Word Formation in English

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  • Word formation is of great interest for linguists as it sheds light on other aspects of language. There is not, though, no single “theory of word formation” The way words are constructed are interesting for linguists in the sense that it help them to classify the grammar group of words. Word formation process is a good indicator to trace back the most productive means of creating words within a language. Rinaissance and neoclacissicism have been vital for the borrowing of Latin and Greek affixes into English, especially when we talk about the fields of science, technology and medicine.
  • Word Formation in English

    1. 1. Lexicon. Characteristics of word formation in English. Prefixation, suffixation and compounding . Unit 10
    2. 2. 1. Lexicon 1.1. Lexicography. 1.2.The Evolution of the modern dictionary.
    3. 3. Types of Lexicography <ul><li>Alphabetical lexicography </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic Lexicography </li></ul>
    4. 4. Products of lexicography <ul><li>If account for size </li></ul><ul><li>20-volume Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Concise Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Pocket Oxford Dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>The Collins Gem </li></ul><ul><li>If account for type </li></ul><ul><li>Monolingual </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual </li></ul><ul><li>Phonetical </li></ul><ul><li>Etymologies </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms and antonyms.etc. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The evolution of modern dictionaries. First English to English word list “ A Table Alphabeticall” by Robert Cawdrey 1603. It contained 2,500 words. By the 50´s of XVII Century “Etylomologies” were Included in dictionaries as well
    6. 6. In 1700, John Kersey dares to add frequent words in dictionaries. The gratest figure in English lexicography in the XVIII was Samuel Johnson. The gratest lexicographical effort ever made was The Oxford English Dictionary.
    7. 7. Dictionaries in America <ul><li>Noah Webster is the great pioneer in lexicography. </li></ul><ul><li>His dictonary published in 1828 had the title “An American Dictionary of the English Language” </li></ul>
    8. 8. English word formation <ul><li>Affixation. </li></ul><ul><li>Compounding. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Other devices: reduplication, clipping, blending, acronyms. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Prefixation <ul><li>Characteristics of prefixes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally they do not alter the word class of the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The are normally written together with the base as a single word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main stress falls normally on the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be grouped according to their meaning. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Negative Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-” unfair, unadorned, unfortunately. </li></ul><ul><li>“ non-” non-conformist, non-existent. </li></ul><ul><li>“ in-” invisible, illogical, impossible, irresponsible. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a(n)-” amoral, atheist. </li></ul><ul><li>“ dis-” disloyal, disobey, disfavour </li></ul>
    11. 11. Reversible Prefixes <ul><li>“ un-” undo, undress, unhorse. </li></ul><ul><li>“ de-” defrost, depoliticize. </li></ul><ul><li>“ dis-” discouraging, disheartened,desinterested. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Pejorative Prefixes <ul><li>“ mis-” mishear, misconduct, misleading, misrepresentation. </li></ul><ul><li>“ mal-” maltreat, malformed, malfunction. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pseudo-” pseudo-scientific, </li></ul><ul><li>pseudo- classicism. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Prefixes of degree and size <ul><li>“ arch-” archduke, archenemy. </li></ul><ul><li>“ super-” supermarket, superman. </li></ul><ul><li>“ out-” outlive, outdo, outrun. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sur-” surcharge, </li></ul><ul><li>“ sub-” subnormal, substandard. </li></ul><ul><li>“ over-”/under-” overdo, undertook </li></ul><ul><li>“ hyper-/ultra-” hypersensitive. </li></ul><ul><li>“ mini-/macro-/micro-” microwave. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Prefixes of attitude <ul><li>“ co-” cooperative, cohabit, co-director, co-proprietor. </li></ul><ul><li>“ counter-” counter-espionage, counter-attack. </li></ul><ul><li>“ anti-/pro-” anti-nuclear, anti-democracy. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Locative Prefixes <ul><li>“ super-” super-structure. </li></ul><ul><li>“ sub-” subway, subconscious, subdivide. </li></ul><ul><li>“ inter-” international, intermarry, interwave, interplay. </li></ul><ul><li>“ trans-” transatlantic, transplant. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Prefixes of time and order <ul><li>“ fore-” foretell, foreman, forewarn. </li></ul><ul><li>“ pre-/post-” pre-historial, pre-marital. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ex-” ex-minister, ex-wife. </li></ul><ul><li>“ re-” rebuild, relocation, re-elegible. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Number Prefixes <ul><li>“ uni-/mono-” monosyllable, unilateral. </li></ul><ul><li>“ bi-/di-” dichotomy, bifocal. </li></ul><ul><li>“ multi-/poly-/pluri” multiracial </li></ul>
    18. 18. Conversion prefixes <ul><li>“ be-” bewigged, bewitch, bedazzle, befriend ( a dog ). </li></ul><ul><li>“ en-/em-” endanger, empower. </li></ul><ul><li>“ a-” afloat. </li></ul>
