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Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
Linux basic commands
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Linux basic commands

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  • 1. Linux basic commands Linux Basic Commands Linux operating system has a beautiful graphical interface which most of us will be using. It will be good to learn the basic commands in Linux to work interactively with the Linux operating system. Linux has a back end access know as shell. You can control and activate all the process in Linux from the shell. So it is very important to learn few basic commands to work with Linux operating system. First we will learn how to login for shell access. There are 7 terminals for Linux. 6 terminals are non - GUI and 1 terminal for GUI access. You can login to each terminal using Alt + Ctrl + F1 , F2, .. F7. Each terminals will request your username and password for login. If you want to use the shell in the graphical interface (GUI), press Alt + F2 and type "konsole". As a user you will have permission to access only your /home/user directory and other directories in it. *Note: user denotes the username. Basic commands in Linux Navigation Commands - [ pwd, cd ] pwd This command is used to find the current location or current working directory. Eg: [user@ws26 ~]$ pwd /home/user cd This command id used to change the directory. You can move from one directory to another using this command. Few examples are given below. Concider you have a directory structure /home/user/test/test1/ . test and test1 are directories in user home. Example 1: Consider you have a directory "test" in /home/user. Your current working directory is /home/user. You want to change your current working directory from /home/user to /home/user/test, use the following command [user@ws26 ~]$ pwd /home/user [user@ws26 ~]$ cd test [user@ws26 ~]$ pwd /home/user/test Example 2: If you want to move back to /home/user, use the following command [user@ws26 ~]$ cd .. [user@ws26 ~]$ pwd /home/user
  • 2. Example 3: To get back to the home directory of the user [user@ws26 ~]$ cd ~ [user@ws26 ~]$ pwd /home/user. Listing contents in a directory - [ ls, ls -l, ll ] ls This command is used to list all the files and directory in the current directory. Eg: [user@ws26 ~]$ ls 1152696870.jpg book OperaDownloads snapshot52.png image300.jpg Desktop test spiderman2.jpg ls -l or ll This command is also used to list all the files and directories. Here you will get more details about the files and directories present in the current directory. You will see the permission set, creation date, file / directory size etc. Eg: [user@ws26 ~]$ ls -l total 5 -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 33188 Dec 22 02:56 1152696870.jpg -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 17647 Aug 19 2006 534458.gif -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 26817 Aug 19 2006 534477.gif drwxrwxr-x 2 user user 4096 Jan 13 04:20 book drwx------ 3 user user 4096 Feb 4 02:34 Desktop Reading files in Linux - [ cat, more, less ] Cat This command is used to display the contents of a file. You can read the file contents using the cat command. Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ cat testfile this is a test file.. You can read me.. Less and More Both the less and more commands serve similar function. They are used to display file one screen at a time. You can press spacebar to continue reading the file. These commands are mainly used while reading large files. Example 1: [user@ws26 ~]$ less testfile this is a test file.. You can read me.. Example 2: [user@ws26 ~]$ more testfile this is a test file.. You can read me..
  • 3. Manipulating files - [ cp, mv, rm, mkdir ] cp This command is used to copy files/directory. Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ cp file1 directory1 This will copy the file1 into the directory1 cp -R This command is used to copy directories recursively (copy all the files and folders inside the directory). Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ cp directory2 directory1 This will copy the whole directory2 into directory1 mv This command is used to move the file or directory. Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ mv directory2 directory1 This will move the whole directory2 into directory1 rm This command is used to remove or delete files and directories. Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ rm directory2 This will delete the directory - directory2 mkdir This command is used to create a new directory Example: [user@ws26 ~]$ mkdir directory3 This will create a new directory - directory3. create new file in Linux - vi editor The Vi editor is mainly used to create new files in Linux. Example: vi testfile The command will open a new window and you can insert text to it. To begin press "i". After adding your contect press ":wq" to save the file. anacron - runs commands periodically anacron - A cron-like program that can run jobs lost during downtime.
