Leadership ch04


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Leadership ch04

  1. 1. LeadershipInfluencing: Power, Politics, Networking, and Negotiation1. Lussie, Robert N., Christopher F. Achuan.2010. Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. 4ed. South – Western Cengage Learning.2. Hughes, Richard L., Robert C. Ginnett, Gordon J. Curphy, Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 6th ed. McGraw-Hill.
  2. 2. Chapter 4 Learning Outcomes• Explain the differences between position power and personal power.• Discuss the differences among legitimate, reward, coercive, and referent power.• Discuss how power and politics are related.• Describe how money and politics have a similar use.• List and explain the steps in the networking process.• List the steps in the negotiation process.• Explain the relationships among negotiation and conflict, influencing tactics, power, and politics.• Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter. 2
  3. 3. Leadership and InfluenceLeadership• Is the “influencing” process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through changeInfluencing• Is the process of affecting others’ attitudes and behavior in order to achieve an objective 3
  4. 4. InfluenceIs required to:• Gain power• Play organizational politics• Network• Negotiate• Get what you want 4
  5. 5. Discussion Question #1 Is power good or bad for organizations? 5
  6. 6. Power• Is the leader’s potential influence over followers• Often does not have to be used to influence followers• Used to get people to do what they otherwise would not do 6
  7. 7. Power (cont.)1. Can be seen as negative and manipulative2. Power within organizations should be viewed in a positive sense3. Without power, organizational objectives could not be achieved4. Required for leadership 7
  8. 8. Sources of Power Derived from Position top management Derived from the Personal followers based on leader’s behavior 8
  9. 9. Position Power1. Is derived from top management2. Is delegated down the chain of command3. Results from holding a management position 9
  10. 10. Personal Power1. Is derived from the followers2. Is based on the leader’s behavior3. Followers can have personal power over leaders4. A manager should have both personal power and position power 10
  11. 11. Influencing Tactics Rational Inspirational persuasion appeal Pressure Consultation Legitimization Influencing Ingratiation Tactics Coalitions Personal appeal Exchange Source: Adapted from J. French and B. H. Raven. 1959. “The Bases of Social Power.” In Studies of Social Power, D. Cartwright, ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research 11
  12. 12. Types of PowerLegitimate power• Is based on the user’s position power, given by the organization• Employees agree to comply with management authority in return for the benefits of membership• Most day-to-day manager–employee interactions are based on legitimate power 12
  13. 13. Types of Power (cont.)To increase legitimate power:• Get management experience• Work to gain the perception of power• Exercise your authority regularly• Use rational persuasion 1. Explain the need for the objective 2. Explain how others will benefit 3. Provide evidence that the objective can be met 4. Explain potential problems and their handling 5. Explain why your plan is better than others1. Back up your authority with rewards and punishment 13
  14. 14. Types of Power (cont.)Reward power• Is based on the user’s ability to influence others with something of value to them• Impacts performance expectations and achievement• A leader’s power is strong or weak based on his or her ability to reward and punish• Uses the exchange influence tactic 14
  15. 15. Types of Power (cont.)To increase reward power:• Have control over employee evaluations, raises, promotions, etc.• Find out what others value, and use it to reward them• Let people know you control rewards, and state your criteria for receiving them 15
  16. 16. Types of Power (cont.)Coercive power• Involves punishment and withholding of rewards to influence employee compliance• Uses the pressure influencing tactic• Often used by peers to enforce norms• Used to maintain discipline and enforce rules• Without it, employees may ignore the leader• Overuse undermines the leader’s authority and creates hostile opposition• Has generally been declining as an influence technique 16
  17. 17. Types of Power (cont.)To increase coercive power:• Gain authority to use punishment and withhold rewards• Make sure employees know the rules and penalties• Remain calm and encourage improvement• Do not make rash threats• Do not use coercion to manipulate others or gain personal benefits• Be persistent, set deadlines, and check progress often 17
  18. 18. Types of Power (cont.)Referent power • Is based on the user’s personal relationships with others • Uses the personal appeals and inspirational appeals influencing tactics • Stem primarily from friendship, or the employee’s attractiveness to the person using power • Being liked or the desire to be liked gives referent power • Is appropriate for people with weak, or no, position power, such as with peers 18
