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Part Two Of Behavior For Tewksbury Part Two Of Behavior For Tewksbury Presentation Transcript

  • Functional Behavior Assessment to A Positive Behavior Support Plan Presented by Kate Ahern, M.S.Ed.
  • My Personal Behavioral Philosophy
    • ALL Behavior is Communication!
  • Our Job is to Figure Out . . .
    • What is being said.
    • Try these examples:
    • A third grade chews on his pencil during tests.
    • A fifth grader gets into a argument every other Monday
    • A teen with special needs throws his back pack when he sees a different bus monitor on his van.
  • Why did he or she do that?
    • The function of a behavior is the why .
    • In general our aim is to find out the why so we can turn a negative behavior into a more positive behavior. There are many ways to find this out including:
    • Intuition, followed by investigation
    • Formal, commercial charts and checklists
    • Interviews with various caregivers and professionals
    • Assessments by various professionals including OT, behaviorists, medical and psychiatrists if needed
    • Data collection based on theories created
  • Consider
    • Is it that
    • the child IS a problem
    • OR
    • The child HAS a problem
  • A New Model of Behavior Change
    • Prevent (the old challenging behaviors from happening via setting and antecedent controls)
    • Teach (a new positive skill to replace the behavior)
    • Reinforce (the use of the new skill)
    • Also known as PTR
  • Data Collection
    • The process of collecting information to determine what kinds of problems the child is facing
    • And assist us in determining the best pathway to helping the child with his or her problem
  • Types of Data Collection
    • Obtrusive.
    • It is obvious you are taking data.
    • The act of taking data may change the behavior.
    • Results of data may not be accurate because of above.
    • Unobtrusive.
    • It is not clear you are taking data, student may have no idea or think you are watching something else.
    • May produce more accurate results than obtrusive.
  • Types of Data Collection
    • Contrived.
    • Data collection is a “set-up”.
    • Students are not in their usual setting or their schedule has been changed.
    • Results may not mirror what happens in the students natural setting.
    • Naturalistic
    • Data collection happens in the child’s usual setting without any change of routine.
    • Results may be more accurate of what happens in this child’s day to day life.
  • Types of Data Collection
    • Qualitative
    • Not number based
    • Narratives
    • Journal entries
    • Notes home
    • Log books
    • A-B-C Charts
    • Quantitative
    • Number based
    • Charts
    • Tables
    • Graphs
    • Grids
    • Checklists
    • A-B-C Charts
  • Quantitative Data Collection I
    • Must be measurable.
    • Must be valid (is testing for what it says it is testing for) and reliable (different scorers get the same results).
    • Must be defined – behavior, context, schedule, recording.
    • Characteristics.
      • Duration (how long does it happen?)
      • Latency (how long from the cue until the action?)
      • Frequency (how many times does it happen?)
      • Amplitude (how good, bad or intense was it?)
  • Quantative Data Collection II
    • Types of time sampling
      • Whole-interval (behavior must occur through whole interval)
      • Partial-interval (behavior occurs at any time through interval)
      • Momentary time sample (behavior occurs at end of time)
    • Ideas to streamline data collection
      • Number, lap, stitch and grocery counters
      • Tangible objects and boxes, jars, pockets
      • Masking tape on your sleeve and a washable (in case you miss) marker
      • Creativity is key
    • Don’t forget to transfer it to a data sheet!!!
  • Some things to think about
    • Response chains (student whines, then argues, then tears up paper, then hits, then runs away)
    • Setting events (location, people, environmental factors, etc)
    • Avoid explanatory fictions (these restate the problem and are not measurable – she hits because she has poor communication skills)
    • Consider different behavior with different functions or different behaviors with same functions
  • FBA Elements Contextually Appropriate Support Testable Hypothesis Function Statement Competing Pathways Analysis Supporting Data Behavior Intervention Plan Definition of Problem Behavior or Class of Behaviors
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment (Understanding Behavior)
    • Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is the process of learning about people before intervening in their lives. It is a systematic process for describing difficult behavior, identifying environmental factors and setting events that predict the behavior, and guiding the development of effective and efficient behavior support plans. FBA is the foundation of positive behavioral support. Three important beliefs underlying FBA are:
    • 1. All behavior that persists serves some purpose,
    • 2. Every person is unique, and
    • 3. The best way to help someone change their behavior is to first understand the reasons behind the behavior.
