Lexicon. Characteristics of word formation in English. Prefixation, suffixation and compounding . Unit 10
1. Lexicon 1.1. Lexicography. 1.2.The Evolution of the modern dictionary.
Types of Lexicography
Products of lexicography
If account for size
20-volume Oxford Dictionary
The Concise Oxford Dictionary
The Pocket Oxford Dictionary
The Collins Gem
If account for type
Synonyms and antonyms.etc.
The evolution of modern dictionaries. First English to English word list “ A Table Alphabeticall” by Robert Cawdrey 1603. It contained 2,500 words. By the 50´s of XVII Century “Etylomologies” were Included in dictionaries as well
In 1700, John Kersey dares to add frequent words in dictionaries. The gratest figure in English lexicography in the XVIII was Samuel Johnson. The gratest lexicographical effort ever made was The Oxford English Dictionary.
Dictionaries in America
Noah Webster is the great pioneer in lexicography.
His dictonary published in 1828 had the title “An American Dictionary of the English Language”
English word formation
Other devices: reduplication, clipping, blending, acronyms.
Characteristics of prefixes
Generally they do not alter the word class of the base.
The are normally written together with the base as a single word.
The can be written together, (solid) separately or with a hyphen.
Phonologically are identified as for having the main stress on the first element.
blackbird ´_____,_____ a species of bird.
blackbird _____ ´_____ a bird which is back
They can consist of two or three words.
sister-in-law, baby-sitter, air-conditioner.
Other compound nouns come from...
Verb + Noun.
Verb + Verb.
Adjective + Noun.
Particle + Noun
Adverb + Noun.
Verb + Particle
Whisky and soda
Groups of compound nouns.
Compound nouns can be countable, uncountable, singular or plural and grouped like that.
Common countable compound nouns.
Common uncoutable compound nouns
Common singular compound nouns
Cost of living
Common plural compound nouns.
They are made up of two or more words, usually written with hyphens between them. They may be qualitative classifying or colour adjectives.
Common patterns to make compound adjectives.
Adjective or number + noun + “-ed” red-haired
Adjective or adverb + past participle low-paid
Adjective, adverb or noun +present participle
Rule for compound adjectives
A few compound adjectives are made up of more than two words and they are often written with hyphens when they are used in front of nouns, and without hyphens when they are used as the complement of a link verb.