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Vocational Teacher Competences, Final Report for Oulu UAS Program

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Voc 1 final report

  1. 1. Learning portfolioTeemu Ylikoski, a2ylte00teemu.ylikoski@iki.fiFinal  report  VOC  1,  Vocational  pedagogy  1   Oulu University of Applied Sciences Vocational Teacher Education, iVET
  2. 2. Contents  1.  Learning  and  tutoring  .........................................................................................  3  1.1    What  kinds  of  views  of  learning  are  there?  ....................................................................................  3  1.2  What  role  do  learning  styles  and  strategies  have  in  study  guidance/tutoring?  ..............  4  1.3  What  role  does  the  curriculum  have  in  designing  learning  and  guidance?  .......................  5  2.  Different  teaching  methods  ................................................................................  6  2.1  What  do  terms  progressive  inquiry  and  project  learning  mean?  ..........................................  6  2.2  How  can  the  skills  on  progressive  inquiry  and  project  learning  can  be  taught?  ............  7  2.3  How  can  lecturing  be  enriched  in  virtual  teaching?  ....................................................................  8  3.  Evaluating  learning  and  competences  .................................................................  9  3.1  What  are  the  central  features  of  competence  based  qualifications  and  vocational  skills  demonstrations?  .....................................................................................................................................  9  3.2  How  to  evaluate/assess  learning?  .......................................................................................................  9  3.3  What  is  the  role  of  the  students  self  evaluation  in  vocational  education?  .....................  10  4.  Special  areas  of  vocational  teacherhood  ...........................................................  11  4.1  How  special  needs  students  are  best  acknowledged  in  teaching?  .....................................  11  4.2  How  to  develop  the  cooperation  between  vocational  education  and  working  life?   12   ...  4.3  How  entrepreneurship  is  being  developed  in  vocational  education?  ..............................  13  5.  Discussion,  self-­‐reflection  and  assessment  of  prior  learning   ..............................  14  5.1  Career  path  .................................................................................................................................................  14   .........................................................................................................................  15  5.2  Educational  philosophy  5.3  Takeaways  from  the  sessions  in  VOC  I  ...........................................................................................  18  6.  References   ........................................................................................................  19     2
  3. 3. 1.  Learning  and  tutoring  This report begins with summaries of the virtual session topics, mostlyexpanding on the materials covered. Key references are given and reflectionis included. A more thorough reflective part is in part 5 of the report. Itincludes an assessment of previous learning as well as thoughts on teachingphilosophy.1.1    What  kinds  of  views  of  learning  are  there?  Learning is a complex process involving psychological processes andinteraction between the learner and the social context. Rogers (2010, p. 98)suggests these learning theories can be classified by various dimensions:-theories focusing on the learner (=who is learning)-theories focusing on the context-theories focusing on the kind of learning task-theories focusing on the processes involved.The theories focusing on the learner feature a myriad of psychologicalprocess theories, ranging from behaviorist to cognitive theories. Personality,motivation, learning hierarchies and experiential learning fall into thiscategory. As discussed in the breakout, e.g. Piaget emphasizes makingconnections with previous knowledge. Every person builds knowledge withthe confrontation between the previous schemes and the observed world.Hence, learning is “built” by each of us in different ways and it cannot betransmitted passively. As Dunn (2002) notes, it is the learner who learns,i.e. learning is viewed as an internal process of the individual.As a takeaway, it would appear important to always make possible for thestudent to reflect and make a connection with their previous schemas. Thismay be something that is axiomatic but needs attention nevertheless. Inbusiness, which I teach, this can sometimes be problematic, as studentsmay not necessarily have very well developed previous knowledgestructures. 3