  • 4. arch - print machine architecture at - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution at - execute commands at a later time at - Job spooling tools. at-spi - Assistive Technology Service Provider Interface at.allow [at] - determine who can submit jobs via at or batch at.deny [at] - determine who can submit jobs via at or batch atd - run jobs queued for later execution atq - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution atrm - queue, examine or delete jobs for later execution arp - manipulate the system ARP cache cal (1) - displays a calendar cal (1p) - print a calendar cat (1) - concatenate files and print on the standard output cat (1p) - concatenate and print files cdrecord (1) - record audio or data Compact Disks or Digital Versatile Disks from a master cdrecord (rpm) - A command line CD/DVD recording program. chage (1) - change user password expiry information chattr (1) - change file attributes on a Linux second extended file system chfn (1) - change your finger information chgrp (1) - change group ownership chgrp (1p) - change the file group ownership chkconfig (8) - updates and queries runlevel information for system services chkconfig (rpm) - A system tool for maintaining the /etc/rc*.d hierarchy. chmod (1) - change file access permissions chmod (1p) - change the file modes chmod (2) - change permissions of a file chmod (3p) - change mode of a file chown (1) - change file owner and group chown (1p) - change the file ownership chown (2) - change ownership of a file chown (3p) - change owner and group of a file chpasswd (8) - update passwords in batch mode chroot (1) - run command or interactive shell with special root directory chroot (2) - change root directory
  • 5. chrt (1) - manipulate real-time attributes of a process chsh (1) - change your login shell chvt (1) - change foreground virtual terminal cksum (1) - checksum and count the bytes in a file cksum (1p) - write file checksums and sizes clear (1) - clear the terminal screen cmp (1) - compare two files cmp (1p) - compare two files col (1) - filter reverse line feeds from input colcrt (1) - filter nroff output for CRT previewing colrm (1) - remove columns from a file column (1) - columnate lists comm (1) - compare two sorted files line by line comm (1p) - select or reject lines common to two files Compress::Zlib (3pm) - Interface to zlib compression library cp (1) - copy files and directories cp (1p) - copy files cpio (1) - copy files to and from archives cpio (rpm) - A GNU archiving program. cpio.h [cpio] (0p) - cpio archive values cpp (1) - The C Preprocessor cpp (rpm) - The C Preprocessor. crontab (1) - maintain crontab files for individual users (ISC Cron V4.1) crontab (1p) - schedule periodic background work crontab (5) - tables for driving cron (ISC Cron V4.1) csplit (1) - split a file into sections determined by context lines csplit (1p) - split files based on context ctags (1p) - create a tags file (DEVELOPMENT, FORTRAN) cupsd (8) - common unix printing system daemon cupsd.conf [cupsd] (5) - server configuration file for cups cut (1) - remove sections from each line of files cut (1p) - cut out selected fields of each line of a file
  • 6. Index - D date (1) - print or set the system date and time date (1p) - write the date and time dd (1) - convert and copy a file dd (1p) - convert and copy a file deallocvt (1) - deallocate unused virtual consoles debugfs (8) - ext2/ext3 file system debugger depmod (8) - program to generate modules.dep and map files depmod.conf [depmod] (5) - Configuration file/directory for depmod depmod.d [depmod] (5) - Configuration file/directory for depmod devdump [isoinfo] (8) - Utility programs for dumping and verifying iso9660 images df (1) - report file system disk space usage df (1p) - report free disk space diff (1) - find differences between two files diff (1p) - compare two files diff-jars (1) - output the differences between two JAR files diff3 (1) - find differences between three files dig (1) - DNS lookup utility dir (1) - list directory contents dircolors (1) - color setup for ls dirname (1) - strip non-directory suffix from file name dirname (1p) - return the directory portion of a pathname dirname (3p) - report the parent directory name of a file pathname dirname [basename] (3) - Parse pathname components dmesg (8) - print or control the kernel ring buffer dnsdomainname [hostname] (1) - show the system's DNS domain name doexec (1) - run an executable with an arbitrary argv[0] domainname [hostname] (1) - show or set the system's NIS/YP domain name dosfsck (8) - check and repair MS-DOS file systems du (1) - estimate file space usage du (1p) - estimate file space usage dump (8) - ext2/3 filesystem backup dump (rpm) - Programs for backing up and restoring ext2/ext3 filesystems
  • 7. dumpe2fs (8) - dump ext2/ext3 filesystem information dumpkeys (1) - dump keyboard translation tables Index - E e2label (8) - Change the label on an ext2/ext3 filesystem echo (1) - display a line of text echo (1p) - write arguments to standard output echo [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) edquota (8) - edit user quotas egrep [grep] (1) - print lines matching a pattern eject (1) - eject removable media eject (rpm) - A program that ejects removable media using software control. enable [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) Env (3pm) - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays env (1) - run a program in a modified environment env (1p) - set the environment for command invocation envsubst (1) - substitutes environment variables in shell format strings esd (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esd-config (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esd-config (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdcat (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdctl (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esddsp (1) - attempt to reroute audio device to esd esddsp [esdplay] (1) - attempt to reroute audio device to esd esdmon (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdrec (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdsample (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon ex (1p) - text editor expand (1) - convert tabs to spaces expand (1p) - convert tabs to spaces e2label (8) - Change the label on an ext2/ext3 filesystem echo (1) - display a line of text echo (1p) - write arguments to standard output echo [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1)
