Ekonomi kelautan

7,343 views
7,189 views

Published on

Ekonomi Maritim Indonesia akan berpotensi sangat besar dalam 15 tahun kedepan. Potensi 1.2 triliun dollar per tahun setelah dikembangkan

Published in: Education
1 Comment
34 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
7,343
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1,540
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
34
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ekonomi kelautan

  1. 1. Kresnayana Yahya, M.Sc
  2. 2. EKONOMI KEMARITIMANDalam Sistim pertahanan dan keamananKresnayana YahyaEmail: kresna49@yahoo.comBlog: http://www.kresnayana.com
  3. 3. Armada laut
  4. 4. Country Classification by 2010 GDP Share N11 Bangladesh World Egypt Growth Markets Iran Nigeria Pakistan Philippines Mexico Emerging Vietnam 2% Korea Markets Mexico 2% 12% Korea Turkey Turkey Indonesia 1% Growth Indonesia China Markets 9% 1% Developed 23% Markets Brazil 65% 3% Russia India 3% 2%Source: GSAM
  5. 5. Population GrowthFigure 8.3 9
  6. 6. Struktur penduduk dunian Jepang : median age 47n Europe : median age 40n USA : median age 36n China : median age 37n Indonesia : median age 28n India : median age 24 years 10
  7. 7. pengembangan leadership siswa 11
  8. 8. Bonus demography 12pengembangan leadership siswa
  9. 9. Demography BonusSumber : Proyeksi Penduduk 2000 – 2025 BPS , diolah
  10. 10. Indonesia : Young population Indonesia 6% Indonesia demographic structure Productive age group 15- 64 year covers 66 % or 165 66% milion Children below 15 years : 70 milion 28% pengembangan leadership siswa 14Sumber: http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart?page=1&fsrc=scn/fb/wl/bl/dailychartjan10 (20101120_WOC951)
  11. 11. UNEMPLOYMENT DATA: Source of Data: National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas), conducted every Feb and August, number of sampel 68,000 HH Unemployment Rate and Development Target 2004-2014 MTDP: Medium Term Development Plan PROBLEMS: § Unemployment Rate: 6,80% § 49,5% elementary school § 66% work in informal sector § 30,7% under employed
  12. 12. MACRO POVERTY DATA: Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas), conducted every March, number of sampel 68,000 HH Poverty Rate and Development Target 2004-2014PROBLEMS: § 58% of the poor work in§ Poverty disparities across region agriculture§ 63% of the poor live in rural area § Many households are clustered around poverty line
  13. 13. TREND OF POVERTY AND GINI RATIO 2004-2011 Poor People (%)Gini Ratio Poverty decreases but income inequality tends to increase ....
  14. 14. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) DATA:• Source of Data: National Socioeconomic Survey (Susenas) and Regional GDP, calculated annualy, districts level• The usage of HDI: one of the General Allocation Fund allocatorsHDI Indonesia, 1996-2010 Life Expectancy By Province, 2009
  15. 15. Investasi di Indonesia 19
  16. 16. East Java Prospects 10 % Port & refinery Oil & Gas Gas Oil & Gas Bridge Toll Fisheries 11 % Oil Fisheries Port Waterfront city 23 % Southern HighwayKeterangan:- - - : Rencana jalan Tol 56 % 20
  17. 17. Marine/Maritime SectorMarine business Marine and coastal Marine research and resources studies Navigation and Biological ports Education and training of Mineral experts Shipbuilding and repair Renewable energy Investigations and experimental development Marine recreation Marine Fishery Maritime technology environmentFishing, aquaculture and fish handling Marine Marine Marine cultural sociology economy heritage
  18. 18. The OpportunityThe €1.2 Trillion Global Market
  19. 19. A Market Focus: A Trillion $ Global Marine Market Shipping &Transport Marine Tourism €342.7Bn €180.1Bn Oil & Gas, Minerals Fisheries & €93.8Bn Aquaculture €159.7Bn Marine Equipment €72.8Bn Marine Biotech & Seaweed €8.1Bn Ports & Shipbuilding €62.7Bn Marine IT & Survey Renewable Energy €6.7Bn €128 M
