WHAT IS AN ELL?A Dictionary of Terms For Teachers Teresa Furukawa CSE 623, Summer 2010
Why? This is not an exhaustive dictionary of terms, but an attempt to combine like terms and give working definitions for teachers who are just starting their ESOL journey. Not sure what they are talking about?
Who? ELL – English Language Learner This is the ‘student’ although it may in general refer to any person whose native language is not English but who is acquiring English. CLD – Culturally and Linguistically Diverse This is a newer name for an ELL but also encompasses the understanding that many students from other cultures or cultural sub-groups can also need specialized instruction in English. LEP- Limited English Proficient An older term for ELL but also referring to a student’s level of English language acquisition
What? ESL – English as a Second Language : describe a wide variety of programs/methods used to educate students whose native/primary language is not English. ESOL – English for Speakers of Other Languages L1 – First or Primary Language: the native language of the student L2- Second language: second language (often English) and usually the one that is being acquired
Bilingual education- An in-school program for students whose first language is not English or who have limited English skills. Bilingual education provides English language development plus subject area instruction in the student's native language. The goal is for the child to gain knowledge and be literate in two languages. (Ed Source) Immersion- A program that teaches children to speak, read, and write in a second language by surrounding them with conversation and instruction in that language. Fluent English Proficient (FEP)A designation that means that a student is no longer considered as part of the school's English learner population. It refers to students who have learned English. (Ed Source)
sheltered EnglishAn instructional approach in which classes are composed entirely of students learning English. Students are taught using methods that make academic instruction in English understandable. In some schools, students may be clustered in a mainstream classroom. Examples include: GLAD, SIOP (to be defined in the next edition )
Types of Programs Dual Language Education: aka Two-Way Bilingual, Dual Immersion, Two-Way Immersion Goal: bilingualism and bi-literacy of all students (read/write/speak in both languages) Type of instruction: all students taught literacy and subjects in both languages by immersion 90/10 model – 90% L1/10% L2 in early grade 50/50 model– 50% in each language in older grades Length of program: 5-6 years Example: Grant School in Salem, OR
Developmental Bilingual Education: Aka Gradual Exit or Late Exit Goal: bilingualism and bi-literacy of all students (read/write/speak in both languages) Type of Instruction: Initial literacy/subject instruction in L1, daily ESL instruction with gradual increase in the amount of literacy/subject instruction in English 90% L1 in k-1 gradually decreasing to 50% or less by grade 4 Length of program: 5-6 years, with continued instruction in L1 after exit. Transitional Bilingual Education: Aka Early Exit Goal: Assimilate ELL students, L2 acquisition without falling behind academically Type of Instruction: Initial literacy/subject instruction in L1, daily ESL instruction, rapid increase in the amount of literacy/subject instruction in English 10-50% L1, 50-90% in English Length of Program: 2-4 years, students exit when English proficient.
Structured Immersion: Aka Sheltered English, Content Based ESL Goal: Assimilate ELLs, quick exit to mainstream classroom Type of instruction: sheltered subject matter instruction (immersion) at student’s level of English. 90-100% in English, may include L1 for clarification. Length of program: 1-3 years Current Salem-Keizer model ESL Pullout: Aka Immersion plus ESL Goal: assimilate ELLs, remedial English Type of Instruction: Mainstream instruction, ELLs pulled out for 30-45 minutes of daily ESL 90-100% English, may include some L1 support Length of Program: as needed
Immersion: Aka Sink or Swim Goal: assimilate ELLs into English-dominant society Type of Instruction: Mainstream instruction, no special help with English, 100% English Length of Program: n/a
Sources Educating English learners : language diversity in the classroom by James Crawford http://www.schoolwisepress.com/smart/dict/dict3.html