    • One of the misapplications of behavior analysis has been the wide-spread use of behavior management, or behavior modification, procedures that prescribe consequences for difficult behavior without first assessing the reasons for the behavior. The need for FBA can be seen when two different people display the same behavior for two different reasons. One person may run away from a caregiver when asked to perform a certain task because he has learned to avoid the work by running away. Yet another person may show the very same behavior because she has learned that she can get individual attention from the caregiver (e.g., being chased and brought back) when she runs away. The intervention methods chosen for these two individuals should be different based on their unique assessments, rather than the same based on the similar appearance of their behavior. Unfortunately, without a functional behavioral assessment people with similar behaviors tend to be treated with similar consequences. Many things go into a comprehensive FBA. These include:
  • Clear Description of the Behavior
    • What does the challenging behavior look like? What does it sound like? Does it occur in conjunction with other behaviors or in isolation? Is there any warning? How long does it last? How long has it been a problem? Similarly, what would an alternative desirable behavior look/sound like?
  • Rationale
    • A rationale is needed for why the behavior is deemed difficult and why it requires change. Sometimes minor infractions are viewed as major problems by one caregiver but insignificant by others. Is the behavior harmful to self or others, or is it merely distracting? Sometimes the questions must be asked, "Whose problem is it?"
  • Strengths and Needs
    • What skills does the person have that could become a source of success and esteem? These are often the very behaviors that are viewed as difficult. For example, a student with boundless energy may not be able to sit still in class, but could become a tremendous help to the crew that cleans the cafeteria tables. What limitations does the person have that prevent him/her from accomplishing the simple things, and achieving the recognition that other students take for granted?
  • Assignment Beginning the FBA
    • Decide whether you want to work in a group or alone, groups should be people who share students
    • Choose a student you wish to offer positive behavioral support
    • Define the problem behavior you feel changing would improve the student’s quality of life
    • Define the new behavior you would like the student to learn in its place
    • Write a (very short) rationale for addressing this behavior
    • Write a brief list of strengths and needs for this student
    • Determine the best means of collecting baseline data over the new two days
  • Other areas to consider in the FBA
    • Watch for how these impact the student and his or her behavior in the next two days
    • Jot down notes about these areas if needed to help with creating the positive behavior support plan
  • Typical Routines
    • When is it likely to occur? When is it less likely? What are the activities or expectations, and with whom does it occur? It is also helpful to ask these who, what, when and where questions of the alternative desirable behavior.
  • Likes/Dislikes
    • What kinds of events, books, movies, foods, music, etc., does the person enjoy? What does he hate? Some behavior challenges are nothing more than a statement of preference or refusal for people who cannot speak or be heard otherwise. Understanding what a person enjoys can help to break up the day and serve as a means to connect with others.
  • Values/Culture
    • Who are the heroes in this person's life? Does he value the qualities found in TV action characters, in his father or uncle, in her grandmother, or the popular girls at school, and what are those qualities? How do the values and routines of the immediate family, extended family, neighborhood or village, impact the individual's behavior? Does she find greater importance in caring for a baby or sick grandmother than in attending school or getting to work on time? Is he a part of a group where loyalty to a family or gang member is demonstrated by getting even? Does the school culture encourage using words to tell the teacher, or not tattling and using fists?
  • Biomedical/Physical Factors
    • Ear infections, stomach aches, headaches, over-sensitivity to certain sounds, hunger, fatigue, over-stimulation, boredom or the way things feel to the touch, can all vary among individuals. Yet these factors can be a significant reason for many behaviors like head banging, chronic whining, striking out at others, or running out of a room. The person's diet and medications are also important considerations, as are things like depression, attention deficits, seizure disorders, and many more. Understanding specific disabilities and their impact on behavior is a necessary requirement of any FBA.
  • Environmental Factors
    • Do the challenging behaviors occur more in some settings than in others? Do they occur less in some settings? Differences in noise level, the density of the crowd, the expectations of the setting (e.g., a classroom versus a playground), can all make a difference. Is the person's schedule too unpredictable? Is it too predictable? Does she do better in warm weather or cold, bright sunlight or indoors? Do shirts with collars or certain fabrics irritate the skin and increase challenging behavior? Both the physical and social environments should be considered here.
  • Motivation
    • What does the person gain through her behavior? Does she get attention, assistance, food or objects that she wants? What does he escape or avoid through his behavior? Does he get out of doing chores by complaining? Does he avoid a scolding or grounding by lying? Also, what is the motivation for behaving? Does working hard pay off? Does telling the truth? Does dressing himself result in any greater reinforcement than remaining dependant on others to dress him? Does "good" behavior go unnoticed while "bad" behavior gets an immediate reaction? This is one of the most significant factors to consider in any FBA and should include a description of the setting events, antecedents and consequences of the behavior.
