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exposition of what is contract

exposition of what is contract

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    Contract Contract Presentation Transcript

    • A contract is, first of all, an agreement. It is a manifestation of the mutual assent of the parties . 首先,合同是一种契约。它是当事人之间的意思表示。
    • Explain:( 解释 )
      • ‘ Contract: n. 合同( keep, break) Con’tract: V.   an agreement between two or more parties, especially one that is written and enforceable by law ( 两个或两个以上当事人之间达成的一种协议,尤指具有法律效力的书证 )
      • Assent: n.& vi. ( to ) 同意,赞成 I assent to what we contracted. ( 我同意我们所签订的合同。 )
      • Manifestation: n. 表明、表示    manifest: v.
      • The mutual assent, or the agreement, is typically reached when one party (the offeror) makes an offer to another party (the offeree) who accepts the offer. 双方典型地达成赞同或协议,是在一方 ( 要约者 ) 向另一方 ( 受要约人 ) 发出要约,而后者又接受了该要约的时候。
    • Explain:
      • Offer n. 要约    a proposal, if accepted, constitutes a legally binding contract ( 提议,如被接受,含有一个法律上有约束力的协议 )
      • Offeror n.  要约者   sb. who makes the offer
      • Offeree n.  受要约者 sb. who accepts the offer
      • Offer and acceptance are the acts by which the parties come to a “meeting of minds”. 要约和承诺是当事人达成合意的手段。
      • Acceptance: n. 接受,(对要约的)承诺 
      • Meeting of minds: 合意 having the same idea ( 意见一致 )
      • Come to : 达成;谈及;总计;突然想起 When it comes to contract I know nothing. The bill came to $5. Suddenly the words of the song came to me.
      • When there is no meeting of the minds, there is no valid contract. To determine whether the minds have met, both offer and acceptance must be analyzed.   没有合意,合同无效。为了确定意思表示是否一致,对要约和承诺都要进行分析。
      • When there is (no)…, there is (no)…   当 ( 没 ) 有……就 ( 没 ) 有……
      • Analyze & analyse v. 分析 Analysis: n. 分析
      • The offeror may have had something in mind quite different from that of the offeree. 要约人可能会与受要约人在有些意思表示上完全不同。
      • Sb. Or Sth. has (have) something (anything…) different (adj.) from Sb. or Sth. in some aspects. ( 某人或某物在某些方面与某人或某物有一些区别。) I have something different from you in the characteristics.   ( 我在特征上和你们有些不同。)
      • Notwithstanding, the intention of the parties is determined not by what they think, but by their outward conduct; that is, by what each leads the other reasonably to believe. 尽管如此,双方的意图不是取决于他们是怎么想的,而是取决于他们外在的行为,也就是各方使对方合理地相信了什么。
    • Explain:
      • Notwithstanding: adv. 尽管如此 all the same
      • We proceeded, notwithstanding. ( 我们仍然前进。 ) Notwithstanding: conj. 虽然 in spite of
      • Notwithstanding the rain, the teams played on. ( 虽然下雨,各队仍然比赛。)
      • Not…but…: 不是…而是…
      • Outward: adj. 外部的( opposite) inward 内部的 “ ward” is postfix (后缀 ). forward ( 前面的) backward (后面的)
      • Lead sb. to do sth. 让某人做某事
      • For an agreement to be a valid contract, the contracting parties must have legal capacity to enter into transactions. 为了让契约成为有效的合同,签订合同的双方必须具有参加交易的法律行为能力。
      • Capacity: n. 能力 capable: adj.   legal qualification or authority ( 合法的资格或权威) 
      • A party lacks capacity to contract if he is incapable of a full understanding of his rights and nature, purpose and legal effects of the contract. 一方如果不能完全理解他的权利及合同的性质、目的与法律效力,那么他就缺乏合同能力。
      • Be incapable of: (+ doing sth.) having no ability to do sth. ( 没有能力做某事)
      • Capacity-to-contract issues generally involve minors, mental incompetents, intoxicated persons and drug addicts. 订立合同的能力主要涉及未成年人、精神缺陷者、酗酒者和吸毒者。
    • Explain:
      • Minor: n. 未成年人 grown-up & adult n. 成年人
      • Incompetent: n.&adj. 无能力的 ( 人 ) incompetence: n. 无行为能力 competent: n.& adj. 有能力的 ( 人 ) competence: n. 有行为能力
      • intoxicate: v. 使喝酒  intoxicated: adj.  酗酒的
      • Addict: n. 入迷的人 addiction: n. 入迷(行为)   addictive: adj. 入迷的
      • A contract is also a bargain. This means that a contractual promise is never made as a gift and must be based on consideration. A contract without consideration is not binding and does not furnish a claim. 合同也是一个讨论的过程。这就是说,合同的达成不能作为一种赠予,而必须基于对价。未经过对价的合同不具有约束力,不能提供权利主张。
    • Explain:
      • Be made as: 用来作为… be made of; from; up of: 由…构成
      • Consideration: n. 对价 consider: v./considerable: a. Something promised, given, or done that makes an agreement a legally enforceable contract ( 被允诺、提供或做成的事物,它能使一项协议成为具有法律效力的契约 )
      • Bind: v. 约束力 ( 绑、粘合)  binder: n. 临时契约 to place under legal obligation by contract or oath ( 由合约或誓言的法律责任进行的约束 )
      • Furnish a claim: 提供权利主张 to have the reasons to one’s right
      • The doctrine of consideration requires that the promisor receive a benefit for the promise he makes and the promisee, while gaining the benefit of the promise, relinquish something or incur a detriment. Consideration may exist in the form of performance or in a counter performance. 对价的原则要求允诺者因他所作的承诺而得利,而接受允诺者在从允诺中得利时,也有所舍弃或损失。对价可能以履行或对方履行的形式存在。
      • Promisor: n. 立约人 one party that makes a promise
      • Promisee: n. 受约人 the party to which a promise is made
      • Incur a detriment (loss, expenses…): 遭受损害(损失 )
      • While 引导的时间状语从句,放在了主语和谓语中间,分析句子或翻译时请注意!