    19. 19. To Summarize <ul><li>Negative Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Pejorative Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of degree and size. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Locative prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes of time and order. </li></ul><ul><li>Number Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion Prefixes. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Suffixation <ul><li>Characteristics of suffixes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They normally alter the word type of the base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffixes rarely have a distinct meaning on their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change the word into which they are included into another part of speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The can be classified according to the speech part they form, or according to the type of base the are added to. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Noun suffixes <ul><li>Occupational. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -eer” engineer, auctitioneer. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ster” gangster, gamester, trickster. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -er” Londoner, banker </li></ul>
    22. 22. Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Diminutive and femenine. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -let” booklet, owlet, piglet. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ette” cigarrette, kitchenette. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ess” countess, hostess. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -y” Johnny, daddy, pussy </li></ul>
    23. 23. Noun Suffixes ( Abstract ) <ul><li>Status, domain, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -hood” boyhood, brotherhood, flasehood, likelihood. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ship” friendship, companionship </li></ul><ul><li>“ -dom”,”-ocracy”, “-ery/-ry”. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Noun Suffixes <ul><li>Quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ful” handful, spoonful </li></ul>
    25. 25. Noun/adjective suffixes <ul><li>“ -ite” Israelite, Rafaelite. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -(i)an” Shakespearian, Elizabethan. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ese” Japanese. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ist” novelist, violinist, typist. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ism” Cummunism, Imperialistm. </li></ul>
    26. 26. De-verbal suffixes <ul><li>“ -er” worker, onlooker, drinker. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ant” inhabitant, occupant. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ation” operation, exploration. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ment” arrangement, argument. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al” approval, refusal </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ing” swimming, living, painting, building. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -age” package, peerage, shortage. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ee” trainee, employee. </li></ul>
    27. 27. De-adjectival suffixes <ul><li>“ -ness” goodness, happiness, selfishness. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ity”/”-able”/”-ible”/”-al” readable, readability, sentimental, sentimentality. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Verb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ify” certify, identify. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ize” scandalize, organise. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -en” blacken, sadden. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Adjective Suffixes <ul><li>“ -able” readable, drinkable. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -al” chemical, criminal, special. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ful” beautiful, plentiful. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ed” blue-eyed, odd-shaped. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -en” wooden, leaden. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ic” Germanic, specific. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -ish” foolish, boyish, snobbish. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -less” helpless, hopeless. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -like” friendly, child-like </li></ul>
    30. 30. Adverb suffixes <ul><li>“ -ly” happily, freely, instantly. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -wards” onwards, eastwards. </li></ul><ul><li>“ -wise” clockwise. </li></ul>
    31. 31. To Summarize Suffixes <ul><li>Noun Suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Noun/Adjective suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>De-verbal suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>De-adjectival suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective suffixes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb suffixes. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Compounding. <ul><li>Oil paper </li></ul><ul><li>Paperclip </li></ul><ul><li>Paper aeroplane </li></ul><ul><li>(to)wallpaper </li></ul><ul><li>Wastepaper </li></ul><ul><li>Wastepaper basket </li></ul>
    33. 33. Characteristics of compounds. <ul><li>The can be written together, (solid) separately or with a hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonologically are identified as for having the main stress on the first element. </li></ul><ul><li>blackbird ´_____,_____ a species of bird. </li></ul><ul><li>blackbird _____ ´_____ a bird which is back </li></ul><ul><li>They can consist of two or three words. </li></ul><ul><li>sister-in-law, baby-sitter, air-conditioner. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Other compound nouns come from... <ul><li>Verb + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>pickpoket. </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Verb. </li></ul><ul><li>make-belive. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>fast-food. </li></ul><ul><li>Particle + Noun </li></ul><ul><li>overkill. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb + Noun. </li></ul><ul><li>new generation </li></ul><ul><li>Verb + Particle </li></ul><ul><li>press down </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Whisky and soda </li></ul>
