The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy
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The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy






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The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy Presentation Transcript

  • The Executive Branch
  • (Just a Few) Reasons Why Teddy Roosevelt is Awesome conservationist, • President, cowboy, writer, naturalist, • • • • • • hunter, explorer, soldier, Nobel Peace Prize winner 1st president to leave the country, fly in an airplane, and he named the White House Read several books a day Was blind in one eye from a boxing match in the White House Killed a cougar in a knife fight Punched a guy in the face for making fun of his glasses Was shot in the chest but still gave a 90 minute speech before getting medical help
  • The President’s Job • Chief of State: he represents the United States and its citizens to the world • Chief Executive: is given executive powers by the Constitution (can make the big decisions for the country) • Chief Administrator: runs the executive branch and all its departments
  • • Chief Diplomat: on the world stage, he speaks on behalf of the nation • Commander in Chief: head of the military and controls its movements • Chief Legislator: in charge of sending many public policies to Congress
  • • Chief of Party: head of his political party • Chief Citizen: is the representative of all the people and should work to help them
  • Qualifications to be President • Must be a natural born U.S. citizen • At least 35 years old – Oldest: Ronald Reagan (69 yrs) – Youngest: to hold the office: T. Roosevelt (42 yrs); to be elected: JFK (43 yrs) • Resident of the U.S. for 14 years
  • Presidential Term and Pay • Washington set 2-term tradition – FDR broke this by being elected for 4 terms • 22nd Amendment: President can serve no more than 2 terms (8 years) • President is paid $400,000 a year
  • Presidential Disability • If the President is unable to perform the duties of office, the Vice-President may take over as President (25th Amendment)
  • The Vice-President • Presides over the Senate (and breaks ties in voting) • Serves in the event the President is unable to work
  • Executive Powers of the President • The President is head of the Executive branch --> enforces all federal laws • Executive Order - an order/rule of the President that has the force of law
  • • Appointment power - president appoints federal judges, ambassadors, and exec. branch leaders – Must be approved by the Senate – President can also remove them
  • Diplomatic Powers of the President • Can create treaties (agreements with other countries) – need Senate approval • Executive agreement - an agreement between the president and the leader of another country – does not need Senate approval
  • Military Powers of the President • President is Commander-in-Chief --> is in control of the U.S. military forces • Can station, move, and call back troops • Can create undeclared war just by moving troops into an area
  • War Powers Resolution 1.) President must tell Congress of troop movements/combat within 48 hrs. 2.) Troops can only stay 60 days unless Congress gives them more time 3.) Congress has the power to end conflict by resolution
  • Legislative Powers of the President • President can’t make laws, but he can SUGGEST them to Congress – Has a legislative agenda to work with Congress • Can veto bills or sign them into law • Can call Congress into special session (emergency)
  • Judicial Powers of the President In federal cases, a president can grant: • Pardon - legally forgive someone of a crime (ex: Ford pardoned Nixon after the Watergate Scandal) • Amnesty - legal forgiveness for a group of people • Reprieve - postpone someone’s punishment • Commutation - reduce someone’s sentence or fine
  • Graphic Organizer
  • The Federal Bureaucracy • The Executive branch is organized as a bureaucracy • Bureaucracy - the organization of gov’t into departments and agencies to help it run smoother (like a business!)