  • 8. edquota (8) - edit user quotas egrep [grep] (1) - print lines matching a pattern eject (1) - eject removable media eject (rpm) - A program that ejects removable media using software control. enable [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) Env (3pm) - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays env (1) - run a program in a modified environment env (1p) - set the environment for command invocation envsubst (1) - substitutes environment variables in shell format strings esd (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esd-config (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esd-config (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdcat (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdctl (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esddsp (1) - attempt to reroute audio device to esd esddsp [esdplay] (1) - attempt to reroute audio device to esd esdmon (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdrec (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon esdsample (1) - The Enlightened Sound Daemon ex (1p) - text editor expand (1) - convert tabs to spaces expand (1p) - convert tabs to spaces expr (1) - evaluate expressions expr (1p) - evaluate arguments as an expression Index - F factor (1) - factor numbers false (1) - do nothing, unsuccessfully false (1p) - return false value fc-cache (1) - build font information cache files fc-list (1) - list available fonts fdformat (8) - Low-level formats a floppy disk fdisk (8) - Partition table manipulator for Linux fetchmail (1) - fetch mail from a POP, IMAP, ETRN, or ODMR-capable server fetchmail (rpm) - A remote mail retrieval and forwarding utility
  • 9. fgconsole (1) - print the number of the active VT fgrep [grep] (1) - print lines matching a pattern File::Basename (3pm) - Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix File::Compare (3pm) - Compare files or filehandles File::Copy (3pm) - Copy files or filehandles File::DosGlob (3pm) - DOS like globbing and then some File::Find (3pm) - Traverse a directory tree File::Glob (3pm) - Perl extension for BSD glob routine File::Path (3pm) - create or remove directory trees File::Spec (3pm) - portably perform operations on file names File::Spec::Cygwin (3pm) - methods for Cygwin file specs File::Spec::Epoc (3pm) - methods for Epoc file specs File::Spec::Functions (3pm) - portably perform operations on file names File::Spec::Mac (3pm) - File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic) File::Spec::OS2 (3pm) - methods for OS/2 file specs File::Spec::Unix (3pm) - File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules File::Spec::VMS (3pm) - methods for VMS file specs File::Spec::Win32 (3pm) - methods for Win32 file specs File::Temp (3pm) - return name and handle of a temporary file safely File::stat (3pm) - by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions file (1) - determine file type file (1p) - determine file type file (rpm) - A utility for determining file types. file-roller (rpm) - File Roller is a tool for viewing and creating archives find (1) - search for files in a directory hierarchy find (1p) - find files finger (1) - user information lookup program finger (rpm) - The finger client. fmt (1) - simple optimal text formatter fold (1) - wrap each input line to fit in specified width fold (1p) - filter for folding lines formail (1) - mail (re)formatter free (1) - Display amount of free and used memory in the system free (3p) - free allocated memory free [malloc] (3) - Allocate and free dynamic memory fsck (8) - check and repair a Linux file system ftp (1) - Internet file transfer program ftp (rpm) - The standard UNIX FTP (File Transfer Protocol) client. fuser (1) - identify processes using files or sockets fuser (1p) - list process IDs of all processes that have one or more files open
  • 10. Index - G gawk (1) - pattern scanning and processing language gawk (rpm) - The GNU version of the awk text processing utility. gawk [pgawk] (1) - pattern scanning and processing language getent (1) - get entries from administrative database getkeycodes (8) - print kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table gpasswd (1) - administer the /etc/group file gpg (1) - encryption and signing tool gpg-pubkey (rpm) - gpg(CentOS-5 Key (CentOS 5 Official Signing Key) <centos-5-key@centos.org>) gpg-pubkey (rpm) - gpg(Stu Tomlinson <stu@nosnilmot.com>) gpgv (1) - signature verification tool gpm (8) - a cut and paste utility and mouse server for virtual consoles gpm (rpm) - A mouse server for the Linux console. gpm-root (1) - a default handler for gpm, used to draw menus on the root window gprof (1) - display call graph profile data grep (1) - print lines matching a pattern grep (1p) - search a file for a pattern grep (rpm) - The GNU versions of grep pattern matching utilities. groff (1) - front-end for the groff document formatting system groff (7) - a short reference for the GNU roff language groff (rpm) - A document formatting system. groffer (1) - display groff files and man~pages on X and tty groupadd (8) - create a new group groupdel (8) - delete a group groupmod (8) - modify a group groups (1) - print the groups a user is in grpck (8) - verify integrity of group files grpconv [pwconv] (8) - convert to and from shadow passwords and groups gs (1) - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer) gunzip [gzip] (1) - compress or expand files gzexe (1) - compress executable files in place gzip (1) - compress or expand files gzip (rpm) - The GNU data compression program.