  • Intervention History
    • A good assessment also seeks to learn from the past. What has worked and what hasn't worked are important questions to answer, as are who has helped and who has not. Also, many people with challenging behaviors have been treated harshly for years, or have experienced severe trauma at some point in their lives.
  • Learning History
    • What has the person been learning through her history of displaying difficult behavior? Has she learned, for example, that "good" behavior goes unnoticed while "bad" behavior gets an immediate reaction? Has he learned that the longer he persists at complaining, fighting or tantruming, the more likely he is to get his way?
  • Learning Style
    • How does the person learn best? Can she follow simple or complex instructions? Can he translate what he hears into action, or has he learned to tune out verbal instructions. Does she learn best by seeing, feeling, doing, or by teaching others?
  • Relationships
    • Many people with developmental disabilities and/or difficult behavior have few meaningful relationships that are lateral rather than hierarchical, that are equitable rather than inequitable, and that involve people in their lives who are not reimbursed in some way for their time. To what type of person is the individual attracted? What type of people does she avoid? Meaningful peer relationships are critical for social development and quality of life.
    • Case Studies
    • from Recent Literature
  • ALAN
    • “ Alan was a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autism and mild metal retardation. Alan experienced
    • significant visual impairment – he could differentiate between light and dark but could not detect
    • shapes or movement – and communicated verbally. . . . Alan only consumed foods of a smooth
    • texture (e.g., yogurt) and, as a result of his significant food selectivity, had developed an iron
    • deficiency. . . . When Alan was offered nonsmooth foods, he typically accepted the initial bite
    • (most likely because he could not see it) but immediately expelled it. If continued attempts were
    • made to have Alan accept [nonsmooth food], he often exhibited aggressive or self-injurious
    • behavior” (McCartney, Anderson, & English, 2005, p. 19).
    • Function: Avoid eating non-preferred foods.
    • Intervention: Escape extinction and differential reinforcement. Researchers modeled for
    • caregivers how to continue to offer different types of foods, alternating bites of preferred and
    • nonpreferred foods while very gradually shaping acceptance and not allowing Alan to escape
    • from prompts and requests to try different kinds of foods. However, at first, as soon as even one
    • bite of nonpreferred food was accepted, verbal praise was given and the child was allowed to
    • play with toys. Later, more bites of nonpreferred food were required before reinforcement was
    • given.
    • Outcome: “Alan started to consume a variety of meats and other previously nonpreferred foods”
    • (McCartney et al., 2005, p. 24). Later, he continued to willingly consume meat and a variety of
    • other foods of different textures.
  • Callie
    • “ Callie was a 6-year-old female with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), seizure
    • disorder, and developmental coordination disorder. She received no medications to treat
    • symptoms associated with ADHD. . . . [Recently] her physician discontinued her seizure
    • medication due to a lack of seizure activity. . . . Callie did not receive any physical therapy
    • intervention . . . Callie, one of four students in a self-contained classroom, often behaved in ways
    • that disrupted her own and peers’ work, as well as the teacher’s routine. She also displayed
    • challenging behavior during lunch, snack, recess, and free time. A classwide token reinforcement
    • system . . . failed to improve Callie’s behavior. . . . Information gleaned from the teacher
    • interview suggested tentatively two possible types (i.e., functions) of challenging behavior –
    • escape and attention [but the teacher reported that] Callie’s behavior was very ‘unpredictable’”
    • (Zuna & McDougall, 2004, pp. 19-20). Direct observations indicated more specifically that
    • Callie often hurried to complete academic tasks and sometimes refused to do them. In addition,
    • she was observed to often ask questions or make comments that were inappropriate or distracting
    • (e.g., “Why do I have to do this?” and “My chair is too short” and “Do you have any sisters?”).
    • In addition, she fidgeted excessively (e.g., twirling her hair) during academic tasks. She also
    • frequently tattled on peers. The teacher had tried two types of timeout, having Callie place her
    • head on her desk and sending her to a timeout corner but these had not helped. Callie’s behavior
    • was usually appropriate during free time, recess, and snack time.
    • Functions: Escape from academic work and attention from adults.
    • Intervention: Four interventions were tried, but this was the one that was continued combined:
    • (a) “DRA [Differential Reinforcement of Alternative] (Miltenberger, 2001) – Positive verbal
    • reinforcement for on-task behavior, plus extinction/no response for inappropriate behavior” with
    • “ choice of task and choice of break activity. Choice of task was allowed for all academic
    • seatwork. After completing 3 tasks, a 5-minute break was provided. To ease transitions from
    • break back to work, Callie was asked what she would like to do for her next break. This was
    • written on her assignment as a visual reminder” (Zuna & McDougall, 2004, p. 22)
    • Outcome: Frequency of problem behavior incidents decreased from an average of 26 per session
    • to an average of 12 per session.
