The of InterpretationDivining the Yin and Yang of Media and Message
Herbert Marshall McLuhan, CC(July 21, 1911 – December31, 1980) was a Canadianeducator, philosopher, andscholar—a professor of Englishliterature, a literary critic, arhetorician, and a communicationtheorist. McLuhans work is viewedas one of the cornerstones of thestudy of media theory, as well ashaving practical applications inadvertising and television.
Freeman Tilden (August 22, 1883- May 13, 1980) was one of thefirst people to set down theprinciples and theories of heritageinterpretation in his 1957book, Interpreting Our Heritage.His work with the United StatesNational Park Service inspiredgenerations of interpreters andcontinues to be a definitive text forthe discipline.
Societies havealways beenshaped more by thenature of the mediaby which mencommunicate thanby the content of thecommunication. Marshall McLuhan
Interpretation is an art…the true interpreter…goes beyond the apparent to the real, beyond a part to a whole, beyond a truth to a moreFreeman Tilden important truth.
All media exist to invest our lives withartificial perceptions and arbitraryvalues.Marshall McLuhan
“…to reveal the beautiful truths that lie behind the appearances…” Freeman Tilden
Outdoor NationFor Outsiders, a social mediacampaign is successful when itcreatively reaches its target audiencewhere they are most likely to behanging out – onFacebook, YouTube, Twitter, and TV-viewing websites.
Outdoor NationAccording to Outsiders, social mediais so popular because it enablesvoyeurism, fosters narcissism, andreduces social inhibitions. It is alsoconvenient, easy to access, andprovides instant gratification.
Outdoor NationOutsiders are moved by bright colors,sunlight, and images of adrenalinepumping excitement when beingmarketed to, they are also attracted tosweeping landscapes and a sense ofoneness.
Outdoor NationOutsiders believe that the concept ofsocial media is here to stay and thatolder generations should becomefamiliar with the social media space.
Outside Magazine Seventy-eight percent of U.S. travelers now using the Internet to plan their trips. Sixty-eight percent of American travelers still turn to guidebooks for travel advice.
Outdoor Magazine Trends• Scratch a Niche: Look for guides that cover themes, not specific regions.• Undersize It: Mini-guides are hot. Perfect for quick trips, they zoom in on a destination, with fewer pages and a smaller, more packable size• Get Wired: DKs new eguides ($15), covering cities like San Francisco, Chicago, and Barcelona, come with passwords for access to exclusive online information, including hotel and restaurant updates.
Outdoor Magazine Trends• Radio-Free Planet: To increase their online presence, travel publishers are venturing into Internet radio.• Go Deep: With the basics readily available online, guidebooks are amping up their historical and cultural information.• Best of All: Top-ten lists and "best of" roundups, intended as shortcuts to the ultimate travel experiences.
Pew Research• Cell phone and wireless laptop internet use have each grown more prevalent over the last year. Nearly half of all adults (47%) go online with a laptop using a Wi-Fi connection or mobile broadband card (up from the 39% who did so as of April 2009)… 59% of adults now access the internet wirelessly using a laptop or cell phone—that is, they answered ―yes‖ to at least one of these wireless access pathways.
Pew Research• 75% of all American adults are active in some kind of voluntary group or organization and internet users are more likely than others to be active; 80% of internet users participate in groups, compared with 56% of non- internet users.
• Compared with a similar point in 2009, cell phone owners are now more likely to use their mobile phones to: – Take pictures—76% now do this, up from 66% in April 2009 – Send or receive text messages—72% vs. 65% – Access the internet—38% vs. 25% – Play games—34% vs. 27% – Send or receive email—34% vs. 25% – Record a video—34% vs. 19% – Play music—33% vs. 21% – Send or receive instant messages—30% vs. 20%
Traditional Technologies Print Radio Television Interpretive Signage Interpretive print (guides, brochures, maps) Audio guides
Traditional Digital Media Web Weblog Itineraries Maps Guides Audio RSS Feeds
Reading ListSpace and Place – The Perspective of Experience by Yi-fuTuanThe Medium is the Massage by Marshall McLuhan andQuentin FioreInterpreting Our Heritage by Freeman TildenSense of Place In Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism:An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings byJennifer Farnum, Troy Hall, and Linda E. KrugerThe Invention of Tradition by Eric Hobsbawm and TerenceRangerSense of History by David Glassberg