  • 11. Index - H halt (8) - stop the system hdparm (8) - get/set hard disk parameters hdparm (rpm) - A utility for displaying and/or setting hard disk parameters. head (1) - output the first part of files head (1p) - copy the first part of files hexdump (1) - ascii, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump host (1) - DNS lookup utility host.conf [host] (5) - resolver configuration file hostid (1) - print the numeric identifier for the current host hostname (1) - show or set the system's host name htdigest (1) - manage user files for digest authentication hwclock (8) - query and set the hardware clock (RTC) Index - I iconv (1) - Convert encoding of given files from one encoding to another iconv (1p) - codeset conversion iconv (3) - perform character set conversion iconv (3p) - codeset conversion function iconv.h [iconv] (0p) - codeset conversion facility id (1) - print user identity id (1p) - return user identity ifconfig (8) - configure a network interface info (1) - read Info documents info (5) - readable online documentation info (rpm) - A stand-alone TTY-based reader for GNU texinfo documentation. init (8) - process control initialization insmod (8) - simple program to insert a module into the Linux Kernel install (1) - copy files and set attributes install-catalog (8) - Manage a SGML or XML centralized catalog install-datebook (1) - installs a new datebook entry onto your Palm handheld install-expenses (1) - Install an expense record from various parameters and arguments passed at connection time install-hinote (1) - installs a new Hi-Note entry onto your Palm handheld
  • 12. install-info (1) - update info/dir entries install-memo (1) - installs a new Memo Pad entry onto your Palm handheld install-netsync (1) - reads or sets the Network Preferences information on a Palm Device install-todo (1) - Updates the Palm ToDo list with one new entry install-user (1) - reads or sets a Palm User and UserID on a Palm Device ipcrm (1p) - remove an XSI message queue, semaphore set, or shared memory segment identifier ipcrm (8) - remove a message queue, semaphore set or shared memory id ipcs (1p) - report XSI interprocess communication facilities status ipcs (8) - provide information on ipc facilities iptables (8) - administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT iptables (rpm) - Tools for managing Linux kernel packet filtering capabilities. iptables-ipv6 (rpm) - IPv6 support for iptables. iptables-restore (8) - Restore IP Tables iptables-save (8) - Save IP Tables iptables-restore (8) - Restore IP Tables iptables-save (8) - Save IP Tables isodump (5) - format of IEEE 1394 isochronous packets dump file isodump [isoinfo] (8) - Utility programs for dumping and verifying iso9660 images isoinfo (8) - Utility programs for dumping and verifying iso9660 images isosize (8) - outputs the length of a iso9660 file system isovfy [isoinfo] (8) - Utility programs for dumping and verifying iso9660 images Index - K kbd_mode (1) - report or set the keyboard mode kbdrate (8) - reset the keyboard repeat rate and delay time kill (1) - terminate a process kill (1p) - terminate or signal processes kill (2) - send signal to a process kill (3p) - send a signal to a process or a group of processes kill [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) killall (1) - kill processes by name klogd (8) - Kernel Log Daemon kudzu (8) - detects and configures new and/or changed hardware on a system kudzu (rpm) - The CentOS hardware probing tool.
  • 13. Index - L last (1) - show listing of last logged in users lastb [last] (1) - show listing of last logged in users lastlog (8) - reports the most recent login of all users or of a given user ld (1) - The GNU linker ld (8) - linux.so* - dynamic linker/loader ld.so [ld] (8) - linux.so* - dynamic linker/loader ldd (1) - print shared library dependencies less (1) - opposite of more less (3pm) - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler less (rpm) - A text file browser similar to more, but better. lesskey (1) - specify key bindings for less lftp (1) - Sophisticated file transfer program lftp (rpm) - A sophisticated file transfer program lftpget (1) - get a file with lftp(1) link (1) - call the link function to create a link to a file link (1p) - call link function link (2) - make a new name for a file link (3p) - link to a file ln (1) - make links between files ln (1p) - link files loadkeys (1) - load keyboard translation tables Locale::Constants (3pm) - constants for Locale codes Locale::Country (3pm) - ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166) Locale::Currency (3pm) - ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217) Locale::Language (3pm) - ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639) Locale::Maketext (3pm) - framework for localization Locale::Script (3pm) - ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924) locale (1) - Get locale - specific information locale (1p) - get locale - specific information locale (3pm) - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations locale (5) - Describes a locale definition file locale (7) - Description of multi-language support locale.h [locale] (0p) - category macros locate (1) - find files by name lockfile (1) - conditional semaphore-file creator