      • Exist in the form of: 以…形式存在
      • Counterperformance: n. 对方的履行   counter ( 反方向 )is a prefix ( 前缀 ). e.g.   plot( 陷井、阴谋 )     counterplot( 反阴谋、将计就计 ) etc.
    • Lesson two
      • Two well-established general principles are very helpful in determining whether consideration really exists. 两个设立好的原则对于确定对价是否真的存在很有用。
      • Well- established : establish well 当动词后置的时候,要加 ed 作为形容词用。 e.g. good-tempered: 脾气好的   
      • One is that what matters is the legal sufficiency of the consideration in contrast to its economic adequacy. Another is that past performance cannot be consideration for present promise. 原则之一是要看对价在法律上的充分性而不是经济上的充足性。 另一个原则是先前的履行不能作为目前承诺的对价。
      • Sufficiency: n. 充分 ( 性 )sufficient: adj. 充分的 adequacy: n. 充足 ( 性 ) adequate: adj. 足够的
      • In contrast to: 和…相比 In contrast to his mum, his sister is very open and clear. ( 与他的沉默相比,他妹妹非常地开朗。 )
      • One…another: 一个…另一个… 
      • The above discussion shows that a contract may be void or voidable if 1)one of the parties or both lack capacity; ( 以上讨论说明了,合同可能会无效或得撤销,如果满足: 1 、当事人一方或双方缺乏行为能力; )
      • Void: adj. 无效的 (绝对无效 ) having no legal force or validity; null ( 没有法律效力或约束力的;无效的 )
      • Voidable: adj. 可以撤销的 ( 相对无效 ) having comparative legal force, but that can be abolished ( 相对具有法律效力,但可被废除)
    •  
      • 2)the necessary meeting of minds does not exist, or the consent of one of the parties was brought about by fraud, misrepresentation, or by duress, or if the agreement is founded on mistakes; 3)the contractual promise is not supported by consideration. 2 、必要的合意不存在,或者一方当事人因欺诈、误解、胁迫所作的意思表示;或者基于错误订立的契约; 3 、合同的达成不是基于对价原则。
      • Duress: n. 胁迫  constraint by threat
      • Bring about: 带来;使发生
      • Be founded on: 基于  
      • Another important factor that may affect the validity of a contract is illegality. If a contract is made for an illegal purpose, or if its content is tainted by illegality, it does not exist of law. 另一个影响合同效力的因素是非法。如果合同是基于非法目的订立的,或者合同内容因非法行为受到玷污,它在法律看来是不存在的。
      • Be made for: 因…而形成
      • Be tainted by: 受到…玷污
      • In the eye of: 在…心目中 His figure is tainted in the eye of me by his immoral action. ( 他不道德的行径玷污了他在我心中的形象。 )
      • Closely related to illegality is the concept of unconscionability. If a contract is made against public policy, it is often said to be unconscionable and therefore unenforceable.   与非法密切联系的一个概念是显失公平。 如果制定的合同有悖于公共利益准则时,它就被称为显失公平的,因此是无法执行的合同。
      • Be related to: 与…有关的(密切联系的)   One’s personality is related to his growing surroundings. ( 一个人的个性与他成长的环境有关。 )
      • Unconscionability: n. 不公正    unconscionable: adj. 不公平的  unfair
      • be said to be: 据说是,被说成是 be referred to as
      • The form of a contract may also affect its validity. Apart from special contracts (such as negotiable instruments and insurance contracts) which must be in writing, contracts which fall under the old English Statutes of Frauds also need a signed writing.  合同的形式也可能影响到它的有效性。除了必须书写的特殊合同(例如可流通票据和保险合同)以外,归入传统的英国反诈骗法的合同也需要有签订的书面形式。
      • The form of a contract may also affect its validity. Apart from special contracts (such as negotiable instruments and insurance contracts) which must be in writing, contracts which fall under the old English Statutes of Frauds also need a signed writing.  合同的形式也可能影响到它的有效性。除了必须书写的特殊合同(例如可流通票据和保险合同)以外,归入传统的英国反诈骗法的合同也需要有签订的书面形式。
      • Apart from:   With the exception of; besides                   除…之外(还)   All the children like music apart from Bobby.
