The Executive Branch
(Just a Few) Reasons
Why Teddy Roosevelt is
Awesome conservationist,
• President, cowboy, writer, naturalist,
•
•
•
•
•
•
...
The President’s Job
• Chief of State: he represents the
United States and its citizens to the
world
• Chief Executive: is ...
• Chief Diplomat: on the world stage,
he speaks on behalf of the nation
• Commander in Chief: head of the
military and con...
• Chief of Party: head of his political
party
• Chief Citizen: is the representative of
all the people and should work to ...
Qualifications to be
President
• Must be a natural born U.S. citizen
• At least 35 years old
– Oldest: Ronald Reagan (69 y...
Presidential Term and
Pay
• Washington set 2-term tradition
– FDR broke this by being elected for
4 terms

• 22nd Amendmen...
Presidential Disability
• If the President is unable to perform the
duties of office, the Vice-President may
take over as ...
The Vice-President
• Presides over the Senate (and breaks
ties in voting)
• Serves in the event the President is
unable to...
Executive Powers of the
President
• The President is head of the Executive
branch --> enforces all federal laws
• Executiv...
• Appointment power - president
appoints federal judges, ambassadors,
and exec. branch leaders
– Must be approved by the S...
Diplomatic Powers of the
President
• Can create treaties (agreements with
other countries)
– need Senate approval

• Execu...
Military Powers of the
President
• President is Commander-in-Chief --> is
in control of the U.S. military forces
• Can sta...
War Powers Resolution
1.) President must tell Congress of troop
movements/combat within 48 hrs.
2.) Troops can only stay 6...
Legislative Powers of the
President
• President can’t make laws, but he can
SUGGEST them to Congress
– Has a legislative a...
Judicial Powers of the
President
In federal cases, a president can grant:
• Pardon - legally forgive someone of a crime
(e...
Graphic Organizer
The Federal Bureaucracy
• The Executive branch is organized as a
bureaucracy
• Bureaucracy - the organization of gov’t
int...
Characteristics of a
Bureaucracy
• 1.) Hierarchy - people operate under a chain
of command (fewer people as you go up)
• 2...
Executive Office of the
President (EOP)
• Made up of the President’s closest advisors and staff
(his “inner circle”)
• Inc...
Explore the White House
• The EOP
• White House Virtual Tour
The Cabinet
• Outside the EOP; another group of
advisors to the president
• Made up of the 15 leaders (called
secretaries)...
Executive Departments
• Do most of the work of the executive
branch
• 15 departments total
• Each dept. deals with a certa...
1.) Department of
Agriculture (USDA)
• In charge of food
inspection,
agriculture/farming,
and natural
resources
• Ex. Agen...
2.) Department of
Commerce
• In charge of trade
with other countries,
economic and
business issues,
census, weather
report...
3.) Department of
Defense (DOD)
• In charge of
defending the country
and providing for the
military
• Ex. Agencies:
– Nati...
4.) Department of
Education
• In charge of
improving the U.S.
education system
and setting national
standards
5.) Department of Energy
(DOE)
• In charge of nuclear
energy/weapons,
how the U.S. uses
its energy, and
research on energy...
6.) Department of Health
and Human Services
• In charge of health
care and services,
disease control, and
food and drug sa...
7.) Department of
Homeland Security (DHS)
• In charge of border
control, national security
threats, anti-terrorism,
and
cy...
8.) Department of Housing
and Urban Development
(HUD)

• In charge of housing
codes, low-income
housing, and
community
dev...
9.) Department of Justice
(DOJ)
• In charge of
enforcing federal law
and punishing
violators
• Ex. Agency:
– Federal Burea...
10.) Department of Labor
(DOL)
• In charge of fair
employment and
labor laws,
unemployment, and
minimum wage
• Ex. Agency:...
11.) Department of State
(DOS)
• In charge of foreign
affairs, treaties,
ambassadors,
passports/visas, and
citizenship ser...
12.) Department of the
Interior
• In charge of national
parks and lands, wildlife
and environmental
conservation, and
Indi...
13.) Department of the
Treasury
• In charge of the nation’s
money,
collecting/enforcing
taxes, and currency
• Ex. Agencies...
14.) Department of
Transportation (DOT)
• In charge of building
federal projects (like
roads),
sets/enforces safety
rules ...
15.) Department of
Veterans Affairs (VA)
• In charge of
benefits, services,
and burials for
veterans
Independent Agencies
• Next level of the bureaucracy (outside
the 15 depts.)
• Smaller agencies that act separately
from t...
Why Independent
Agencies?
• 1.) They don’t fit in with the exec. depts.
• 2.) They’re separate to keep them away
from poli...
Types of Independent
Agencies
• 1.) Independent Executive
Agencies
– Include most of the independent agencies
– Operate li...
• 2.) Independent Regulatory
Commissions
– Regulate/make rules on laws that effect the
economy
– Given some legislative/ju...
• Independent Government
Corporations
– Agencies that run like little government
businesses
– Ex: Amtrak, TVA, U.S. Postal...
The Civil Service
• Made up of civilians who work for the
gov’t agencies
– Work under leadership positions
– Can be on fed...
The Spoils System
• “To the victor be the spoils” - the winner
gets all the prizes
• Giving gov’t jobs to all your politic...
The Pendleton Act (1883)
• Under President Arthur, it got rid of the
spoils system
• Required people who wanted to work
fo...
Consider this…
• “Bureaucracy is ever desirous of
spreading its influence and its power.
You cannot extend the mastery of ...
The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
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The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy

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The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy

  1. 1. The Executive Branch
  2. 2. (Just a Few) Reasons Why Teddy Roosevelt is Awesome conservationist, • President, cowboy, writer, naturalist, • • • • • • hunter, explorer, soldier, Nobel Peace Prize winner 1st president to leave the country, fly in an airplane, and he named the White House Read several books a day Was blind in one eye from a boxing match in the White House Killed a cougar in a knife fight Punched a guy in the face for making fun of his glasses Was shot in the chest but still gave a 90 minute speech before getting medical help
  3. 3. The President’s Job • Chief of State: he represents the United States and its citizens to the world • Chief Executive: is given executive powers by the Constitution (can make the big decisions for the country) • Chief Administrator: runs the executive branch and all its departments
  4. 4. • Chief Diplomat: on the world stage, he speaks on behalf of the nation • Commander in Chief: head of the military and controls its movements • Chief Legislator: in charge of sending many public policies to Congress
  5. 5. • Chief of Party: head of his political party • Chief Citizen: is the representative of all the people and should work to help them
  6. 6. Qualifications to be President • Must be a natural born U.S. citizen • At least 35 years old – Oldest: Ronald Reagan (69 yrs) – Youngest: to hold the office: T. Roosevelt (42 yrs); to be elected: JFK (43 yrs) • Resident of the U.S. for 14 years
  7. 7. Presidential Term and Pay • Washington set 2-term tradition – FDR broke this by being elected for 4 terms • 22nd Amendment: President can serve no more than 2 terms (8 years) • President is paid $400,000 a year
  8. 8. Presidential Disability • If the President is unable to perform the duties of office, the Vice-President may take over as President (25th Amendment)
  9. 9. The Vice-President • Presides over the Senate (and breaks ties in voting) • Serves in the event the President is unable to work
  10. 10. Executive Powers of the President • The President is head of the Executive branch --> enforces all federal laws • Executive Order - an order/rule of the President that has the force of law
  11. 11. • Appointment power - president appoints federal judges, ambassadors, and exec. branch leaders – Must be approved by the Senate – President can also remove them
  12. 12. Diplomatic Powers of the President • Can create treaties (agreements with other countries) – need Senate approval • Executive agreement - an agreement between the president and the leader of another country – does not need Senate approval
  13. 13. Military Powers of the President • President is Commander-in-Chief --> is in control of the U.S. military forces • Can station, move, and call back troops • Can create undeclared war just by moving troops into an area
  14. 14. War Powers Resolution 1.) President must tell Congress of troop movements/combat within 48 hrs. 2.) Troops can only stay 60 days unless Congress gives them more time 3.) Congress has the power to end conflict by resolution
  15. 15. Legislative Powers of the President • President can’t make laws, but he can SUGGEST them to Congress – Has a legislative agenda to work with Congress • Can veto bills or sign them into law • Can call Congress into special session (emergency)
  16. 16. Judicial Powers of the President In federal cases, a president can grant: • Pardon - legally forgive someone of a crime (ex: Ford pardoned Nixon after the Watergate Scandal) • Amnesty - legal forgiveness for a group of people • Reprieve - postpone someone’s punishment • Commutation - reduce someone’s sentence or fine
  17. 17. Graphic Organizer
  18. 18. The Federal Bureaucracy • The Executive branch is organized as a bureaucracy • Bureaucracy - the organization of gov’t into departments and agencies to help it run smoother (like a business!)
  19. 19. Characteristics of a Bureaucracy • 1.) Hierarchy - people operate under a chain of command (fewer people as you go up) • 2.) Job Specialization - people are given and responsible for very specific jobs • 3.) Formal Rules - everything operates according to set rules and procedures
  20. 20. Executive Office of the President (EOP) • Made up of the President’s closest advisors and staff (his “inner circle”) • Includes: – White House Office: political advisors, chief of staff, WH press secretary, etc. – Office of Management and the Budget--> helps the President come up with a budget for the country – Plus many more…
  21. 21. Explore the White House • The EOP • White House Virtual Tour
  22. 22. The Cabinet • Outside the EOP; another group of advisors to the president • Made up of the 15 leaders (called secretaries) of the 15 executive depts.+ the VP, etc. • Advise the president on topics dealing with their department
  23. 23. Executive Departments • Do most of the work of the executive branch • 15 departments total • Each dept. deals with a certain topic/area of expertise – Is in charge of advising and enforcing laws that have to do with their topic
