AAC and Aided Language Stimulation


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AAC and Aided Language Stimulation for future BCBAs

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  • ALgS is not a new concept.

    It was studied and promoted by different people in the 1990s, and by even more people since the turn of the century.

    You may have heard it called by different names.

  • AAC and Aided Language Stimulation

    1. 1. AAC and Aided Language Stimulation Kate Ahern, M.S.Ed.
    2. 2. Where do I get the slideshow? http://kateahernesma. wikispaces.com/home
    3. 3. What is AAC?
    4. 4. Why AAC?
    5. 5. Communication is more than mands. AAC Field View of Communicative Functions  Wants and needs  Information transfer  Social closeness  Social etiquette List is not hierarchical ! Verbal Operants  Receptive  Imitation  Echoic  Mands  Tact  Intraverbal How can we bring these together?
    6. 6. Social Closeness: A missed communicative function “Most of our AAC interventions to date have tended to focus on providing individuals with the means to express needs and wants, to the neglect of other communication goals, especially the goal of social closeness.” (Light, 1988, as cited in Light, 1997 p. 63)
    7. 7. Core Vocabulary  Core words make up 80% of everything we say (somewhere between 250 – 300 words)  This is true regardless of age – preschool to seniors  Core words come from all parts of speech – pronouns, verbs, prepositions and adjectives top the list  Core words can be used regardless of topic, environment or communication partner  Fringe words are specific words relating to certain topics, place or people  Core words can be combined with other core words or with fringe words and make sense  Two fringe words rarely make sense for communication
    8. 8. Suggested Core Words  Many lists but they are usually very similar, varying slightly in the order presented  First words include I/me, you, my/mine, what, help, like, am/is/are, go, want, stop, on, in, out, it, some, here, more, that, all done, not  Expanded to add he, she, this, there, when, who, up, down, yes/no  More pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, nouns are added after this
    9. 9. Nothing but nouns here…
    10. 10. We don’t use AAC for “work”… we use it to communicate! Do  Respect activations of the device and provide natural responses  Use the system to model how to communicate  Use the system to communicate ABOUT work (you ask the student to point to a picture card of a horse then you use the device to comment, “Good job you found the horse” or you ask the student to comment about his work) Do NOT  Use the system as a “find it” activity  Use the system to assess the student on tacts (use other materials)  Use the same device for communication and “work” (this might mean two iPads are needed)  Refer to the system as “work”  Use the system as a reinforce  Use ABA principles to encourage and reward functional communication and discourage other from using the system inappropriately
    11. 11. Communication Bill of Rights •Make real choices •Refuse, reject, say no •Ask for what I want •Share feelings •Be heard and responded to even if the answer is no •Ask for and get attention and interaction •Have and use AAC all the time •Know and ask about my schedule •Be taught how to communicate •Be a full member of my community •Be treated with respect and dignity •To spoken to and not about •Be communicated with in a sensitive manner
    12. 12. Aided Language Stimulation Aided language stimulation (ALS) is a communication strategy, where a communication partner teaches symbol meaning and models language by combining his or her own verbal input with selection of vocabulary on the Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) system.
    13. 13. An Introduction to Aided Language Stimulation
    14. 14. “From the moment a baby is born, they hear and respond to the spoken word. We bombard that infant with language for the first 12-18 months of their lives. During that time, we do not expect that they will utter a single understandable word.” http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Populations/aac/consider. Why ALS?
    15. 15. Linda Burkhart www.lburkhart.com
    16. 16. ALS: Not a New Concept  Called by different names:  Partner-Augmented Input (PAI)  Natural Aided Language (NAL)  Aided Language Input (ALI)  Aided Language Stimulation (ALgS or ALS) Promoted by different people:  Goossens’, Crain, & Elder (1992)  Romski & Sevcik (1996)  Cafiero (1998)  Bruno and Trembath (2006)  Mirenda (2009)
    17. 17. ALS is Best Practice  ALS is best practice for all individuals learning to use all types of augmentative communication  ALS is research based with studies dating back to 1988  ALS teaches communication on a speech device in the way that verbal children learn language.  ALS also teaches children how to think about language.  ALS can be easily combined with other methodologies
    18. 18. ALS Procedure Gain student’s attention Use AAC to model core language as you speak Your speech and your modeling should match the student’s receptive communication skills If you get stuck verbally work through your reasoning as you look for language on the device (model metalinguistics)
    19. 19. ALS Skills to Know Use Non-Verbal Junctures Non-verbal cue (facial expression, body language) by the adult that happens before language modeling Serves to gain attention Decreases verbal distraction Sets the stage for what will happen next
    20. 20. ALS Skills to Know  Use light cues or a pointer Use a flashlight or laser pointer to point to symbols on paper (can be hard to see on devices) Use a pointer or longer stylus on devices if a light doesn’t work Children with visual issues or developmentally below 8 months may have trouble with looking at what you are pointing to instead of your finger Allows more physical space between you and the learner which is good for developing boundaries and projecting and image of competence to typical peers
    21. 21. ALS Skills to Know  Recasting  Recasts serve to add or correct information without obstructing the natural flow of communication.  Recasting is another form of modeling.  The adult modifies a learners utterance by adding new or different grammar (syntactic) or word meaning information (semantic) information.  Child says “more”, adult models one step ahead, “want more” or “I want more”
    22. 22. ALS Skills to Know  Visual Supports  Cheat Sheet Road maps that show how to get to words on the device  “Smart Sticks” Category symbols glued to sticks to be shown to cue where to find certain words  Reminder Bracelets Category/word combinations to find vocabulary mounted to a bracelet  Be Creative with Visual Supports!  They aren’t just for the AAC user!
    23. 23. Where do I get the slideshow? http://kateahernesma. wikispaces.com/home
    24. 24. Banajee, M., DiCarlo, C., & Buras-Stricklin, S. (2003). Core Vocabulary Determination for Toddlers. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 2, 67-73. Binger, C., & Light, J. (2007). The Effect of Aided AAC Modeling on the Expression of Multi-Symbol Messages by Preschoolers who use AAC. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23 (1), 30-43. Bruno, J., & Trembath, D. (2006). Use of Aided Language Stimulation to Improve Syntactic Performance During a Weeklong Intervention Program. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 22 (4), 300- 313. Dada, S., & Alant, E. (2009). The Effect of Aided Language Stimulation on Vocabulary Acquisition in Children With Little or No Functional Speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 18, 50–64. Goosens,C., Crain,S.S., & Elder, P.S. (1992). Engineering the Preschool Environment for Interactive, Symbolic Communication, 18 months to 5 years developmentally. North Burmingham: Southeast Augmentative Communication Conference Publications. Harris, M., & Reichle, J. (2004). The Impact of Aided Language Stimulation on Symbol Comprehension and Production in Children With Moderate Cognitive Disabilities. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13, 155–167. Kraat, A. (1985). Communication Interaction Between Aided and Natural Speakers: A State of the Art Report. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Rehabilitation Council for the Disabled. Light J. (1989). Toward a Definition of Communicative Competence for Individuals Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 5 (2). Romski, M., Sevcik, R., Adamson, L., Smith, A., Cheslock, M., & Bakerman, R. (2011). Parent Perceptions of the Language Development of Toddlers With Developmental Delays Before and After Participation in Parent-Coached Language Interventions. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 111- 118. Senner, J., & Baud, M. (2013). The Impact of School Staff Instruction in Partner Augmented Input. Orlando, FL: Assistive Technology Industry Association 2013 Conference Publications.