  • 14. logger (1) - a shell command interface to the syslog(3) system log module logger (1p) - log messages login (1) - sign on login (3) - write utmp and wtmp entries login.defs [login] (5) - shadow password suite configuration logname (1) - print user's login name logname (1p) - return the user's login name logrotate (8) - rotates, compresses, and mails system logs logrotate (rpm) - Rotates, compresses, removes and mails system log files. look (1) - display lines beginning with a given string look [Search::Dict] (3pm) - search for key in dictionary file losetup (8) - set up and control loop devices lpadmin (8) - configure cups printers and classes lpinfo (8) - show available devices or drivers lpmove (8) - move a job or all jobs to a new destination lpq [lpq-cups] (1) - show printer queue status lpr [lpr-cups] (1) - print files lprm [lprm-cups] (1) - cancel print jobs lpstat [lpstat-cups] (1) - print cups status information ls (1) - list directory contents ls (1p) - list directory contents lsattr (1) - list file attributes on a Linux second extended file system lspci (8) - list all PCI devices lsmod (8) - program to show the status of modules in the Linux Kernel lsusb (8) - list USB devices mail (1) - send and receive mail mailq (1) - print the mail queue mailstats (8) - display mail statistics mailto.conf [mailto] (5) - configuration file for cups email notifier
  • 15. make (1) - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs make (1p) - maintain, update, and regenerate groups of programs (DEVELOPMENT) make (rpm) - A GNU tool which simplifies the build process for users. makemap (8) - create database maps for sendmail man (1) - format and display the on-line manual pages man (1p) - display system documentation man (7) - macros to format man pages man (rpm) - A set of documentation tools: man, apropos and whatis. man-pages (rpm) - Man (manual) pages from the Linux Documentation Project. man.config [man] (5) - configuration data for man mattrib (1) - change MSDOS file attribute flags mbadblocks (1) - tests a floppy disk, and marks the bad blocks in the FAT mcat (1) - dump raw disk image mcd (1) - change MSDOS directory mcopy (1) - copy MSDOS files to/from Unix md5sum (1) - compute and check MD5 message digest mdeltree (1) - recursively delete an MSDOS directory and its contents mdir (1) - display an MSDOS directory mdu (1) - display the amount of space occupied by an MSDOS directory mesg (1) - control write access to your terminal mesg (1p) - permit or deny messages mformat (1) - add an MSDOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk minfo (1) - print the parameters of a MSDOS filesystem mkdir (1) - make directories mkdir (1p) - make directories mkdir (2) - create a directory mkdir (3p) - make a directory mkdosfs (8) - create an MS-DOS file system under Linux mke2fs (8) - create an ext2/ext3 filesystem mke2fs [mkfs] (8) - create an ext2/ext3 filesystem mke2fs.conf [mke2fs] (5) - Configuration file for mke2fs
  • 16. mkfifo (1) - make FIFOs (named pipes) mkfifo (1p) - make FIFO special files mkfifo (3) - make a FIFO special file (a named pipe) mkfifo (3p) - make a FIFO special file mkfs (8) - build a Linux file system mkisofs (8) - create an hybrid ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes mkisofs (rpm) - Creates an image of an ISO9660 filesystem. mklost+found (8) - create a lost+found directory on a mounted Linux second extended file system mkmanifest (1) - makes list of file names and their DOS 8+3 equivalent mknod (1) - make block or character special files mknod (2) - create a special or ordinary file mknod (3p) - make a directory, a special file, or a regular file mkswap (8) - set up a Linux swap area mktemp (1) - make temporary filename (unique) mktemp (3) - make a unique temporary filename mktemp (3p) - make a unique filename (LEGACY) mktemp (rpm) - A small utility for safely making /tmp files. mlabel (1) - make an MSDOS volume label mmd (1) - make an MSDOS subdirectory mmount (1) - mount an MSDOS disk mmove (1) - move or rename an MSDOS file or subdirectory modinfo (8) - program to show information about a Linux Kernel module modprobe (8) - program to add and remove modules from the Linux Kernel modprobe.conf [modprobe] (5) - Configuration file/directory for modprobe modprobe.d [modprobe] (5) - Configuration file/directory for modprobe more (1) - file perusal filter for crt viewing more (1p) - display files on a page-by-page basis mount (2) - mount and unmount filesystems mount (8) - mount a file system mount.cifs [mount] (8) - mount using the Common Internet File System (CIFS) mount.nfs [mount] (8) - mount a Network File System mount.nfs4 [mount] (8) - mount a Network File System mpartition (1) - partition an MSDOS hard disk mrd (1) - remove an MSDOS subdirectory mren (1) - rename an existing MSDOS file mshowfat (1) - shows FAT clusters allocated to file
  • 17. mtools (1) - utilities to access DOS disks in Unix mtools (rpm) - Programs for accessing MS-DOS disks without mounting the disks. mtools.conf [mtools] (5) - mtools configuration files mtoolstest (1) - tests and displays the configuration mtype (1) - display contents of an MSDOS file mv (1) - move (rename) files mv (1p) - move files mzip (1) - change protection mode and eject disk on Zip/Jaz drive netstat (8) - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships newaliases (1) - rebuild the data base for the mail aliases file newgrp (1) - log in to a new group newgrp (1p) - change to a new group newusers (8) - update and create new users in batch nfsd (7) - special filesystem for controlling Linux NFS server nfsstat (8) - list NFS statistics nice (1) - run a program with modified scheduling priority nice (1p) - invoke a utility with an altered nice value nice (2) - change process priority nice (3p) - change the nice value of a process nm (1) - list symbols from object files nm (1p) - write the name list of an object file (DEVELOPMENT) nohup (1) - run a command immune to hangups, with output to a non-tty nohup (1p) - invoke a utility immune to hangups nslookup (1) - query Internet name servers interactively nsupdate (8) - Dynamic DNS update utility Index - P passwd (1) - update a user's authentication tokens(s) passwd (5) - password file passwd (rpm) - The passwd utility for setting/changing passwords using PAM passwd [sslpasswd] (1ssl) - compute password hashes paste (1) - merge lines of files paste (1p) - merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files