  20. 20. Acknowledgement: Prof John Delaney Univ Washington HIGH-TECH OCEAN ENERGY AQUACULTURE ROBOTICS A dynamic maritime economy, in harmony with the environment; supported by sound science and technology, which allows human beings to continue to reap the rich harvest from the oceans in a sustainable manner. Integrated Maritime Policy for the EU (2007)DEEP-SEA FRONTIER SENSORS & ADVANCED SEABED MAPPING REMOTE
  21. 21. Convergence Maritime Tourism & Leisure Aquaculture Green – Fisheries Technologies eHealth ICT Functional Foods Food Smart Sensors Shipping Site Survey Ocean Renewable - Seabed Mapping Financial Energy Ocean Energy Services Bio- Marine BioTec technology
  22. 22. BLUE Economy• Potensi ekonomi laut Indonesia diperkirakan sekitar 1,2 triliun dollar AS per tahun, atau setara dengan 10 kali Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara (APBN) pada tahun 2012. "Apabila potensi itu dapat dioptimalkan sebaik mungkin maka dapat menjadi tulang punggung bagi pembangunan Indonesia," tutur Menteri Kelautan dan Perikanan Sharif Cicip Sutardjo• Pada tahun 2011 saja ekspor perikanan Indonesia hanya mencapai US$ 3,34 Milyar kalah jauh jika dibandingkan dengan Vietnam yang mencapai US$ 25 Milyar.
  23. 23. Kepulauan maritim• Indonesia memiliki wilayah laut seluas 5,8 juta kilometer persegi yang terdiri dari wilayah teritorial sebesar 3,2 juta km2 dan wilayah ZEE Indonesia 2,7 juta km2. Selain itu, terdapat 17.840 pulau di Indonesia dengan garis pantai sepanjang 95.181 km. Indonesia telah meratifikasi Konvensi Hukum Laut Internasional (UNCLOS 1982) dengan UU No 17/1985.
  24. 24. Potensi Pangan• Indonesia, 75 persen dari wilayahnya berupa laut, dan 28 persen total wilayah daratnya berupa perairan sungau, danau, waduk dan rawa.• Usaha aquaculture merupakan sektor pangan yang pertumbuhannya paling pesat diantara sektor produksi pangan yang lain, total produksinya baru mencapai 60 juta ton pertahun.
  25. 25. TARGETS, 2010 - 2014 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014PRODUCTION (million ton) 10.76 12.26 1485 18.49 22.39 Capture 5.38 5.41 5.44 5.47 5.50 Farming 5.38 6.85 9.41 13.02 16.89CONSUMPTION (kg/capita) 30.47 31.57 34.09 36.31 38.67 EXPORT ($ Billion) 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.2 5.0Source ; MOMAF-RI (2009) 32
  26. 26. POTENSI ekonomi FLaut dan seluruh daya dukungnya
  27. 27. Menggali potensi Laut Indonesia• Diperlukan pemetaan , penyiapan Kebijakan terpadu• Pemanfaatan - Pendayagunaan – Pengembangan Knowledge – kemampuan Research and Development , Research for Development• Pengembangan –pelatihan kompetensi kelautan
  28. 28. Industri maritim• Jasa kepelabuhanan, jasa eco tourism, Jasa Transportasi• Jasa Marine Financial services• Produksi kapal, peralatan navigasi, perangkat ICT• Marine Insurance• Energy dari Ocean Power• Pangan dari hasil laut
  29. 29. Geography and Its “Regions” culture behaviour societyGeog as science Geog research praxis Scientific content Geographic research Geographers community Theory Environment Culture Atmosphere Politics Hydrology (Source: from Grano 1981: 19 in Johnston 1991: 277) Economy Morphology
  30. 30. Aquaculture Human dimension Land based pollution Tourism Coastal Zone Catchments Marine energy Fisheries Aggregate Off-shore area materials Maritime ICZM / Marine Spatial Planning transport Marine Natura2000 ecosystems at sea Marine Protected AreasStatistical unit coastal account
  31. 31. Coastal accounts and ecosystem appraoch Coasts as human ecosystems: Europe’s coasts are result of interaction of human and natural processes• Natural systems – River basins and coastal waters – Coastal sediment systems (cells) – Marine (sub)regions – Coastal ecosystems (broad scale types)• Human systems – Coastal regions (statistical units) – Governance (coastal management plans) – Developement and resource use (economic sectors)
  32. 32. Ecosystem approach in accounting practice• Data availability – Spatial data coverage to populate coastal units across sea/land interface – Sufficient and balanced represenation of human and natural coastal processes• Policy relevancy – Spatial management units use ecosystem-based approach – Policy concepts and related reporting data flows• Methodology used for accounting – Spatial accounting units (data model) is adequately representing the reality – Sound assumptions for models and frameworks for data ingtegration