  4. 4. Context based learning theories, on the other hand, are getting moreinteresting as they focus on the social processes of learning. These rangefrom communication to Vygotsky’s social learning, as we discussed in ourpresentation. Social constructivism (cf. also Dunn) emphasizes collaborativelearning, i.e. learning in connection with others. If each of us elaborate ourown ideas of reality, how is it then even possible to have a discussion withothers who actually built their reality in their way? To learn we need toshare, discuss, and cooperate with others. Hence, learning is something thatchanges all the time from a basic level to cultural level.The process-based theories focus on actions and processes that tend to takeplace in various learning tasks. Kolb’s widely used learning process model isone example. It focuses on the state changes of knowledge, which isexperienced first and then later turned into something more abstract.1.2  What  role  do  learning  styles  and  strategies  have  in  study  guidance/tutoring?  Learning styles refer to the various ways of learning that people possess. Allindividuals have one or many preferred ways of learning. One’s “own” wayof learning is the result of personality, previous experience (studies,working-life), the outside world, and the co-action within (cf. Kise 2011)Usually, the student has some weak and some strong learning preferences.The role of the teacher needs to change. There is no one solution –tomorrow’s teacher needs to acknowledge the various views of learning andaccommodate for them.Since learning styles can also be learned, you can try to influence yourdominant style. In the US, teachers try to adapt their teaching styles totheir students. Maybe this is something we could do more in Finland? Also,do our dominant learning styles impact our dominant teaching styles? 4
  5. 5. Based on Kolb’s findings, learner types can be classified into four groups(Kolb et al 1999; Rogers 2000). Active learners are people who prefer tolearn by doing something immediately. These people are enthusiastic andcan’t wait to get to the next task. Reflective learners, on the other hand,prefer to ‘wait and see’. They like to ponder and have more informationbefore they can give an answer. Theorising learners like to build systems.For them, a problem is only solved when they get down to the principles.They perceive it important to understand the whole. Experimental learnersprefer to experiment and find ways in which to apply their new insights.They come back from training courses full of enthusiasm and new ideaswhich they want to try out.1.3  What  role  does  the  curriculum  have  in  designing  learning  and  guidance?  The curriculum can refer to various issues, such as the individual coursesneeded to pass, the overall offering of courses, which help prepare astudent for life after school, a wide all-round education or professionalcompetence (vocational education).The curriculum has several important impacts: It offers structure and asense of progression to teachers, students and administration. It is also adynamic educational program, which can be beneficial for current andprospective students. Schools, colleges and universities attract studentswith a variety of quality, competitive and flexible program curricula.The curriculum offers teachers ideas and strategies for assessing studyprograms. A student must meet certain academic requirements in order togo to the next level. The curriculum is the measure through which teacherscan be certain that they have supplied the necessary knowledge.It is also a communication device. It is a way to ensure studentunderstanding of what must be accomplished in order to obtain a degree.Without this knowledge, students might lose their way in the plethora ofofferings in a typical school (Glenn 2012). 5
  6. 6. 2.  Different  teaching  methods  2.1  What  do  terms  progressive  inquiry  and  project  learning  mean?  The first topic of the session concerned two related but different learningapproaches. The group started with an overview of classical learningtheories, which was somewhat puzzling as it was already covered in aprevious virtual session. It should be noted though that the connectivismdiscussion brought added value.Progressive inquiry is a process where a teacher provides the context for aproblem. The group of students works on the problem in a consecutivefashion. The process is of joint working and iteration, where knowledge iscreated in a circular fashion, much like scientific knowledge progresses(Wikipedia 2012).FIGURE: THE PROCESS OF PROGRESSIVE INQUIRY. SOURCE: CENTRE FOR RESEARCH ONNETWORKED LEARNING AND KNOWLEDGE BUILDING 2012The purpose in progressive inquiry is to facilitate expert-like working withknowledge. This was tried out in the Popplet session. It worked well as a 6
  7. 7. brainstorming session; we had a genuine idea generating session. However,we could have gone further into idea development. Maybe the group couldhave thought of some deepening problems beforehand.2.2  How  can  the  skills  on  progressive  inquiry  and  project  learning  can  be  taught?  This topic was about understanding how to use the thinking in vocationallearning. The presentation kicked off with an interview of Mervi Jansson.The video raises important issues: soft skills like collaboration and problemsolving.Different skill sets can support each other – like students and entrepreneurscan learn from each other. It takes a lot of coaching to get students to worktogether. It is important no to be too specific and to focus on facilitation.An important concept in progressive inquiry is distributed expertise. Theteacher’s role is to help students understand that every student has aresponsibility in the knowledge creation. It is important to make sure thatevery participant’s own expertise and thoughts are represented. One way toensure this is enticing mutual cooperation. Experts should be invited in theprocess and students’ outcomes should be released, even though they maystill be rather experimental (Centre for Research on Networked Learningand Knowledge Building 2012).Some takeaways: • Students can lose focus – it is necessary to always make clear why the topic is important! • The teacher needs to be present but should not be too dominant. • What are you grading? Communicate it clearly. • Assessment is important to be specific. Self- and peer assessment are important as well. 7