  24. 24. 1.) Department of Agriculture (USDA) • In charge of food inspection, agriculture/farming, and natural resources • Ex. Agencies: – Rural Development – Food Safety and Inspection Service
  25. 25. 2.) Department of Commerce • In charge of trade with other countries, economic and business issues, census, weather reports, and copyrights • Ex. Agency: – Census Bureau
  26. 26. 3.) Department of Defense (DOD) • In charge of defending the country and providing for the military • Ex. Agencies: – National Security Agency (NSA) – Army – Navy – Air Force
  27. 27. 4.) Department of Education • In charge of improving the U.S. education system and setting national standards
  28. 28. 5.) Department of Energy (DOE) • In charge of nuclear energy/weapons, how the U.S. uses its energy, and research on energy resources
  29. 29. 6.) Department of Health and Human Services • In charge of health care and services, disease control, and food and drug safety • Ex. Agencies: – Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
  30. 30. 7.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) • In charge of border control, national security threats, anti-terrorism, and cybersecurity/hacking • Ex. Agencies: – Secret Service – U.S. Coast Guard – Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  31. 31. 8.) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) • In charge of housing codes, low-income housing, and community development • Ex. Agency: – Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
  32. 32. 9.) Department of Justice (DOJ) • In charge of enforcing federal law and punishing violators • Ex. Agency: – Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  33. 33. 10.) Department of Labor (DOL) • In charge of fair employment and labor laws, unemployment, and minimum wage • Ex. Agency: – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  34. 34. 11.) Department of State (DOS) • In charge of foreign affairs, treaties, ambassadors, passports/visas, and citizenship services
  35. 35. 12.) Department of the Interior • In charge of national parks and lands, wildlife and environmental conservation, and Indian affairs • Ex. Agencies: – National Park Service (NPS) – Fish and Wildlife Service
  36. 36. 13.) Department of the Treasury • In charge of the nation’s money, collecting/enforcing taxes, and currency • Ex. Agencies: – Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – Bureau of Engraving and Printing – U.S. Mint
  37. 37. 14.) Department of Transportation (DOT) • In charge of building federal projects (like roads), sets/enforces safety rules and regulations
  38. 38. 15.) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) • In charge of benefits, services, and burials for veterans
  39. 39. Independent Agencies • Next level of the bureaucracy (outside the 15 depts.) • Smaller agencies that act separately from the executive departments • Enforce laws on an even smaller level
  40. 40. Why Independent Agencies? • 1.) They don’t fit in with the exec. depts. • 2.) They’re separate to keep them away from political influence • 3.) The information they’re in charge of is too sensitive/specific for a big dept.
  41. 41. Types of Independent Agencies • 1.) Independent Executive Agencies – Include most of the independent agencies – Operate like executive depts., but they don’t have the high status – Ex: NASA, EPA, Federal Election Commission, Peace Corps
  42. 42. • 2.) Independent Regulatory Commissions – Regulate/make rules on laws that effect the economy – Given some legislative/judicial powers by Congress to police the detailed parts of laws – Are the farthest away from the President’s control – Ex: FCC (Federal Communications Commission), Federal Reserve, SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
  43. 43. • Independent Government Corporations – Agencies that run like little government businesses – Ex: Amtrak, TVA, U.S. Postal Service
  44. 44. The Civil Service • Made up of civilians who work for the gov’t agencies – Work under leadership positions – Can be on federal, state, and local levels – Must compete for employment
  45. 45. The Spoils System • “To the victor be the spoils” - the winner gets all the prizes • Giving gov’t jobs to all your political supporters and friends (aka “patronage”) • Win office + appoint friends = corruption
  46. 46. The Pendleton Act (1883) • Under President Arthur, it got rid of the spoils system • Required people who wanted to work for the gov’t or an agency to have qualifications for the job, not just connections • Had to compete for their job
  47. 47. Consider this… • “Bureaucracy is ever desirous of spreading its influence and its power. You cannot extend the mastery of the government over the daily working life of a people without at the same time making it the master of the people's souls and thoughts.” – Herbert Hoover

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