  19. 19. Types of Power (cont.)To increase referent power:• Develop people skills• Remember that not only managers have referent power• Work at having good relationships with managers, peers, and subordinates 19
  20. 20. Types of Power (cont.)Expert power • Is based on the user’s skill and knowledge • Makes others dependent on the person with the power • Can be a factor of personal power • Can lead to promotion into management • People respect experts • Uses rational persuasion 20
  21. 21. Types of Power (cont.)To increase expert power:• Take training and educational programs• Attend trade or professional association meetings and programs• Read professional and trade journals• Get published in professional journals• Keep up with new technology• Project a positive self-concept• Let people know about your expertise to develop a reputation• Display diplomas, licenses, publications, and awards 21
  22. 22. Types of Power (cont.)Information power• Is based on the user’s data desired by others• Distortion of data can promote position• Employees provide information to managers, which can also be distorted• Conveying information is part of most managers’ jobs• Uses rational persuasion and inspirational appeals 22
  23. 23. Types of Power (cont.)To increase information power:• Have information flow through you• Know what is going on in the organization• Develop and use a network of information sources 23
  24. 24. Types of Power (cont.)Connection power • Is based on the user’s relationship with influential people • Is a form of politics • Contacts or friends can influence persons you deal with • If people know you are friendly with powerful people, they will tend to gain the perception that you have power as well • Can be enhanced using the coalition influencing tactic 24
  25. 25. Types of Power (cont.)To increase connection power:• Expand your network of contacts with important managers who have power• Join the “in crowd” and the “right” associations and clubs• Follow the guidelines for using the coalition influencing tactic• Get people to know your name• Gain all the publicity you can• Have your accomplishments known by people in power by sending notices 25
  26. 26. Acquiring and Losing Power• Power can change over time• Personal power can be easily gained or lost• Abuse of power will result in loss of power• Social exchange theory explains how power is gained and lost as reciprocal influence processes occur over time between leaders and followers• Social interaction is an exchange of benefits or favors 26
  27. 27. Politics• Is the process of gaining and using power• Managers use their existing position power and politics to increase their power• Is a reality of organizational life 27
  28. 28. Politics Is a Medium of Exchange• Politics has a negative connotation due to those who abuse political power• It is a medium of exchange• Like money, political power is neither good or bad; it is its use that determines this 28
  29. 29. Discussion Question #2 Can management stop the use of power and politics in their organizations? 29
  30. 30. Common Organizational Political Behaviors Networking CommonOrganizational Reciprocity Political Behaviors Coalitions 30
  31. 31. Networking• Is the process of developing relationships for the purpose of socializing and politicking• Contributes most to successful management advancement; more than the other three activity categories of managers:• Traditional management• Communication• Human resource management 31
  32. 32. Reciprocity• Involves creating obligations and developing alliances, and using them to accomplish objectives• Uses the exchange influence tactic• Doing something for someone creates a debt to be collected at a future time 32
  33. 33. Building CoalitionsUses reciprocity and networkingIs a political influence tacticCo-optation• Getting a person whose support is needed to join a coalition 33
  34. 34. Guidelines for Developing Political SkillsReciprocity Learn the organizational Coalitions culture and power players Develop good working relationships, especially with your manager Be a loyal, honest team player Gain recognition Networking 34
  35. 35. Learn the OrganizationalCulture and Power Players • Develop connection power through politicking • Learn the cultural shared values and beliefs • Learn how politics operate within the organization • Learn who has power and what makes them tick • Tailor presentations of ideas to fit the power player’s needs • Network with power players • Do favors for power players • Develop coalitions with key players • Select a mentor who is good at politics • Observe those who are good at politics and copy their behavior 35