  8. 8. 2.3  How  can  lecturing  be  enriched  in  virtual  teaching?  This group focused on virtual teaching and various issues in it. Thediscussion was useful. We talked about the pros and cons of virtualteaching. It gives students a lot more freedom but requires them to beactive take responsibility and so on. It is easy for students to fall behind inonline teaching.How to enable people to use their strengths in virtual learning? This was onetakeaway in the session. Constructivism is an important to remember here –building information based on previous perceptions is relevant on the webas well.The final video raised multiple important issues. The democracy of theonline setting is a critical finding – students are more equal in the onlinesetting where everyone should have a more level field. This is morethoroughly discussed by Anderson & Elloumi (2004, p. 39). They also discussthe downsides of online educational communities: Although there are many online learning researchers who celebrate the capacity to create learning communities at a distance (Harasim, Hiltz, Teles, & Turoff, 1995), there are also those who note problems associated with lack of attention and participation (Mason & Hart, 1997), economic restraints (Annand, 1999), and an in-built resistance among many faculty and institutions to the threatening competition from virtual learning environments (Jaffee, 1998). (Anderson & Elloumi 2004, p. 39).Equality is an important issue as in the traditional classroom it is easy for astudent to stay low profile. The online community helps students speak up –even if they are shy, in online learning environment they can speak up andso it can become more democratic. “Learning happens due to the time that the student (not the teacher) has spent studying.” 8
  9. 9. “ Due to the nature of learning and the resources available for teaching, a large part of the learning happens, and will happen, without the teacher’s immediate presence” (Hyppönen & Linden 2010)3.  Evaluating  learning  and  competences    3.1  What  are  the  central  features  of  competence  based  qualifications  and  vocational  skills  demonstrations?  The Finnish competence based qualification system aims to create a systemfor adults having working experience already. Students can gainqualification without attending formal education. However, preparatorytraining is usually included. An important aspect is the personalization ofthe training.Two stages are included in the process of competence-based qualification.First, gaining competence refers to preparatory training. This can benecessary for e.g. counseling about the possibilities of work practice orother training. The second phase is the carrying out-stage. This includescounseling and tutoring about the competence tests. Importantly, it isengaged in co-operation with the working life (The Finnish National Board ofEducation 2012).3.2  How  to  evaluate/assess  learning?  Assessment is a very current topic. When we talk about the quality andcontent of teaching and learning, we will eventually end up talking aboutthe ways of assessment that we use. What do the ways of assessment thatwe have at our disposal tell us about the type of learning that we expect?There are many related issues that need to be considered. 9
  10. 10. For example, if we only use multiple choices, we tend to encourage acertain type of learning that may focus on rote learning and responsestrategies. While this may not be completely useless, it is quite far from thereal world that students will end up in after school (cf. the conventionalview in Wankat & Oreovicz 1992).So the type of assessment should match the type of knowledge that we areseeking rather than the amount of time we have at our disposal. Holisticassessment is one of the more recent topics. Holistic assessment representsa 360-degree view of the student and his/her learning. However, is it apanacea to cure all problems in assessment? No – because it is very timeconsuming. You cannot expect to be able to put it into use on every coursethat you have.3.3  What  is  the  role  of  the  students  self  evaluation  in  vocational  education?  The need of self-evaluation is relatively self-evident, being compulsory inFinland. Students must assess their stage of learning and what more there isto learn. This is done primarily to encourage their self-reflection and hence,the quality of learning. It doesn’t, however, happen by itself. The use ofself-assessment in learning quality improvement requires that students havetraining in self-assessment (The Finnish National Board of Education 2012).How to employ self-assessment in terms of improving teaching quality? Thestudent’s view of the learning is critical for improving teaching as afeedback loop. But all too often, it becomes simply a compulsory item withvery little usability.Part of the problem may relate to the way that student feedback is oftengathered. The standard way is to collect feedback in a quantitative fixedformat. While this helps in comparing averages over different teachers,student groups, and subject matters, it is not always the method that bestelicits new ideas from students. One might consider arranging a focus groupwith some student from various subjects and teachers, for example, and 10
