Properties: Hydrophobic: Its molecules get repelled by water Amphiphilic: A certain part of it can dissolve in both water and fats. Crystalline structure
Types (brief) [no one needs to explain this slide]
Animal fats are saturated and plant fats are unsaturated.
Saturated fats remain solid at room temperature because they have a high melting point but unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature as they have a low melting point.
We are going to talk about only two lipid structures here….Simple lipids and phospholoipids
Saturated Saturated with hydrogen atoms, i.e.- carbon atoms are bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Each carbon atom is generally joined by single bonds. Unsaturated Not necessarily bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. They may be bound by a covalent bond (double, triple bond etc.) instead
Tell audience to remember these qualities for the next question
Interact with the class. Water is a hint After a new part is shown the characteristic has to be explained from the diagram Once a point has been taken from the audience show the answer
ENERGY- A gram of fat contains about 9 calories. MAINTAIN EQUILIBRIUM- By storing excess foreign particle during an invasion it helps to maintain equilibrium inside the body. ADIPOSE TISSUES- Fats form adipose tissues. Adipose tissues prevent body heat from escaping (insulate) and gives shape to the body by getting stored at different regions. The types of adipose tissues based on the type of their accumulation are: Abdominal fat: In the abdominal cavity and inter-muscular spaces. Epicardinal fat: It occurs around the heart and secretes several hormones that affect functioning of the heart. It is generally related to fat-related particles. Subcutanous fat: It occurs just below the skin. CELL MEMBRANE- Forms bilipid layer in the cell membrane, Studied in the chapter ‘Cells’ ENDOCRINE TISSUE- Secrete hormones like leptin, resistin and cytokine.
1: Fat absence 2: Fat excess
Lipids and fats 2 (office98 2003 show)
A broad group of naturally occurring molecules that are generally soluble in organic solvents but sparingly soluble in water. Long chain-hydrocarbons that are constituent elements of fats. Another classification of lipids. Fats are a type of triglycerides, though they are made up of fatty acids and glycerides. TYPES OF LIPIDS
Saturated Unsaturated <ul><li>Saturated fatty acids form saturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acids form unsaturated fats (duh!) </li></ul><ul><li>Animal fats are generally saturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats </li></ul>
Saturated Unsaturated Saturated fats remain solid at room temperature as their melting points are relatively high. Unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature as their melting points are low.
Saturated with hydrogen atoms, i.e.- carbon atoms are bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Each carbon atom is generally joined by single bonds. Not necessarily bound to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. They may be bound by a covalent bond instead(double, triple bond etc)s
2. Phospholipid <ul><li>Polar head is hydrophyllic , i.e.- it is attracted ( phil ) to water ( hydra) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polar tail is hydrophobic , i.e.- its is repulsed ( phobe ) by water ( hydra ) </li></ul><ul><li>Polar head faces and interacts with water </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polar tails stay away from water </li></ul>This structure makes lipids sparingly soluble <ul><li>Polar head appears as round in shape </li></ul><ul><li>Non-polar tail appears as…umm…tails </li></ul>Remember the features of lipids for the next question
Hydrophobic Non-Polar Tails Hydrophilic Polar Heads Question: State the names of the parts of the phospholipid particle shown. Water [Hint] Water [Hint]
Fats SECONDARY SOURCE OF ENERGY MAINTAIN EQUILIBRIUM IN THE BODY BY STRORING EXCESSIVE FOREIGN PARTICLES AS CELLS FORM ADIPOSE TISSUES (CONECTIVE TISSUES) WHICH GIVE SHAPE TO THE BODY AND INSULATES BODY HEAT FORMS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF CELL MEMBRANES ACTIVE ENDOCRINE TISSUE REQUIRED FOR THE ABSORPTION OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS (A, DE, E & K)