  33. 33. GENERAL applicability of policy for River basins, inland anddelineation of coastal coastal water bodies, spatial units Coastal zone Inner waters management units Territorial waters Member States Coastal habitats and Marine sovereignty or species (sub)regions jurisdiction waters Maritime economy, including fishing High seas (UN Conventions)
  34. 34. Potensi daya usaha Maritime Indonesia• Potensi menarik kegiatan usaha di laut dan daya serap tenaga kerja di laut dan pesisirnya : 5 juta orang .• Pertambahan pelabuhan dan armada penangkapan ikan• Penambahan armada satuan transportasi untuk Logistik Nasional
  35. 35. Ship Prices Rising: Bigger Ships, Strong Demand $ Millions $220 LNG Carrier $150 2007 Large Crude $129 2002 Carrier $64 •Ship prices are up 50% on average. Builders are ramping-up Capesize Bulk $68 production, cutting production Carrier $36 time. China is trying to compete with Japan and Korea.Midsize Container $57 •Cargo/Hull losses for a mage-ship Ship $33 could exceed $1B - $2 billion. $0 $50 $100 $150 $200 $250Source: Clarkson Research Services, Insurance Information Institute
  36. 36. Ocean and Wave Power• Why Ocean and Wave Power?• Technological Feasibility• Cost competitiveness (measured against fossil fuels)
  37. 37. Advantages of Offshore OceanWave Power• Clean renewable source of energy• Nearly unlimited• More Predictable than wind and sun• Little environmental impact• Not visible from shore• Proximity to markets needing electricity
  38. 38. World Coastal Population• 50% of the worlds population currently live within sixty kilometers of the coast• By 2015, the world population will exceed 8 billion people• 3.4 billion living on coast
  39. 39. Potential World-Wide Wave Energy• IEA (International Energy Agency) estimates that wave energy can supply between 10 and 50% of world demand• World demand of 15,000 TWh
  40. 40. World Energy Council Estimates• 2 terawatts of clean and accessible ocean energy• Equivalent to twice the world’s current electricity generation
  41. 41. World Energy Council 2001 Survey estimates• 2 TW of exploitable wave power worldwide• 50% of the total European power consumption could be generated from European coastal waters
  42. 42. Independent market assessment ofwave energy economic contribution to electricity market• Estimated 2,000 TWh/year• 10% of world electricity consumption• Equal to current world-wide large scale hydroelectric projects
  43. 43. Ocean Power Delivery (Pelamis)• Pelamis has a similar output to a modern wind turbine• Full-scale prototype is operational• Tested at the European Marine Energy Centre in Orkney.• A typical 30MW installation would occupy a square kilometer of ocean and provide sufficient electricity for 20,000 homes• Twenty farms could power a city such as Edinburgh
  44. 44. Competitive Price Requirements(wave power level of 15 kw per meter)
  45. 45. Can fish continue to feed the world? Campbell, Neil A.: Mitchell, Lawrence G.; Reece, Jane B., Biology: Concepts and Connections, 2nd Edition, © 1997, p. 711. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
  46. 46. Economic sustainability Economic Development and sociocultural protection Economic growth Private profit Conservationism Market expansion Local self-reliance STD Ecological process Social accountability Biological diversity Strengthen Biological resources community identity Carrying capacitySocial and cultural sustainability Ecological sustainability Deep ecology 54 http://www.trp.dundee.ac.uk/library/pubs/set.html
  47. 47. 55http://www.cadi.ph/sustainable_development.htm
  48. 48. ¡ Economic viability¡ Local prosperity¡ Employment quality¡ Social equity¡ Visitor fulfillment¡ Local control¡ Community wellbeing¡ Cultural richness¡ Physical integrity¡ Biological diversity¡ Resource efficiency¡ Environmental purity 56 Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers, in September 2005 —— released by UNEP and WTO.