    35. 35. Groups of compound nouns. <ul><li>Compound nouns can be countable, uncountable, singular or plural and grouped like that. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Common countable compound nouns. <ul><li>Address book </li></ul><ul><li>Air conditioner </li></ul><ul><li>Air raid </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-sitter </li></ul><ul><li>Bank account </li></ul><ul><li>Brother-in-law </li></ul><ul><li>Bus-stop </li></ul><ul><li>Can opener </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>High school </li></ul><ul><li>Human being </li></ul><ul><li>Letter-box </li></ul><ul><li>Passer-by </li></ul><ul><li>Pen-friend </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bear </li></ul><ul><li>Police station. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Common uncoutable compound nouns <ul><li>Birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Central heating </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense </li></ul><ul><li>Dry-cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Family planning </li></ul><ul><li>Fancy dress </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-food </li></ul><ul><li>Income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Lost property </li></ul><ul><li>Mail order </li></ul><ul><li>Make up </li></ul><ul><li>Old age </li></ul><ul><li>Remote control </li></ul><ul><li>Social security </li></ul><ul><li>First aid </li></ul><ul><li>Water-skiing </li></ul>
    38. 38. Common singular compound nouns <ul><li>Cost of living </li></ul><ul><li>Fire brigade </li></ul><ul><li>Generation gap </li></ul><ul><li>Human race </li></ul><ul><li>Mother-tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Public sector </li></ul><ul><li>Solar system </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare state. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Common plural compound nouns. <ul><li>Armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>High heels </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Luxury goods </li></ul><ul><li>Road works </li></ul><ul><li>Social services </li></ul><ul><li>Winter sports </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow pages </li></ul>
    40. 40. Compound adjectives. <ul><li>They are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them. They may be qualitative classifying or colour adjectives. </li></ul>
    41. 41. Common patterns to make compound adjectives. <ul><li>Adjective or number + noun + “-ed” red-haired </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective or adverb + past participle low-paid </li></ul><ul><li>Adjective, adverb or noun +present participle </li></ul><ul><li>good-looking </li></ul>
    42. 42. Rule for compound adjectives <ul><li>A few compound adjectives are made up of more than two words and they are often written with hyphens when they are used in front of nouns, and without hyphens when they are used as the complement of a link verb. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a free-and-easy relatioship. </li></ul><ul><li>That book is out of date. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound qualitative adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Absent minded. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy-going. </li></ul><ul><li>Low-paid </li></ul><ul><li>Nice looking </li></ul><ul><li>Old fashioned </li></ul><ul><li>Open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Second-class </li></ul><ul><li>Starry-eyed </li></ul><ul><li>Tender-hearted </li></ul><ul><li>Well-behaved </li></ul><ul><li>Well-dressed </li></ul><ul><li>Well-known. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound classifying adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-visual </li></ul><ul><li>Brand-new </li></ul><ul><li>Built-up </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-sea </li></ul><ul><li>Duty-free </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance </li></ul><ul><li>Made-up </li></ul><ul><li>North-east </li></ul><ul><li>One-way </li></ul><ul><li>Second-hand </li></ul><ul><li>Tax-free </li></ul><ul><li>Top-secret </li></ul>
    45. 45. Groups of Compound adjectives. <ul><li>Compound colour adjectives </li></ul><ul><li>Blood-red </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-green </li></ul><ul><li>Nut-brown </li></ul><ul><li>Royal-blue </li></ul><ul><li>Sky-blue </li></ul><ul><li>Snow-white. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Compound Verbs. <ul><li>They are usually written with an hyphen. </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern formation: </li></ul><ul><li>noun + verb “sky-dive” </li></ul><ul><li>verb + noun “shun-pike” </li></ul><ul><li>verb + verb “freeze-dry” </li></ul><ul><li>adjective + verb “double-book” </li></ul><ul><li>particle + verb “overbook” </li></ul>
    47. 47. Groups of compound verbs <ul><li>Intransitive compound verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Baby-sit hitch-hike </li></ul><ul><li>Ice-skate roller-skate </li></ul><ul><li>Water-ski window-shop </li></ul><ul><li>Transitive compound verbs: </li></ul><ul><li>Back-comb ill-treat </li></ul><ul><li>Dry-clean tape record </li></ul><ul><li>Compound verbs used in transitive or intransitive </li></ul><ul><li>clauses: </li></ul><ul><li>Bottle-feed sight-read </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-produce spring-clean </li></ul><ul><li>Shrt-circuit tie-dye </li></ul>

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