Yin and yang

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Ted Eubanks' presentation at NAI in St Paul, November 2011.

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Yin and yang

  1. 1. Fermata vCardwww.fermatainc.com
  2. 2. The of InterpretationDivining the Yin and Yang of Media and Message
  3. 3. Herbert Marshall McLuhan, CC(July 21, 1911 – December31, 1980) was a Canadianeducator, philosopher, andscholar—a professor of Englishliterature, a literary critic, arhetorician, and a communicationtheorist. McLuhans work is viewedas one of the cornerstones of thestudy of media theory, as well ashaving practical applications inadvertising and television.
  4. 4. Freeman Tilden (August 22, 1883- May 13, 1980) was one of thefirst people to set down theprinciples and theories of heritageinterpretation in his 1957book, Interpreting Our Heritage.His work with the United StatesNational Park Service inspiredgenerations of interpreters andcontinues to be a definitive text forthe discipline.
  5. 5. Societies havealways beenshaped more by thenature of the mediaby which mencommunicate thanby the content of thecommunication. Marshall McLuhan
  6. 6. Interpretation is an art…the true interpreter…goes beyond the apparent to the real, beyond a part to a whole, beyond a truth to a moreFreeman Tilden important truth.
  7. 7. All media exist to invest our lives withartificial perceptions and arbitraryvalues.Marshall McLuhan
  8. 8. “…to reveal the beautiful truths that lie behind the appearances…” Freeman Tilden
  9. 9. The medium is the message.Marshall McLuhan
  10. 10. The story’s the thing. Freeman Tilden
  11. 11. Advertising is the greatest art form ofthe 20th century.Marshall McLuhan
  12. 12. We become what we behold. We shapeour tools and then our tools shape us…Marshall McLuhan
  13. 13. It is the frameworkwhich changes witheach newtechnology and notjust the picturewithin the frame...Marshall McLuhan
  14. 14. Media Message
  15. 15. The human being, by his merepresence, imposes a schema onspace…Yi-Fu Tuan
  16. 16. What Is Sense of Place?Place involves meanings and values thatfacilitate intimate connections withparticular geographical areas.
  17. 17. What Is Sense of Place?Environment refers to the biophysicalcomponents of landscapes, componentsthat exist regardless of the types ofhuman connections to them.
  18. 18. Gamboa, Panama
  19. 19. What Is Sense of Place?Sense of place is the entire group ofcognitions and affective sentiments heldregarding a particular geographiclocation and the meanings one attributesto such areas.
  20. 20. Place AttachmentPlace attachment is a positiveemotional bond with a setting.Place attachment is the extent towhich an individual values oridentifies with a particularenvironmental setting.
  21. 21. …we are willing to fight for places…this is especially true when importantsymbolic meanings are threatened by prospective change…Stedman 2002
  22. 22. Mission San Antonio de ValeroSan Antonio, Texas
  23. 23. Mission Espiritu SantoGoliad, Texas
  24. 24. What begins as undifferentiated spacebecomes place as we get to know itbetter and endow it with value…Yi-Fu Tuan
  25. 25. Everybody experiences far more thanhe understands. Yet it is experience,rather than understanding, thatinfluences behavior.Marshall McLuhan
  26. 26. …the visitor’s chief interest is inwhatever touches his personality, hisexperiences, and his ideals…Freeman Tilden
  27. 27. PlaceMedia Message
  28. 28. (Kr+Ka) X IT2 = IOKr = Knowledge of the ResourceKa = Knowledge of the Audience IT = Interpretive Technique IO = Interpretive Opportunity
  29. 29. That which today calls itself sciencegives us more and more information,and indigestible glut of information, andless and less understanding.Edward Abbey
  30. 30. TechniqueKnowledge
  31. 31. Knowledge Technology
  32. 32. Knowledge• Resource• Audience TechnologyTechnique
  33. 33. PlaceMedia Message
  34. 34. Place Cognitive Logical Factual Specific Objective Discrete
  35. 35. Point Of InterestCognitiveLogicalFactualObjectiveDiscretePoint of Interest is asub-place, a specificlocation within a place.
  36. 36. Space Affective Perceived Emotional Judgmental Subjective Amorphous Conjectural
  37. 37. Media Message
  38. 38. Outdoor NationFor Outsiders, a social mediacampaign is successful when itcreatively reaches its target audiencewhere they are most likely to behanging out – onFacebook, YouTube, Twitter, and TV-viewing websites.
