High Incidence Learning Disabilities Part TwoPresentation Transcript
April 9, 2009 Tewksbury Professional Development Kate Ahern, M.S.Ed. [email_address] www.teachinglearnerswithmultipleneeds . blogspot.com
Review – Pair/Share
Speech and Language Disabilities
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
What are they?
A speech disorder is trouble producing speech sounds correctly or fluently, or problems with the voice
A language disorder is a problem with communicating thoughts, feelings and ideas completely. It can be receptive (understanding) or expressive (speaking) or both.
Apraxia (motor planning, neurological in basis)
Dysarthria (neurological problems with motor coordination)
Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (tongue thrust)
Articulation or speech sound disorder (speaking clearly – wabbit for rabbit)
Phonological processing (sound patterns – poon for spoon)
Voice (sturctural problems with the vocal folds, etc.)
Aphasia (word finding such as with stroke)
Language disorders secondary to developmental/intellectual issues, brain injury, autism, metabolic disease, and other disabilities
Varies from diagnosis to diagnosis, however you will notice issues with spoken communication and possibly written and non-verbal communication.
Student may have varying levels of awareness of the issue
Peers may shy away from student due to difficulties with communication of may “make fun” or bully the student
May exhibit signs of other disabilities
Direct intervention from a qualified speech therapist is needed for correction of speech and language disorders
Carry over by teachers and paraprofessionals is also needed
Many school systems cut off services for speech and language therapies at a certain age or grade, forcing students to go without or seek outside services, leaving students struggling with speech or language issues and no assistance
Many school systems do not offer consultation by an SLP to teachers or paraprofessionals to assist in best integrating a student with speech or language issues in the classroom. Even 30 minutes twice a month of “sacred” time between the SLP and the teacher and/or paraprofessional can make a huge difference
Again it depends on the diagnosis
Consult with the speech and language therapist for specific advise
Be sure to use multi-modal communication for learners with language disabilities (pictures, graphics, music, gestures, etc.)
Be sure to offer alternatives to verbal communication to students with speech disorders and those with more severe language disabilities (i.e. a slideshow with text to speech narration instead of an oral report)
Try not to pressure students who stutter, it will increase the incidence, even if you are saying something that is “calming” like, “take a deep breathe”
Ask an/the SLP for speech and language activities your entire class can use to build abilities
Consider offering many different ways to do assignments and always including a way that does not call for speaking in front of others (or at least less speaking in front of others) in addition to a way that calls for less writing (for students with writing issues)
Educate yourself about any specific speech and language disorders you see in your classroom.
Injuries before, during or after birth such as cerebral palsy, maternal drug ingestion, fetal alcohol syndrome, lead poisoning, infections, chemotherapy, traumatic brain injury in child hood or stroke may cause developmental delay/intellectual disability (many individuals with CP do not have cognitive challenges)
Genetic disorders such as Fragile X, Down Syndrome or Cri Du Chat can cause varying levels of developmental delay/intellectual impairment; other genetic disorders like Rett Disorder or Mitochondrial Diseases like C-Oxidase Deficiency can cause progressive intellectual impairment over time
Metabolic disorders such as PKU or certain kinds of thyroid disorders can cause static or progressive developmental or intellectual delay
Learners with developmental delay may need a slower pace, multi-sensory instruction, more repetitions of material and specialized instruction
Learners with developmental delay may have global delays cause issues in gross and fine motor skills, feeding and speech and language
Sensory issues may be present and need to be addressed
Behavior issues may arise secondary to sensory issues, impulse control, communication impairment, self esteem issue or other causes
Social skills may be typical and mask developmental delay or may also be delayed causing issues with peers and friendships
Special education professionals to design IEP, adapt materials and instruction
Speech and language therapy to address any communication and/or swallowing issues
Occupational therapy to work on sensory, fine motor and/or self help (including self-feeding)
Physical therapy to work on gross motor skills and mobility
Behavioral specialist and/or psychologist to address any behavioral issues not met through sensory and/or communication interventions
Avoid labels (they belong on jars, as the adage goes)
Adapt the environment, the instruction and the materials instead of the student
Consult the experts – including parents, sibling and the student
Use peers as supports, role models and tutors
Play to strengths
For “lower functioning” students –
focus on function – how can and will these skills be used beyond your classroom?
Focus on embedded skills – what skills are within the task the rest of your students are doing that this student can work on?