  49. 49. Potensi Biota laut abitats Sandbanks Rocky Reefs Seagrass Beds
  50. 50. The Importance of the Sea • Transport • Heritage • Recreation
  51. 51. 44,000 different kinds of plants and animalsrecorded in UK waters – half UK’s Biodiversity.
  52. 52. Human Activities§Land use§Tourism§Oil &Gas§Mariculture§Coastal Defence§Ports & Navigation§Military Activities§Culture§Conservation§Dredging & Disposal§Submarine Cables§Fishing§Renewable Energy§Marine Recreation How do we balance the needs of the§Mineral Extraction environment with our own social and economic needs?
  53. 53. Marine Management Organisation Marine plans The Fisheries MMO’s management Marine main functions Licensing Marine nature conservation Emergencies
  54. 54. Planning – how does it work High level objectivesLive within Achieving a Promote good Use sound science Ensure a strong,environmental sustainable marine governance healthy and justlimits economy society Marine Policy Statement (MPS) Marine Plans Licensing
  55. 55. Conserving Biodiversity Marine Protected Areas Special Areas Special of Conservation Protection Areas (Habitats (Birds Directive) Directive) Marine Conservation Zones (Marine Act)
  56. 56. Potensi Wisata laut dan bio diversity
  57. 57. TAMAN LAUT BUNAKEN TAMAN LAUT PADANG RAJA AMPAT PAPUATAMAN LAUT GILIS LOMBOK TAMAN LAUT FLORES
  58. 58. Industri Makanan Hasil Kelautan
  59. 59. Industri Kreatif Hasil Kelautan
  60. 60. Tantangan masa depan Indonesia• Perubahan struktur kependudukan• Peningkatan daya beli dan penambahan jumlah kelas menengah• Pergeseran aktivitas : makin ke Financial• Peningkatan peran Global• Tumbuhnya simpul simpul baru pertumbuhan, sektor sektor baru• From Green economy to BLUE economy
  61. 61. Membangun kelembagaan BLUE Economy• Peran Angkatan Laut akan menjadi makin besar seiring pengembangan bisnis dan ekonomi Kelautan• Kemajuan utama bersumber pada pengembangan KNOWLEDGE Center, Ocean Training center• Integrasi : Food – Energy - Ocean management• 70 % penduduk akan berjarak 60 km dari pantai dan pesisir
  62. 62. Peran Angkatan Laut• Industri maritim akan menjadi besar dan melipat dua dalam kekuatan dalam 15 tahun mendatang• Peran dalam sistim Logistik akan menjadi 3 kali lebih besar karena peningkatan permintaan dan ekspansi usaha• Peran pengembangan dan pengawasan ketahanan /keamanan menjadi makin terpadu dengan pertumbuhan
  63. 63. END OF SLIDES THANK YOUKresnayana YahyaEmail: kresna49@yahoo.comBlog: http://www.kresnayana.com Enciety Business Consult 75

×