  • 18. patch (1) - apply a diff file to an original patch (1p) - apply changes to files patch (rpm) - The GNU patch command, for modifying/upgrading files. pathchk (1) - check whether file names are valid or portable pathchk (1p) - check pathnames ping (8) - send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts pinky (1) - lightweight finger pmap (1) - report memory map of a process portmap (8) - DARPA port to RPC program number mapper portmap (rpm) - A program which manages RPC connections. poweroff [halt] (8) - stop the system pppd (8) - Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon pr (1) - convert text files for printing pr (1p) - print files praliases (8) - display system mail aliases printenv (1) - print all or part of environment printf (1) - format and print data printf (1p) - write formatted output printf (3) - formatted output conversion printf (3p) - print formatted output printf [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) ps (1) - report a snapshot of the current processes ps (1p) - report process status ptx (1) - produce a permuted index of file contents pwck (8) - verify integrity of password files pwconv (8) - convert to and from shadow passwords and groups pwd (1) - print name of current/working directory pwd (1p) - return working directory name pwd [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) pwd.h [pwd] (0p) - password structure python (1) - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language python (rpm) - An interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language. python-elementtree (rpm) - Fast XML parser and writer python-numeric (rpm) - Numerical Extension to Python python-sqlite (rpm) - Python bindings for sqlite. python-urlgrabber (rpm) - A high-level cross-protocol url-grabber
  • 19. perl (1) - Practical Extraction and Report Language perl (rpm) - The Perl programming language Index - Q quota (1) - display disk usage and limits quota (rpm) - System administration tools for monitoring users' disk usage. quotacheck (8) - scan a filesystem for disk usage, create, check and repair quota files quotaon (8) - turn filesystem quotas on and off quotaoff [quotaon] (8) - turn filesystem quotas on and off quotastats (8) - Program to query quota statistics rcp (1) - remote file copy rdate (1) - get the time via the network rdate (rpm) - Tool for getting the date/time from a remote machine. rdev (8) - query/set image root device, RAM disk size, or video mode rdist (1) - remote file distribution client program rdist (rpm) - Maintains identical copies of files on multiple machines. rdistd [rdist] (8) - remote file distribution server program readcd (1) - read or write data Compact Discs readelf (1) - Displays information about ELF files readlink (1) - display value of a symbolic link readlink (2) - read value of a symbolic link readlink (3p) - read the contents of a symbolic link reboot (2) - reboot or enable/disable Ctrl-Alt-Del reboot [halt] (8) - stop the system rename (1) - Rename files rename (2) - change the name or location of a file rename (3p) - rename a file renice (8) - alter priority of running processes repquota (8) - summarize quotas for a filesystem reset [tput] (1) - initialize a terminal or query terminfo database reset [tset] (1) - terminal initialization resize2fs (8) - ext2/ext3 file system resizer
  • 20. restore (8) - restore files or file systems from backups made with dump rev (1) - reverse lines of a file rexec (3) - return stream to a remote command rlogin (1) - remote login rm (1) - remove files or directories rm (1p) - remove directory entries rmail (8) - handle remote mail received via uucp rmdir (1) - remove empty directories rmdir (1p) - remove directories rmdir (2) - delete a directory rmdir (3p) - remove a directory rmmod (8) - simple program to remove a module from the Linux Kernel route (8) - show / manipulate the IP routing table rpcinfo (8) - report RPC information rpm (8) - RPM Package Manager rpm (rpm) - The RPM package management system. rpm-libs (rpm) - Libraries for manipulating RPM packages. rpm-python (rpm) - Python bindings for apps which will manipulate RPM packages. rsh (1) - remote shell rsh (rpm) - Clients for remote access commands (rsh, rlogin, rcp). rsh [ksh] (1) - shell, the rsync (1) - faster, flexible replacement for rcp rsync (rpm) - A program for synchronizing files over a network. scanimage (1) - scan an image scp (1) - secure copy (remote file copy program) script (1) - make typescript of terminal session sdiff (1) - find differences between two files and merge interactively sed (1) - stream editor for filtering and transforming text sed (1p) - stream editor sed (rpm) - A GNU stream text editor. sendmail (8) - an electronic mail transport agent sendmail (rpm) - A widely used Mail Transport Agent (MTA). sensors (1) - printing sensors information sensors-detect (8) - detect hardware monitoring chips sensors.conf [sensors] (5) - libsensors configuration file