Join the “Stop the R Word” Movement http://www.r-word.org/
Teach your students about the “Stop the R Word” Movement, encourage them to take the pledge
Share with your student’s (middle and high school) Soreno Paulumbo’speech http://community.specialolympics.org/_22007-Fremd-High-School-R-Word-Speech/video/483951/82244.html
Consider implementing the free Don’t Laugh at Me Curriculum in the primary grades
Hang some posters or a calendar from the Disability is Natural Store in your room or around the building
Differentiated Instruction is based on the following beliefs:
Students differ in their learning profiles
Classrooms in which students are active learners, decision makers and problem solvers are more natural and effective than those in which students are served a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum and treated as passive recipients of information
"Covering information" takes a backseat to making meaning out of important ideas.
The key to a differentiated classroom is that all students are regularly offered CHOICES and students are matched with tasks compatible with their individual learner profiles.
Curriculum should be differentiated in three areas:
Content: Multiple options for taking in information
Process: Multiple options for making sense of the ideas
Product: Multiple options for expressing what they know
From Sacramento Unified School District
Differentiation by Content
The pupils study different materials within the same topic area but do the same activities.
Differentiation by Activities
The pupils study the same content but do different activities.
Differentiation by Negotiation
The pupils study different materials within the same topic area and also do different activities. Teachers help pupils to select appropriate materials.
Differentiation by Support
The pupils study the same materials, do the same activities, but receive different amounts of support from the teacher or from extra printed information.
Differentiation by Extension
The pupils study the same materials and do the same activities. Extension work is given to the most able after they have finished the basic activities.
Differentiation by Response
The pupils are set open-ended assignments that can be interpreted at different levels.
Differentiation by Group Work
The pupils work in mixed ability groups. Pupils help each other by working together and interpreting the tasks at different levels.
Differentiation by Gradation
The pupils are given the same information and activities. The activities become progressively more difficult. The pupils work through the activities at different rates and therefore only the more able do the more difficult tasks.
Differentiation by Role
The pupils carry out different activities depending on the role they are playing in the group or simulation
Exit Cards – students write, draw, e-mail, text, phone in, instant message, twitter (you decide which of these you allow) the answer to a question and give/send to you before they leave
Anchor Activities – ongoing, meaningful, enjoyable work students engage in before class starts, if they finish early, etc.
Offer product choices – i.e. allow students to choose from a list of ways they will show what they know about a subject (written, through art, through media, a song or play, alone or in a group, etc.)
Independent study – consider the college staple of independent study, the first time may be more work, but the results will surprise you, allow students to choose a topic, research, choose a product, create the product, revise and in some format present the product. Just as in college use a “conferencing” format to meet with students as they progress.
Flexible Grouping – aka cooperative grouping comes in many flavors, generally to do a project, but should not be limited to that
Learning contracts – students can contract to prove competency on core curriculum and then move on to independent learning project or anchor learning, should use most difficult first model
Learning stations – class may open with a review and then students go to various learning stations to work on various skills or assignments (i.e. in social studies there may be a primary source station, a video documentary station, a period dress and fashion station, a time line station, a cooking station, a diorama station, a text reading/listening station and a writing station requiring students write a letter as if they are in that time period, students may have to complete any six stations over two weeks with a rubric in each station)
There is quite a bit of information on differentiated instruction online. Much of it has very practical ideas and tips.
In many ways this is differentiated instruction through technology
The idea is that we can use the modern tools of technology to reach every student
“ UDL principles help educators customize their teaching for individual differences …. A universally-designed curriculum offers the following:
Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge
Multiple means of action and expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, and
Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn”
Show it to them – print, photographs, drawings, paintings, speech to text
Tell it to them– music, spoken language, text to speech
Let them feel it – sculpture, texture, vibration
Engage many senses!
Get in a group of two or three make a list of all of the ways you can give your students information in a way that engages more than one sense
Check off all the ways you use
Let you feel it
Get into a different group make a list of all the ways your students can demonstrate wha they have learned to you – think outside the box
Check off all the things you have tried
Engaged students are well behaved students
The more senses we engage and the more of the multiple intelligences we engage the more students will learn
Get into a different group make a list of all the ways that you engage your students which engage multiple senses and multiple intelligences
Check off those which you use
Voicethread has free and low cost options for educators. It allows teachers and students to make slide shows with auditory and/or text comments.
Create or have students create comic strips to demonstrate knowledge.
Create or have students create practically professional videos or music videos