  11. 11. have them generate ideas and compare practices. This might result in moreuseful ideas for further development of course content.4.  Special  areas  of  vocational  teacherhood  4.1  How  special  needs  students  are  best  acknowledged  in  teaching?  Special needs need to be covered, as it is an important way of ensuringequality between students. Often this translates into arranging some smallgroups for these special students, if the students are enlisted in a regularschool. Although, however, the norm today tends to assimilation. Specialneeds students can also apply for special institutes. Some requirements aredifferent for the teachers as well, obviously (The European Agency forDevelopment in Special Needs Education 2012).As the example in the earth video shows, it is clearly very important tounderstand the student’s special needs. Otherwise, grave misunderstandingscan happen. An understanding of the student’s personal conditions that mayaffect learning may be particularly important for those students (20%) whohave an undiagnosed condition.Also, it is important to note that these special needs often can and willmaterialize in other, seemingly unrelated behaviors. Furthermore, theproblems tend to compound so that a special student has more than oneproblem at the same time.Practical oriented learning can work better for students who havedifficulties in the conventional methods. Special attention must be given toconnecting with the student on an individual level.A key takeaway from the session was a quote from the special studentteacher: it is not so much about finding a solution, rather than getting ageneral understanding. 11
  12. 12. 4.2  How  to  develop  the  cooperation  between  vocational  education  and  working  life?  There are many possible forms of school-workplace cooperation. It can bedriven by the future employer’s recruitment and reputation management,which is often the case with campus visibility and business presentations.It can also be based on student contacts and sharing knowledge. This maytake the form of e.g. guest lectures, business projects, or casework. Also, itis possible to have cooperation based on innovations and innovative workpractices. These may take the form of joint research projects aimingtowards new innovations, or they may include other innovation servicesprovided by the school. Finally, cooperation can feature deep cooperation,motivated by knowledge dissemination, know-how development, andnetworking (Ylikoski & Kortelainen 2012).We presented an example of a holistic integration of VET and businesscooperation, the Estonian “opipoiss” project (Matilainen & Courtney 2010).The aim of the project was to create new vocational training modules andcurricula across a number of rural subjects including agriculture andhorticulture. There are two important findings in the case: first, it employsthe working life in all phases of designing and delivering the curriculum.Second, it brings together a network of SMEs (small- and medium sizedcompanies).Businesses are present in every stage of the curriculum lifecycle. Resultsfrom the Estonian project are good: all partners gain new insight. Studentshave more options for learning and alternative routes to choose from. Newresources are built through partnership and cooperation, especially throughknowledge. 12
  13. 13. Most companies in the EU are rather small. However, most school partnerstend to be quite large companies. The EU calls for more cooperation withsmaller companies. The Estonian example shows a way to accomplish this:even though the small or medium sized company may be too small forcooperation by itself, through a network of SMEs it can access theseresources.Overall observations from the session emphasized good experiences witheducation-working life cooperation. However, some problems may alsoarise, as this discussion quote exemplifies: We have had some problems in bringing the students into actual real work. Quality systems and authorisation are causing difficulty – students cannot always perform the real work.A key takeaway from the session: is business-school cooperation a realmethod of cooperation or just a form of corporate responsibility?4.3  How  entrepreneurship  is  being  developed  in  vocational  education?  Self-reflection is important: Do your own attitudes and skills make you acompetent teacher in entrepreneurship? While the quiz presented by theJupiter team was very relevant, it also calls for the various different viewsin the issue of entrepreneurship.How can you assist students in getting on the path of entrepreneurship? Thegeneral guidelines of the Finnish education system require a certain amountof formal training in the matter (Ministry of Education 2009). But formaltraining and knowledge in entrepreneurship is only one component ofentrepreneurial education. It is equally, if not more important, to givestudents first hand experience in entrepreneurship.So the goal is developing an environment that emphasizes entrepreneuriallearning. Typically, this would involve direct contact with realentrepreneurs, learning in a real environment, or a simulation that would 13