  • Jason
    • “ Jason was a 10-year-old, typically developing Caucasian boy who attended a fourth-grade
    • classroom . . . He was the tallest child in his class, was well groomed, and appeared to be in good
    • health. Jason made adequate grades (mostly C’s and B’s) and was well liked by his peers.
    • Nevertheless, his teacher considered him to be a difficult child because of his frequent off-task
    • behavior, particularly during independent academic assignments in reading and math . . . [He
    • was] very disruptive . . . talked with other students . . . kicked his seat or the one in front of him .
    • . . wandered around the room. [These behaviors] initially resulted in redirection by the teacher
    • or the instructional aide. Jason usually got back on task after redirection, but not for long. After
    • three or four attempts at redirection, the teacher usually reprimanded him, reminding him of the
    • class rules and the consequences for misbehavior. When reprimands were unsuccessful, the
    • teacher would refer Jason to the office for disciplinary action” (Umbreit, Lane, & Dejud, 2004, p.
    • 14)
    • Direct observations and a student interview indicated that Jason was capable of doing the
    • work quickly and accurately and that he often “had little to do for a majority of the independent
    • assignment period” (Umbreit et al., 2004, p. 16).
    • Functions: Escape from academic work and attention from adults.
    • Intervention: Provide more challenging tasks that match Jason’s ability level.
    • Outcome: On-task behavior increased from about 50% of the time to about 91% of the time in
    • reading and math and off-task and disruptive behaviors showed a corresponding decrease.
  • SANDRA
    • Sandra is a middle school student who has had minor behavior problems for some time but
    • recently has escalated to more serious ones, particularly defiance. She has been sent to the
    • principal’s office for discipline three times recently, once by her geography teacher and twice by
    • her math teacher. When asked to complete tasks by teachers, she says things like, “I’m not doing
    • this today” or “I’ll do it when I’m ready” or “Buzz off.” She reads a magazine instead. This is
    • more likely to happen if she is asked to perform in front of the class (e.g., work a problem on the
    • chalkboard or show where a country is on a map) or work in a cooperative learning group. She
    • does not do this in home economics, reading, or physical education. (from Scott, Liaupsin,
    • Nelson, & Jolivette, 2003).
    • Function: “Sandra is likely to engage in defiant behavior when asked to work with or in front of
    • peers . . . she ultimately escapes or avoids” working with or in front of peers by “becoming
    • defiant or ignoring directions” (Scott et al., 2003, p. 19)
    • Interventions: 1. Taught and immediately reinforced a replacement behavior – “use appropriate
    • verbal statements to indicate that she wishes to work in an alternative format . . . [these requests]
    • will be granted immediately” (p. 20)
    • 2. Counseling about anxiety
    • 3. Be a peer tutor in reading
    • Outcome: After two weeks, only two occurrences of defiance across all classes occurred, and
    • these were in the first few days.
  • SANDRA
    • Sandra is a middle school student who has had minor behavior problems for some time but
    • recently has escalated to more serious ones, particularly defiance. She has been sent to the
    • principal’s office for discipline three times recently, once by her geography teacher and twice by
    • her math teacher. When asked to complete tasks by teachers, she says things like, “I’m not doing
    • this today” or “I’ll do it when I’m ready” or “Buzz off.” She reads a magazine instead. This is
    • more likely to happen if she is asked to perform in front of the class (e.g., work a problem on the
    • chalkboard or show where a country is on a map) or work in a cooperative learning group. She
    • does not do this in home economics, reading, or physical education. (from Scott, Liaupsin,
    • Nelson, & Jolivette, 2003).
    • Function: “Sandra is likely to engage in defiant behavior when asked to work with or in front of
    • peers . . . she ultimately escapes or avoids” working with or in front of peers by “becoming
    • defiant or ignoring directions” (Scott et al., 2003, p. 19)
    • Interventions: 1. Taught and immediately reinforced a replacement behavior – “use appropriate
    • verbal statements to indicate that she wishes to work in an alternative format . . . [these requests]
    • will be granted immediately” (p. 20)
    • 2. Counseling about anxiety
    • 3. Be a peer tutor in reading
    • Outcome: After two weeks, only two occurrences of defiance across all classes occurred, and
    • these were in the first few days.
