•Psychodynamics is the systematized study and theory of
the psychological forces that underlie human behavior,
emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and
•The original concept of "psychodynamics" was developed
by Sigmund Freud suggested that psychological
processes are flows of psychological energy in a complex
brain, establishing "psychodynamics" on the basis of
psychological energy, which he referred to as libido.
•In general, psychodynamics studies the transformations
and exchanges of “psychic energy" within the personality.
A focus in psychodynamics is the connection between the
energetic of emotional states in the id, ego, and superego
which is also called the psychic structure
They also relate to early childhood developments and
•At the heart of psychological processes, according to Freud,
is the ego, which he envisions as battling with three forces:
the id, the super-ego, and the outside world.
Hence, the basic psychodynamic model focuses on the
dynamic interactions between the id, ego, and superego.
Psychodynamics, subsequently, attempts to explain or
interpret behavior or mental states in terms of innate
emotional forces or processes
Conscious-It is that part which you are currently aware of
or are actively thinking about. It consists of all the thoughts
that presently occupy your mind
Preconscious-The preconscious part of the psyche consists
of the thoughts, memories, and knowledge that you are not
currently aware of, but that are available to you. It's your
storehouse of memories and knowledge.
Is a part of our psyche that we do not have access to. It
holds thoughts, memories, impulses that we are not aware
of and that we cannot be aware of because they may be
potentially damaging to us (i.e., cause anxiety). Even
though we are not aware of the contents of our
unconscious, Freud proposed that the impulses and drives
within it cause much of our behavior.
Freud posited that in addition to conscious, preconscious,
and unconscious components of our psyche, the psyche
also is composed of three structures: the id, ego, and
superego. Some of these structures operate unconsciously,
and others are within our awareness.
1. The Id
Freud referred to the most primitive part of our psyche
as the id. We are born with the id and it residues
within the unconscious. The id is driven by
primitive animal instincts including sexual and
aggressive impulses. It functions according to the
pleasure principle in that it seeks to maximize
pleasure and minimize any discomfort. The id is
illogical in that it seeks pleasure without thought
to what is practical, safe, or moral. Freud argued
that we are not aware of the id, but it influences
2. The Ego
Freud posted that the ego is the second part of the
psyche to develop. During toddlerhood, particularly
during toilet training, children come to realize that they
are individuals. They recognize that they have their own
desires, wants, and needs; the ego forms. The ego refers
to your identity, or sense of self. It grows out of the id
and can control the id, to an extent. The ego functions
according to the reality principle because its job is to
gratify the id in accord with reality. Because the ego is
concerned both with reality and the id, it operates on all
three levels of awareness (the conscious, preconscious,
and unconscious levels of the psyche
The Super-ego works in contradiction to the id. The
Super-ego strives to act in a socially appropriate manner,
whereas the id just wants instant self-gratification. The
Super-ego controls our sense of right and wrong and
guilt. It helps us fit into society by getting us to act in
socially acceptable ways
The super-ego tends to stand in opposition to the desires
of the id because of their conflicting objectives, and its
aggressiveness towards the ego. The super-ego acts as
the conscience, maintaining our sense of morality and
proscription from taboos.
Transference neuroses correspond to a conflict
between the ego and the id.
narcissistic neurosesto a conflict between the ego and
the superego .
Psychoses is the conflict between the ego and the
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Oral 0-2 years Mouth Sucking
Anal 2-3 years Anal regions Retention and Elimination during
Phallic 3-5 years Genitals Self manipulation of genitals is a
major source of pleasure.
Latency 6-12 years Sexual motivation recedes.
Preoccupied with developing
Genitals After puberty Sexual relations
Freud believed that gratification during each stage is
important, if a person is not to be stuck or fixated at that
Ex-fixation at oral level may be a reason of biting
fingernails or drinking.
Electra complex —
EGO DEFENSE MECHANISMS
Displacement Discharging pent-up feelings to a less
Fixation Attaching oneself in an unreasonable way
to some person.
Projection Attributing one’s unacceptable motives to
Rationalization Using contrived explanations to conceal
unworthy motives for one’s behaviour.
Reaction Formation Adoption of seemingly opposite behaviour.
Regression Retreating to an earlier developmental level
Involving less mature behaviour.
Repression Preventing painful or dangerous thoughts
from entering consciousness.
Sublimation Channeling frustrated sexual energy into
Sno DISORDER PSYCHODYNAMIC VIEW
1 GAD Unconscious conflict b/w ego and id impulses.
Use of defense mechanism
Those with weak egos
Anxiety of unresolved oedipal conflict.
2 OCD Ego’s unconscious attempt to fend off anxiety associated with
Ocd patients have overly harsh toilet training.—fixated in the
anal sadistic stage of development.
Use of defense mechanisms
3 PHOBIA Defense against the anxiety produced by repressed id
impulses.Ex little hans…(freud)
Repressed emotional conflicts are converted into physical
5 CONVERSION Repressed anxiety of unconscious drives.(ex Anna O)