  14. 14. rehearse entrepreneurial skills. You can make students practice setting up acompany. You can have them work in projects with actual entrepreneurs.You can set up skill competitions, which can be important – if they fit withthe curriculum. Simulation is one useful way as well. Students can establisha company, operating it like a real company, using virtual currency.Some of the key skills needed in entrepreneurial education are problemsolving, group work, taking initiative, and taking risk. These are all veryrelevant skills in other fields as well. These support the notion that it isimportant to have an understanding of entrepreneurship even if you areemployed – i.e. the entrepreneurial attitude.It is also important to keep in mind that the present type of working lifethat we lead may not be stable forever. Entrepreneurial skills become moreimportant in the future, as we are moving away from traditionalemployment towards more contract-based work.A key takeaway is that you cannot ensure that the students entrepreneurattitudes change for the positive but you can give the students a realisticview of what its like to be an entrepreneur. This, once could say, can bemore important than overly positive attitudes.5.  Discussion,  self-­‐reflection  and  assessment  of  prior  learning  5.1  Career  path  The focus of this discussion is on reflecting my growth as a vocationaleducation teacher. Vocational education refers to preparing students for atrade or craft. Although the general use of the term in Finland relates tosecondary education, I am taking some liberties here and using the moregeneral meaning. The sole purpose of this is to justify my previous learningexperience in my current craft (teaching), although most of my previouseducation is from universities (tertiary education). 14
  15. 15. It is difficult to say when my informal education in teaching began. Being achild of a lecturer and a public speaker, I would guess that some aptitudetoward teaching was inherent in me from the beginning. Or at least, apositive attitude was present in me from early on.During the years of formal training, I did receive various opportunities tohone my skills in speaking, presenting and group work, although the focuswas not on teaching as such. These were a part of the business studies Itook for my Masters in the early 1990s. As I was oriented towards languageand writing, I tried to gain as much understanding in these fields even then.I would assess that those skills – such as having received video feedbackfrom my speaking – are still in effect in my current trade.5.2  Educational  philosophy  I am a believer in life long learning, having experienced and employed thatin many forms. I became first aware of such a feature some time afterreceiving my first degree. While the first years in university were not alwaysvery motivating, after graduation, I started to see their importance.Motivated by a hunger for knowledge, I returned to academia in my mid-20s.I was recruited as a Ph.D. candidate and research was my main job.However, us younger members of the staff were often the ones mainlyresponsible for certain types of teaching assignments, such as those no oneelse wanted.This is the way I found my present job, as one might say, through moreaccident than purpose. I found myself teaching at the University of Helsinkiand teaching and supervising theses at the Helsinki School of Economics. Ihad no formal education in education, but that seemed relatively minor inthat context. University teachers were then mostly people with good trackrecords in research, and pedagogical skills were vastly undervalued.Sometimes, it seems this has not changed substantially over the years. 15
  16. 16. As years went by, I became gradually more deeply interested in teaching asa profession. And I am referring to “interest” as a need for knowledge.Obviously, as it was my profession, I was interested in the job at some levelanyway. But what happened was a spark that ignited a need to obtainknowledge of the intricacies of teaching.I have always been a believer in student-centric learning. In the late 90s andearly 00s everything online was all the rage and I set out to develop coursematerial and thesis support material on the web. The tools we had at ourdisposal were obviously rather crude but those were pioneering times. Oneof the projects I was involved in concerned making thesis writing supportmaterial available online. The need for 24/7 access to such material wasalready apparent as students worked on their theses (and still do) at wildlydifferent hours. As I had work and research experience with Webtechnologies, it seemed appropriate to incorporate that knowledge intoteaching as well. This is another philosophy that I carry with me even today– always looking for new technological advances to assist in learning.I also set out to obtain education related to the use of the web in teaching.Helsinki University’s Media and Pedagogy unit offered a possibility todeepen one’s knowledge in online learning solutions and I took part in oneof their project courses. The course was headed by Seppo Tella who is aneLearning pioneer. The project ended up with a completely usable versionof online support resource for students. We even received a grant for it.By this time I had become a teacher for international groups at the HSE. Iwas teaching a course in Marketing Management for exchange students andFinnish students who wanted to take their education in English. The “EnglishTrack”, as it was called, consisted of some 40 students in every intake.Since these international groups were relatively small (as opposed to theFinnish equivalent, where I had over 400 students for the same introductory 16