  • Analyzing Data
    • Looks for trends – for example does the behavior always happens at a certain time of day (when a medicine wears off, right after lunch, at art time) at a certain time of the week or month (Monday or Friday, full moon, every 28 days), does it happen only with certain staff, in certain classes, with certain peers, only when there is a half day or fire alarm? Does the behavior only happen when there is a schedule change? Be vigilant explore every possible trend, if there is not enough data then take more or be more specific in your data collection.
    • Look for how you may be reinforcing behavior – what happens when the student acts out, maybe it is exactly what the student wants, he gets out of class and sits in the office, she gets easier work to do, he gets to go to the “opportunity room”, she gets attention even if it is negative attention, his peers laugh
    • Try to figure out what you can change in the process of the behavior that will take away the reinforcement and make the behavior useless to the child
    • Try to figure out how to change the setting or eliminate the antecedent (if possible) so there is no need for the behavior
    • Take a close look at the adults role in the behavior how are they creating a situation that requires it or reinforces it, be tactful and focus on helping the child in any discussions that come up, these can be touchy subjects.
    • Examine ways to support the student’s attempts to behavior in a positive manner whenever that happens.
  • Assignment: Analyzing Your Data
    • Individually or in your group review the data you have collected
    • Look for trends in the data and possible function
    • Create a hypothesis of the function of the behavior
  • Behavior Plan Basics
    • Should be written by a behaviorist, psychologist or a special education teacher, preferably a team approach
    • Should include a introduction to the student with a positive focus – person centered planning if possible
    • Should include positive behavior supports and focus on positive behaviors to increase rather than negative behaviors to eliminate, you have to replace those negatives with something!
    • Should include data sheets to use, which clearly define the negative behavior and positive replacement behavior
    • Should include contact numbers in case things don’t work out as expected or there are questions
    • Should include emergency plan if the child has a tendency to be aggressive to self or others
    • Should be very clear as to what is to be done when positive or negative behaviors are acted out (rewards/consequences)
    • Should be sure to have every one on board, teachers, aides, family, specialists, consistency is key
  • Writing a Individual (Tertiary) PBS Plan
    • Critical Features of a PBS Plan
    • Student name and team members names, the date
    • Identifying information
    • Student's positive characteristics
    • Team's vision statement (can be as brief as a sentence or as long as a few paragraphs)
    • Definition(s) of behaviors to be increased and problem behavior (clear, concise – remember a behavior has to be observable and measurable)
    • Summary of the functional behavioral assessment
    • Interventions
      • Setting event interventions (how will environment, schedule, supervision ratio, etc be changed to support the plan)
      • Antecedent interventions (what to do when you notice events happening that may trigger a troublesome behavior and/or if the student’s behavior begins to break down towards a behavioral outburst – be specific, identify as many triggers and how to respond as needed)
      • Interventions for teaching new skills (how, where, when and by whom new skills/replacement behaviors will be taught)
      • Consequence/reinforcement/reward interventions (what is the differiential reinforcement plan, schedule etc. How exactly is it to be followed out)
    • Crisis prevention plan (if needed)
    • Description of how and at what intervals the PBS plan will be evaluated
    • Summary of any additional training needed (i.e. all staff need restraint training, 1:1 staff needs to be trained on troubleshooting communication device, 1:1 back up trained for emergencies, specialists and others taught basic sign language, handouts to those who come in contact with the student on the best ways to make demands of/give directions to the student)
    • Information about resources needed to implement the plan (book titles, sites of training programs, list of signs used by the student etc.)
    • Sign off page for team members to indicate their acceptance and intention to carry out the PBS plan
    • Attachment of data collection sheets; one page, step-by-step “Plan at a Glance” to ease the process for instructional assistance, families, specialist teachers and others, sample communication boards, schedule pages, social stories, self-monitoring sheets, behavior checklists, reward choice sheets, etc.
    • Adapted from: http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main.php?cat=behavior&section=main&subsection=pbs/writing
  • Assignment: Write a Positive Behavior Support Plan
    • If working in a team: chose a time-keeper, a secretary and a spokesperson
    • Using the your knowledge of a child, her/his behavior and your data create a PBS Plan for the student
    • Keeping in mind our time limits for today write a brief plan, using bullets for the child
    • Use your definition of behavior from Tuesday
    • Focus on the FBA summary and interventions, work on the other sections if time allows
    • Be creative, difficult problems require creative solutions!
  • Food for Thought
    • “ If you treat individuals as they are, they will remain as they are. But if you treat them as if they were what they ought to be, they will become what they ought to be and could be.” -Goethe