  36. 36. Develop Good Working Relationships,Especially with Your Manager• Learn to share goals and priorities with your manager• Make or beat all deadlines• Ask your manager for advice• Never let your manager be embarrassed or surprised in public because of your actions• Avoid showing up your manager in public• Include your manager in your network and coalitions• Do favors for your manager• Use the ingratiation tactic with everyone 36
  37. 37. Be a Loyal, Honest Team Player• Ethical behavior is important• Do not backstab or gossip• Earn others’ respect, confidence, and trust• Develop a support group or team• Remember, the trend is toward teamwork 37
  38. 38. Gain Recognition• Find ways to let the power players know that you are doing a good job• Let higher-ups know about your expertise and contributions through your network• Serve on committees and try to become an officer 38
  39. 39. NetworkingIs more successful than all other methods combined for finding employmentIs also used for:• Developing a business• Job satisfaction• Enhanced performance• Salary• Power• PromotionsIs a learned skill that everyone struggles with, especially women 39
  40. 40. The Networking Process• Perform a self-assessment and set goals• Create your one-minute self-sell• Develop your network• Conduct networking interviews• Maintain your network 40
  41. 41. Perform a Self-Assessmentand Set Goals• List and prioritize your talents and the characteristics of an ideal new career or job• Translate your talents into accomplishments• Tie your accomplishments to the job interview• Set networking goals 41
  42. 42. Create Your One-Minute Self-Sell1. History of your career • Include: • Your most recent career or school history • A description of the type of work or courses you have taken2. Plans for the future • State: • The target career you are seeking • The industry you prefer • A specific function or role3. Questions to stimulate conversation • Encourage two-way communication4. Write your script and practice your speech 42
  43. 43. Develop Your Network• Begin with who you know• Expand to people you don’t know• Referrals• Volunteer work• Develop your ability to remember peoples’ names 43
  44. 44. Conduct Networking Interviews• Use your network list of people to set up a networking interview to meet your goal• May take many interviews to meet a goal• Usually a phone call or 20-minute face-to-face meeting• You are the interviewer• Be prepared 44
  45. 45. Conduct NetworkingInterviews (cont.)• Establish rapport• Deliver your one-minute self-sell• Ask prepared questions• Get additional contacts for your network• Ask your contacts how you might help them• Follow up• Send thank-you notes (FEW DO!)• Give status reports 45
  46. 46. Negotiation• Is a process in which two or more parties are in conflict working to reach an agreement• Is a core competency in life• Common in:• Job searches• Labor relations• Sales 46
  47. 47. Negotiating• Negotiation is often a zero-sum game; one party’s gain is the other party’s loss• Sell your ideas to convince the other party to give you what you want• Try to work toward a win-win result• All parties should believe they got a good deal 47
  48. 48. The Negotiation Process Plan Agreement Close the deal. Negotiations No Agreement Postponement Find out why for future negotiations. 48
  49. 49. The Negotiation Process: PlanResearch the other party(ies)Set objectives• Specific lower limit• Target objective• Opening objectiveDevelop options and trade-offsBe prepared to deal with questions and objections (especiallyunstated ones) 49
  50. 50. The Negotiation Process:Negotiations• Develop rapport• Focus on obstacles, not the person• Let the other party make the first offer• Listen• Ask questions• Don’t give in too quickly• Ask for something in return 50
  51. 51. The Negotiation Process:Postponement• When you are not getting what you want, you may try to create urgency• When the other party becomes resistant, remember that a hard sell will not work• If the other party is creating urgency, be sure it is really urgent• Don’t be pressured into making a deal you may regret later• If you do want to postpone, give the other party a specific time you will get back to them 51
  52. 52. The Negotiation Process: Agreement• Get it in writing• Quit selling• Start working on a personal relationship 52
  53. 53. The Negotiation Process:No Agreement• Accept that agreement isn’t possible• Learn from the failure• Analyze and plan for the next time• Ask the other party what you did right and wrong 53
  54. 54. Ethics and Influencing• It pays to be ethical with influencing tactics• Power is only unethical when used to promote your self- interest at the expense of others• Used ethically, power helps to meet organizational objectives• It is tempting to be unethical but the price is often high 54
  55. 55. Ethics and Influencing (cont.)• Confront others for unethical political behavior• Report unethical behavior in others• Build networks based on mutually beneficial relationships• Tell the truth in negotiations and demand the truth from the other party• Use the stakeholders’ approach to ethics and create a win- win situation 55