  • 21. seq (1) - print a sequence of numbers setkeycodes (8) - load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries setleds (1) - set the keyboard leds setmetamode (1) - define the keyboard meta key handling setquota (8) - set disk quotas setsid (2) - creates a session and sets the process group ID setsid (3p) - create session and set process group ID setsid (8) - run a program in a new session setterm (1) - set terminal attributes sftp (1) - secure file transfer program sftp-server (8) - SFTP server subsystem sh (1p) - shell, the standard command language interpreter sha1sum (1) - compute and check SHA1 message digest showkey (1) - examine the codes sent by the keyboard showmount (8) - show mount information for an NFS server shred (1) - overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it shutdown (2) - shut down part of a full-duplex connection shutdown (3p) - shut down socket send and receive operations shutdown (8) - bring the system down size (1) - list section sizes and total size skill (1) - send a signal or report process status slabtop (1) - display kernel slab cache information in real time slattach (8) - attach a network interface to a serial line sleep (1) - delay for a specified amount of time sleep (1p) - suspend execution for an interval sleep (3) - Sleep for the specified number of seconds sleep (3p) - suspend execution for an interval of time snice [skill] (1) - send a signal or report process status sort (1) - sort lines of text files sort (1p) - sort, merge, or sequence check text files sort (3pm) - perl pragma to control sort() behaviour
  • 22. split (1) - split a file into pieces split (1p) - split files into pieces ssh (1) - OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh [slogin] (1) - OpenSSH SSH client (remote login program) ssh-add (1) - adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent ssh-agent (1) - authentication agent ssh-copy-id (1) - install your identity.pub in a remote machine's authorized_keys ssh-keygen (1) - authentication key generation, management and conversion ssh-keyscan (1) - gather ssh public keys ssh-keysign (8) - ssh helper program for hostbased authentication ssh-add (1) - adds RSA or DSA identities to the authentication agent ssh-agent (1) - authentication agent ssh-keygen (1) - authentication key generation, management and conversion ssh-keyscan (1) - gather ssh public keys sshd (8) - OpenSSH SSH daemon stat (1) - display file or file system status stat (2) - get file status stat (3p) - get file status strings (1) - print the strings of printable characters in files strings (1p) - find printable strings in files strings.h [strings] (0p) - string operations strip (1) - Discard symbols from object files strip (1p) - remove unnecessary information from executable files (DEVELOPMENT) stty (1) - change and print terminal line settings stty (1p) - set the options for a terminal stty [unimplemented] (2) - unimplemented system calls su (1) - run a shell with substitute user and group IDs sudo (8) - execute a command as another user sudo (rpm) - Allows restricted root access for specified users. sudo [sudoedit] (8) - execute a command as another user sum (1) - checksum and count the blocks in a file swapoff [swapon] (2) - start/stop swapping to file/device swapoff [swapon] (8) - enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping swapon (2) - start/stop swapping to file/device swapon (8) - enable/disable devices and files for paging and swapping sync (1) - flush file system buffers sync (2) - commit buffer cache to disk sync (3p) - schedule file system updates sync (8) - synchronize data on disk with memory
  • 23. sysctl (2) - read/write system parameters sysctl (8) - configure kernel parameters at runtime sysctl.conf [sysctl] (5) - sysctl(8) preload/configuration file sysklogd (8) - Linux system logging utilities sysklogd (rpm) - System logging and kernel message trapping daemons. Index - T tac (1) - concatenate and print files in reverse tail (1) - output the last part of files tail (1p) - copy the last part of a file tailf (1) - follow the growth of a log file talk (1) - talk to another user talk (1p) - talk to another user talk (rpm) - Talk client for one-on-one Internet chatting. tar (1) - The GNU version of the tar archiving utility tar (rpm) - A GNU file archiving program tar.h [tar] (0p) - extended tar definitions taskset (1) - retrieve or set a processes's CPU affinity tcpd (8) - access control facility for internet services tcpdump (8) - dump traffic on a network tcpdump (rpm) - A network traffic monitoring tool. tcpslice (8) - extract pieces of and/or glue together tcpdump files tee (1) - read from standard input and write to standard output and files tee (1p) - duplicate standard input tee (2) - duplicating pipe content telinit [init] (8) - process control initialization telnet (1) - user interface to the TELNET protocol telnet (rpm) - The client program for the telnet remote login protocol. Test (3pm) - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts Test [Mail::SpamAssassin::Plugin::Test] (3pm) - test plugin Test::Builder (3pm) - Backend for building test libraries Test::Builder::Module (3pm) - Base class for test modules Test::Builder::Tester (3pm) - test testsuites that have been built with Test::Builder Test::Builder::Tester::Color (3pm) - turn on colour in Test::Builder::Tester Test::Harness (3pm) - Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics Test::Harness::Assert (3pm) - simple assert Test::Harness::Iterator (3pm) - Internal Test::Harness Iterator