  17. 17. module), I had eventually turned the course into a project and case basedlearning class. The feedback was overwhelmingly good, though I suspect italso reflected the incredibly good group dynamics and spirit that wasapparent in these international students.This returns to another principle of my educational philosophy; studentactivity. I do not believe a teacher can actually teach a student anything. Iflearning takes place, it happens because of the student doing thinking workthrough applying and incorporating new knowledge. As a teacher, I set outto facilitate the creation of a learning environment, where my studentscould gain new information through casework, projects, studentpresentations and discussion. My role was – and still mostly is – of the coachand mentor.At this time (early 2000s) I started a teaching education program that theHSE arranged for us young guns. The “MBA Teacher’s Program” was apedagogical, observational, evaluations, and feedback based compendiumof various workshops, video sessions, evaluation sessions, and classes. Thecourse was headed by Ass. Dean Jyrki Wallenius and featured severalinternational professors.As part of the education, I sat in MBA classes observing teaching strategies. Iparticipated in evaluation sessions, gave demo lectures, and presentationsthat were recorded for painful scrutiny. I participated in workshops focusingon problem based learning and case discussion leadership.Having had the opportunity to work as a teacher, coach and supervisor for avariety of different students has also given me the possibility to learn firsthand. I am not sure what gave the initial impact, but I have been aproponent of active learning for very long. It may be that it was something Itried at one point, and was surprised by the results. 17
  18. 18. However, even though the years of practical experience surely have givenme first hand knowledge, implicit and explicit knowledge, I still feel I am atan early stage of my teaching skills development. This is where I hope mystudies in the iVET will come in handy.5.3  Takeaways  from  the  sessions  in  VOC  I  Throughout the sessions, the use of more creative methods appeared toincrease evenly. It was beneficial to try out various online collaborationmethods as it tended to increase participation. I also got an impulse to tryout real time collaboration in Prezi, which I tested during a course I wasteaching in October.Overall, the sessions employed various creative methods – joint working,collaboration and open discussion. This was very fruitful, much more thanconventional presentations. I think it is great to see people experimentingwith different methods.Mostly, presenters had taken time to connect their topics into real lifeexamples. This was very useful and helped comprehension substantially.Some technical aspects bothered smooth flow of the sessions. Some of theslides had very small text so it was difficult to see the material. Videosdidn’t always play properly through Adobe Connect, and connectivity issuesgave trouble in nearly all sessions.The structure of the presentations was sometimes a little confusing, as thepresenters did not always explain what the next stage of collaboration wasto be. 18
  19. 19. 6.  References   Anderson, Terry & Fathi Elloumi (2004), Theory and Practice of Online Learning. Athabasca University. Accessed at http://cde.athabascau.ca/online_book/pdf/TPOL_book.pdf Centre for Research on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building (2012), Development of learning theories. Accessed at http://www.helsinki.fi/science/networkedlearning/eng/delete.html Dunn, Lee (2002). Learning and teaching briefing series. Accessed at http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/briefing_papers/learn ing_theories.pdf The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education (2012), Complete national overview – Finland. Accessed at http://www.european- agency.org/country-information/finland/national-overview/complete- national-overview The Finnish National Board of Education (FNBE) 2012, accessed at http://www.oph.fi/english Glenn, Steve (2012), Importance of Curriculum to Teaching. Accessed at http://www.ehow.com/facts_6189570_importance-curriculum- teaching.html Hyppönen, Olli & Satu Linden (2009), Opettajan käsikirja - opintojaksojen rakenteet, opetusmenetelmät ja arviointi. Teknillisen korkeakoulun Opetuksen ja opiskelun tuen julkaisuja 4/2009. Accessed at http://lib.tkk.fi/Raportit/2009/isbn9789522480637.pdf Kise, Jane (2011), Let Me Learn My Own Way. Educational Leadership. Accessed at http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational- leadership/summer11/vol68/num09/Let-Me-Learn-My-Own-Way.aspx David A. Kolb, Richard E. Boyatzis, Charalampos Mainemelis (1999), Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions. 19
  20. 20. Working paper. The revised paper appears in: R. J. Sternberg and L. F.Zhang (Eds.), Perspectives on cognitive, learning, and thinking styles. NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum, 2000.Matilainen & Courtney (eds), 2010, Best practices for co-operation betweenvocational education and nature-based enterprises, Helsinki UniversityMinistry of Education (2009), Guidelines for Entrepreneurship Education,Publications of the Ministry of Education 2009:9Rogers, Alan (2010). Teaching Adults (4th Edition). Berkshire, GBR: OpenUniversity PressWankat & Oreovicz (1992), Teaching Engineering. Mcgraw-Hill College.Wikipedia (2012), Progressive Inquiry. Accessed athttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_inquiryYlikoski, Teemu & Mika J. Kortelainen, (2012),"A new approach formanaging university-workplace partnerships", Industrial and CommercialTraining, Vol. 44 Iss: 6 pp. 349 - 356 20