  • Characteristics of a Bureaucracy • 1.) Hierarchy - people operate under a chain of command (fewer people as you go up) • 2.) Job Specialization - people are given and responsible for very specific jobs • 3.) Formal Rules - everything operates according to set rules and procedures
  • Executive Office of the President (EOP) • Made up of the President’s closest advisors and staff (his “inner circle”) • Includes: – White House Office: political advisors, chief of staff, WH press secretary, etc. – Office of Management and the Budget--> helps the President come up with a budget for the country – Plus many more…
  • Explore the White House • The EOP • White House Virtual Tour
  • The Cabinet • Outside the EOP; another group of advisors to the president • Made up of the 15 leaders (called secretaries) of the 15 executive depts.+ the VP, etc. • Advise the president on topics dealing with their department
  • Executive Departments • Do most of the work of the executive branch • 15 departments total • Each dept. deals with a certain topic/area of expertise – Is in charge of advising and enforcing laws that have to do with their topic
  • 1.) Department of Agriculture (USDA) • In charge of food inspection, agriculture/farming, and natural resources • Ex. Agencies: – Rural Development – Food Safety and Inspection Service
  • 2.) Department of Commerce • In charge of trade with other countries, economic and business issues, census, weather reports, and copyrights • Ex. Agency: – Census Bureau
  • 3.) Department of Defense (DOD) • In charge of defending the country and providing for the military • Ex. Agencies: – National Security Agency (NSA) – Army – Navy – Air Force
  • 4.) Department of Education • In charge of improving the U.S. education system and setting national standards
  • 5.) Department of Energy (DOE) • In charge of nuclear energy/weapons, how the U.S. uses its energy, and research on energy resources
  • 6.) Department of Health and Human Services • In charge of health care and services, disease control, and food and drug safety • Ex. Agencies: – Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
  • 7.) Department of Homeland Security (DHS) • In charge of border control, national security threats, anti-terrorism, and cybersecurity/hacking • Ex. Agencies: – Secret Service – U.S. Coast Guard – Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
  • 8.) Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) • In charge of housing codes, low-income housing, and community development • Ex. Agency: – Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
  • 9.) Department of Justice (DOJ) • In charge of enforcing federal law and punishing violators • Ex. Agency: – Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • 10.) Department of Labor (DOL) • In charge of fair employment and labor laws, unemployment, and minimum wage • Ex. Agency: – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
  • 11.) Department of State (DOS) • In charge of foreign affairs, treaties, ambassadors, passports/visas, and citizenship services
  • 12.) Department of the Interior • In charge of national parks and lands, wildlife and environmental conservation, and Indian affairs • Ex. Agencies: – National Park Service (NPS) – Fish and Wildlife Service
  • 13.) Department of the Treasury • In charge of the nation’s money, collecting/enforcing taxes, and currency • Ex. Agencies: – Internal Revenue Service (IRS) – Bureau of Engraving and Printing – U.S. Mint
  • 14.) Department of Transportation (DOT) • In charge of building federal projects (like roads), sets/enforces safety rules and regulations
  • 15.) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) • In charge of benefits, services, and burials for veterans
  • Independent Agencies • Next level of the bureaucracy (outside the 15 depts.) • Smaller agencies that act separately from the executive departments • Enforce laws on an even smaller level
  • Why Independent Agencies? • 1.) They don’t fit in with the exec. depts. • 2.) They’re separate to keep them away from political influence • 3.) The information they’re in charge of is too sensitive/specific for a big dept.
  • Types of Independent Agencies • 1.) Independent Executive Agencies – Include most of the independent agencies – Operate like executive depts., but they don’t have the high status – Ex: NASA, EPA, Federal Election Commission, Peace Corps
  • • 2.) Independent Regulatory Commissions – Regulate/make rules on laws that effect the economy – Given some legislative/judicial powers by Congress to police the detailed parts of laws – Are the farthest away from the President’s control – Ex: FCC (Federal Communications Commission), Federal Reserve, SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission)
  • • Independent Government Corporations – Agencies that run like little government businesses – Ex: Amtrak, TVA, U.S. Postal Service
  • The Civil Service • Made up of civilians who work for the gov’t agencies – Work under leadership positions – Can be on federal, state, and local levels – Must compete for employment
  • The Spoils System • “To the victor be the spoils” - the winner gets all the prizes • Giving gov’t jobs to all your political supporters and friends (aka “patronage”) • Win office + appoint friends = corruption
  • The Pendleton Act (1883) • Under President Arthur, it got rid of the spoils system • Required people who wanted to work for the gov’t or an agency to have qualifications for the job, not just connections • Had to compete for their job
  • Consider this… • “Bureaucracy is ever desirous of spreading its influence and its power. You cannot extend the mastery of the government over the daily working life of a people without at the same time making it the master of the people's souls and thoughts.” – Herbert Hoover