  • 24. Test::Harness::Point (3pm) - object for tracking a single test point Test::Harness::Straps (3pm) - detailed analysis of test results Test::Harness::TAP (3pm) - Documentation for the TAP format Test::More (3pm) - yet another framework for writing test scripts Test::Simple (3pm) - Basic utilities for writing tests Test::Tutorial (3pm) - A tutorial about writing really basic tests test (1) - check file types and compare values test (1p) - evaluate expression test [builtins] (1) - bash built-in commands, see bash(1) Time::HiRes (3pm) - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers Time::Local (3pm) - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time Time::gmtime (3pm) - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function Time::localtime (3pm) - by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function Time::tm (3pm) - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime time (1) - time a simple command or give resource usage time (1p) - time a simple command time (2) - get time in seconds time (3p) - get time time (7) - overview of time time (rpm) - A GNU utility for monitoring a program's use of system resources. time.conf [time] (5) - configuration file for the pam_time module time.h [time] (0p) - time types tload (1) - graphic representation of system load average tmpwatch (8) - removes files which haven't been accessed for a period of time tmpwatch (rpm) - A utility for removing files based on when they were last accessed. top (1) - display Linux tasks touch (1) - change file timestamps touch (1p) - change file access and modification times tr (1) - translate or delete characters tr (1p) - translate characters tracepath (8) - traces path to a network host discovering MTU along this path traceroute (8) - print the route packets trace to network host traceroute (rpm) - Traces the route taken by packets over an IPv4/IPv6 network troff (1) - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system true (1) - do nothing, successfully true (1p) - return true value tset (1) - terminal initialization tsort (1) - perform topological sort tsort (1p) - topological sort tty (1) - print the file name of the terminal connected to standard input tty (1p) - return user's terminal name
  • 25. tty (4) - controlling terminal tty ioctl [tty_ioctl] (4) - ioctls for terminals and serial lines tune2fs (8) - adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3 filesystems tunelp (8) - set various parameters for the lp device umount (8) - unmount file systems umount [mount] (2) - mount and unmount filesystems umount.cifs [umount] (8) - for normal, non-root users, to unmount their own Common Internet File System (CIFS) mounts umount.nfs [umount] (8) - unmount a Network File System umount.nfs4 [umount] (8) - unmount a Network File System uname (1) - print system information uname (1p) - return system name uname (2) - get name and information about current kernel uname (3p) - get the name of the current system unexpand (1) - convert spaces to tabs unexpand (1p) - convert spaces to tabs unicode_start (1) - put keyboard and console in unicode mode unicode_stop (1) - revert keyboard and console from unicode mode uniq (1) - report or omit repeated lines uniq (1p) - report or filter out repeated lines in a file uptime (1) - Tell how long the system has been running useradd (8) - create a new user or update default new user information userdel (8) - delete a user account and related files usermod (8) - modify a user account users (1) - print the user names of users currently logged in to the current host usleep (1) - sleep some number of microseconds usleep (3) - suspend execution for microsecond intervals usleep (3p) - suspend execution for an interval uudecode (1p) - decode a binary file uuencode (1p) - encode a binary file uuidgen (1) - command-line utility to create a new UUID value vdir (1) - list directory contents vi (1p) - screen-oriented (visual) display editor
  • 26. vim (1) - Vi IMproved, a programmers text editor vim-common (rpm) - The common files needed by any version of the VIM editor. vim-enhanced (rpm) - A version of the VIM editor which includes recent enhancements. vim-minimal (rpm) - A minimal version of the VIM editor. vmstat (8) - Report virtual memory statistics volname (1) - return volume name Index - W w (1) - Show who is logged on and what they are doing warnquota (8) - send mail to users over quota watch (1) - execute a program periodically, showing output fullscreen wc (1) - print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files wc (1p) - word, line, and byte or character count Wget [wget] (1) - The non-interactive network downloader wget (rpm) - A utility for retrieving files using the HTTP or FTP protocols. whatis (1) - search the whatis database for complete words whereis (1) - locate the binary, source, and manual page files for a command which (1) - shows the full path of (shell) commands which (rpm) - Displays where a particular program in your path is located. who (1) - show who is logged on who (1p) - display who is on the system whoami (1) - print effective userid write (1) - send a message to another user write (1p) - write to another user write (2) - write to a file descriptor write (3p) - write on a file Index - Y yacc (1p) - yet another compiler compiler (DEVELOPMENT) yes (1) - output a string repeatedly until killed ypbind (8) - NIS binding process ypbind (rpm) - The NIS daemon which binds NIS clients to an NIS domain.
  • 27. ypcat (1) - print values of all keys in a NIS database ypmatch (1) - print the values of one or more keys from a NIS map yppasswd (1) - change your password in the NIS database yppoll (8) - return version and master server of a NIS map ypset (8) - bind ypbind to a particular NIS server yptest (8) - test NIS configuration ypwhich (1) - return name of NIS server or map master Index - Z zcat (1p) - expand and concatenate data zcat [gzip] (1) - compress or expand files zcmp [zdiff] (1) - compare compressed files zdiff (1) - compare compressed files zdump (8) - time zone dumper zforce (1) - force a '.gz' extension on all gzip files zgrep (1) - search possibly compressed files for a regular expression zic (8) - time zone compiler zless (1) - file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text zmore (1) - file perusal filter for crt viewing of compressed text znew (1) - recompress .Z files to .gz files http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/LinuxTutorialSysAdmin.html

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