian core of Islam has traditionally been weak, intensified when the region was incorporated into the Soviet Union.
    • Religious connections between Muslims in Central Asia and those in Southwest Asia are not strong, and Soviet control made this difference more pronounced.
    • Since independence from the Soviet Union, some national leaders have called for a more open adoption of Islamic rules as the basis for their governments, but popular support for Islamic fundamentalism remains low.
    2
  • 14. Economic Activities
    • Under the Soviet Union
    • People’s lives changed dramatically under Soviet control.
    • Nomadic peoples were forced to settle in villages and work on government farms.
    • Massive irrigation systems diverted waters from the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya rivers to grow cotton in the southern region.
    • The Soviet government encouraged industrial development in the cities.
    • Since Independence
    • Industrial development spurred the growth of many cities.
    • Kazakh industries process farm products and mineral resources, while Uzbekistan is home to the region’s only significant aviation factory.
    • A larger share of the region’s people continues to live in rural areas, where farming and herding predominate.
    • Tourism is becoming economically important in the cities along the ancient Silk Road.
    Many people in Central Asia traditionally were nomadic herders who lived in yurts, or portable round tents. 2
  • 15. Environmental Change
    • Rapid economic development resulted in environmental problems for the Central Asian countries, as elsewhere in the former Soviet Union.
    • Soviet planners developed a set of canals to divert fresh water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, so that cotton fields could be irrigated.
    • Although the region became a leading cotton producer, the project cause the Aral Sea to lose two thirds of its volume and become saltier.
    • The sand blown from the exposed seabed contributed to the desertification, or extension of the desert landscape, of the area.
    • Some experts predict that the entire Aral Sea will disappear by 2030.
    • Pesticides and fertilizers have left soil and water highly contaminated, and exposure to heavy doses of these chemicals has created serious health risks for workers.
    2
  • 16. Section 2 Review
    • Uzbekistan is the only country in the region to have which industry?
      • a) petroleum extraction
      • b) textile
      • c) aviation
      • d) electronics
    • How have irrigation projects affected the region?
      • a) The Aral Sea has lost two thirds of its volume.
      • b) The region has become a “breadbasket” for the world.
      • c) The region’s population has exploded with new food sources available.
      • d) Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral Sea heavily polluted.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2
  • 17. Section 2 Review
    • Uzbekistan is the only country in the region to have which industry?
      • a) petroleum extraction
      • b) textile
      • c) aviation
      • d) electronics
    • How have irrigation projects affected the region?
      • a) The Aral Sea has lost two thirds of its volume.
      • b) The region has become a “breadbasket” for the world.
      • c) The region’s population has exploded with new food sources available.
      • d) Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral Sea heavily polluted.
    Want to connect to the World Geography link for this section? Click Here! 2