  39. 39. Outdoor NationAccording to Outsiders, social mediais so popular because it enablesvoyeurism, fosters narcissism, andreduces social inhibitions. It is alsoconvenient, easy to access, andprovides instant gratification.
  40. 40. Outdoor NationOutsiders are moved by bright colors,sunlight, and images of adrenalinepumping excitement when beingmarketed to, they are also attracted tosweeping landscapes and a sense ofoneness.
  41. 41. Outdoor NationOutsiders believe that the concept ofsocial media is here to stay and thatolder generations should becomefamiliar with the social media space.
  42. 42. Outside Magazine Seventy-eight percent of U.S. travelers now using the Internet to plan their trips. Sixty-eight percent of American travelers still turn to guidebooks for travel advice.
  43. 43. Outdoor Magazine Trends• Scratch a Niche: Look for guides that cover themes, not specific regions.• Undersize It: Mini-guides are hot. Perfect for quick trips, they zoom in on a destination, with fewer pages and a smaller, more packable size• Get Wired: DKs new eguides ($15), covering cities like San Francisco, Chicago, and Barcelona, come with passwords for access to exclusive online information, including hotel and restaurant updates.
  44. 44. Outdoor Magazine Trends• Radio-Free Planet: To increase their online presence, travel publishers are venturing into Internet radio.• Go Deep: With the basics readily available online, guidebooks are amping up their historical and cultural information.• Best of All: Top-ten lists and "best of" roundups, intended as shortcuts to the ultimate travel experiences.
  45. 45. Pew Research• Cell phone and wireless laptop internet use have each grown more prevalent over the last year. Nearly half of all adults (47%) go online with a laptop using a Wi-Fi connection or mobile broadband card (up from the 39% who did so as of April 2009)… 59% of adults now access the internet wirelessly using a laptop or cell phone—that is, they answered ―yes‖ to at least one of these wireless access pathways.
  46. 46. Pew Research• 75% of all American adults are active in some kind of voluntary group or organization and internet users are more likely than others to be active; 80% of internet users participate in groups, compared with 56% of non- internet users.
  47. 47. • Compared with a similar point in 2009, cell phone owners are now more likely to use their mobile phones to: – Take pictures—76% now do this, up from 66% in April 2009 – Send or receive text messages—72% vs. 65% – Access the internet—38% vs. 25% – Play games—34% vs. 27% – Send or receive email—34% vs. 25% – Record a video—34% vs. 19% – Play music—33% vs. 21% – Send or receive instant messages—30% vs. 20%
  48. 48. Traditional Technologies Print Radio Television Interpretive Signage Interpretive print (guides, brochures, maps) Audio guides
  49. 49. Traditional Digital Media Web Weblog Itineraries Maps Guides Audio RSS Feeds
  50. 50. Social Media• Twitter• Facebook• News (Digg)• Blogs (Technorati, Stumbleupon)• Bookmarks (Delicious, Technorati, Stumbleupon)• Picasa (photos)• YouTube• Itunes (podcasts, apps)
  51. 51. Occupy Wall Street
  52. 52. Occupy Wall Street
  53. 53. Service Media Services listed on TripAdvisor, Yelp Google Places Google Earth Brightkite Loopt
  54. 54. Location-based Social Media (Lo-So)• Location-based Games – My Town• Personal Beacon – Google Latitude• Dopplr• Gowalla• Foursquare• Plazes• Waze
  55. 55. Interpretive Planning MediaPodioBasecampEvernoteBalsamiqX MindGoogle Earth
  56. 56. Emerging Media Google Earth Location-aware media SmartPhone apps Codes/Tags NFC Streaming HTML 5 Emerging hardware Transponders
  57. 57. Smart Phones Stream (web-based) Web Download (pdf) Apps Iphone Android Blackberry
  58. 58. Gonzo Journalism
  59. 59. GorillaInterpretation
  60. 60. GuerillaInterpretation
  61. 61. Reading ListSpace and Place – The Perspective of Experience by Yi-fuTuanThe Medium is the Massage by Marshall McLuhan andQuentin FioreInterpreting Our Heritage by Freeman TildenSense of Place In Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism:An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings byJennifer Farnum, Troy Hall, and Linda E. KrugerThe Invention of Tradition by Eric Hobsbawm and TerenceRangerSense of History by David Glassberg

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