      • Negotiable: adj. 可流通的 negotiate: v. 转让 / 谈判
      • Instrument: n. 票据 / 工具  insurance: n. 保险
      • Fall under: 归入 (... 部 . 类等 ); 受到 ( 影响等 ) fall about: [ 口 ] 忍不住大笑 fall across: 撞见 , 偶然遇见 fall for: [ 俚 ] 爱上 ; 迷恋 ; fall in: 陷进 ;[ 法律 ] 到期 ; ( 租约等 ) 期满 ; fall to: 着手干 等等
      • This applies to , among others, 1)promises to pay the debts of another; 2)contracts concerning real property; 3)promises in contracts not to be performed within one year; and 4)contracts of sale exceeding $500. 在其他合同形式中,它适用于 1) 承诺支付另一方债务; 2) 有关不动产的合同; 3) 在合同中承诺在一年内不能履行的; 4) 超过 500 美元的销售合同。
      • If contractual promises fall under the statutes of frauds, suit will lie only if there exists a writing by the party who resists performance which documents his contractual obligation. 如果合同的承诺属于这几种,那么只有在有拒不履行的一方当事人的字据证明他的合同义务时,案件方能成立。
      • If contractual promises fall under the statutes of frauds, suit will lie only if there exists a writing by the party who resists performance which documents his contractual obligation. 如果合同的承诺属于这几种,那么只有在有拒不履行的一方当事人的字据证明他的合同义务时,案件方能成立。
      • Suit will lie only when (if)… 只有在…情况下案件成立 Suit will lie only when the disputed right is protected by law. 只有当争议的权利是受法律保护的情况下,案件才能成立。
      • Document: v. 用文件证明  /n. 文件、文献
      • Which 引导的非限制性定语从句 
      • In addition to being valid, void, voidable, and unenforceable, contracts may be classified in various other ways. 合同除了有效、无效、得撤销和不可实施合同以外,它还能以其它不同的方式进行分类。
      • In addition to: 除…以外
      • Classify: v. 分类  classification: n.
      • A contract is either bilateral or unilateral. A contract may be referred to as executed or executory. 合同分为双务和单务合同。合同还可分为生效和未生效合同。
      • either…or… 要么…要么 ( 两者任选其一 ) neither…nor… both…and…
      • Bi lateral: adj. 双边的  Un ilateral: adj. 单边的  Cycle bicycle: 自行车  unicycle: 单轮脚踏车 Polar bipolar: 双极的  unipolar: 单极的
      • A contract may also be express , implied-in-fact , or implied-in-law . An express contract occurs when the parties state their agreement orally or in writing. When the parties manifest their agreement by conduct rather than by words, it is said to be implied-in-fact. Implied-in-law contracts are quasi- contracts, because the obligation is created by law in absence of agreement, to prevent unjust enrichment. 合同还可以分为明示、事实默示和法律默示合同。明示合同发生在双方当事人口头或书面作出的承诺。当事人通过行为而不是言辞,就称为事实默示。法律默示是准合同,因为为了防止不当得利,义务是在没有契约下由法律创设的。
      • Express contract 明示 implied-in-fact 事实默示 implied 默示   implied-in-law 法律默示 Rather than: 胜于  Quasi-: 类似的、准的  quasi rent: 准地租             quasi-official: 半官方的
      • The bulk of American contract law is judge-made case law. Special areas of contract law such as labor law and insurance law have been partially codified, but even in these areas the primary source of applicable legal principles are found in the written opinions of the courts.  大部分美国合同法是法官制定的判例法。合同法的特殊领域,如劳动法和保险法都部分成文化了,但是就算在这些领域中,法律适用仍作为法院判断的第一来源。
      • The Uniform Commercial Code brings some contracts under its provisions. However, the scope of its applicability is limited. 美国统一商法典规定了一些合同。但是,这种适用范围是有限的。
      • Uniform Commercial Code :统一商法典
      • Provision: n. 供应(品)、规定  provide: v.
      • For our purpose it is sufficient to know that sales contract are governed by the Code. Most other contracts (general business, real property, employment, construction and the like) still follow the common law rules as developed in case. 在我们看来,完全有理由相信销售合同是由商法典来规范的。其它大部分合同(普通交易、不动产、雇佣、建筑合同等)仍要遵循由判例发展而来的普通法。
      • It is sufficient to do sth. / that… 做某事是充分的
    •