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[教材] 例外處理設計與重構實作班201309

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此為泰迪軟體在2013年9月14日舉辦的例外處理設計與重構班完整教材內容。

此為泰迪軟體在2013年9月14日舉辦的例外處理設計與重構班完整教材內容。

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  • 1. Teddy Chen Sept. 14 2013 例外處理設計與重構實作班
  • 2. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 3. 我是誰 • 2012年7月成立泰迪軟體,從事敏捷開發顧問、教 育訓練、軟體工具導入等服務。 • 2012年6月,出版暢銷書「笑談軟體工程:敏捷方 法的逆襲」。 • 2012年4月起,多次講授Scrum課程,與學員互動氣 氛佳,滿意度高。 • 超過17年design pattern實務經驗,曾在pattern領域 最著名的PLoP國際研討會發表論文。 – PLoP 2004:A Pattern Language for Personal Authoring in E-Learning. – Asia PLoP 2011:Emerging Patterns of Continuous Integration for Cross-Platform Software Development. • 2009年取得Certified ScrumMaster。 • 2008年4月起迄今,5年以上Scrum業界導入經驗。 • 2008年取得台北科技大學資工博士。 • 2007年起經營「搞笑談軟工」部落格。 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 4. 課程內容 • 例外處理基本觀念 • 例外處理的4+1觀點 • 建立例外處理中心思想—Staged Robustness Model • EH Bad Smells and Refactoring's Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 5. 例外處理基本觀念
  • 6. 一個軟體開發專案存在著很多互相競爭 且衝突的非功能需求 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft robustness (exception handling) time-to-market, iterative & incremental design, maintainability, etc.誰贏、誰輸?
  • 7. Robustness輸了之後會造成系統不穩定 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft 系統不穩定會有什麼問題?
  • 8. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 9. 輕則損失時間、金錢與商譽, 重則可能危害生命安全。
  • 10. SPECIFICATION Correctness Robustness
  • 11. 提升軟體可靠度需同時考慮 Correctness與Robustness這兩個因素 • Correctness – 軟體產品可以執行規格中所規範的工作或行為 – 可透過Contract Specification來達成 • Robustness – 軟體系統應付異常狀況的能力 – 可透過Exception Handling來達成 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 12. 本課程介紹如何透過例外處理 來增加系統的強健度
  • 13. 練習:請分享一個因為例外 處理不良而造成金錢上、時 間上、精神上損失的經驗
  • 14. 例外處理機制—Exception Handling Mechanism (EHM)
  • 15. 問題: 請說出一個你熟知的程 式語言的例外處理機制
  • 16. 例外處理機制(EHM)是程式語言用來 支援例外處理的方法 • Representation • Definition • Signaling • Propagation • Resolution • Continuation Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 17. 1. Representation • 程式語言表達例外的方法 – Symbol • strings or numbers – Data object • Used to hold error and failure information only. • Raised by a language keyword. – Full object • Encapsulate signaling, propagation, and continuation behaviors of exceptions in the class definition. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 18. 2. Definition • 程式設計師如何定義一個例外 –Symbols • new exceptions are defined as strings or numbers. –Data objects and full objects • a class is used to define an exception. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 19. 3. Signaling • 產生一個例外(的實例),並且將例外傳給 接收者的指令稱之為: – throwing, signaling, raising, or triggering • 例外產生方式有兩種: – Synchronous exception • A direct result of performing the instruction. – Asynchronous exception • Produced by the runtime environment upon encountering an internal error or by stopping or suspending a thread. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 20. 4. Propagation • If an exception is signaled and not coped with locally, the exception can be propagated to the caller of the signaling method. • Exception propagation can be explicit or implicit (or automatic). – Explicit: a receiver must explicitly re-throw an unhandled received exception for further propagation – Implicit: an unhandled exception is automatically propagated. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 21. 5. Resolution • Exception resolution or handler binding is a process of finding a suitable handler in the target, which is resolved by static scoping at compiler-time, dynamic invocation chain at runtime, or both. • There are two methods to dynamically find a handler: stack unwinding and stack cutting. – Stack unwinding pops the stack frames to search for the matching exception handler – Stack cutting maintains a list of registered exception handlers and looks up the list for a suitable exception handler. Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 22. 6. Continuation • An exception continuation or exception model specifies the execution flow after an exception handler returns its control. –Termination model –Retry model –Resumption model Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 23. 容易搞混且重要的觀念:Fault, Error, Failure, Exception彼此的關係 fault error failure exception (1) design (2) component cause of failure a state may lead to failure service departs from specification represented by Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 24. 以下何者是design fault,何者是component fault? 1. 除以零 (division by zero) 2. Index Out of Bound 3. 網路斷線 4. 硬碟空間已滿 5. 檔案不存在 24 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 25. 為什麼要區分design fault與 component fault?
  • 26. Exception Handling vs. Fault-Tolerant Programming • Exception handling deals with component faults (anticipated exceptions) • Fault-tolerant programming deals with both component and design faults (anticipated and unanticipated exceptions) 26 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft 範圍不同、成本不同!
  • 27. Java例外處理機制
  • 28. Java Exception Handling: The try Statement (before JDK 7) 28Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 29. Java Exception Handling: The try_multi_catch in JDK 7 29Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 30. Java Exception Handling: The try_with_resources in JDK 7 30Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 31. Java Exception Class Hierarchy 31 checked unchecked IOException NullPointerException Throwable Exception RuntimeException Error IndexOutOfBoundsException SQLException Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 32. Use checked exceptions for recoverable conditions and run-time exceptions for programming errors
  • 33. 使用Checked Exception須遵循Handle-or-Declare Rule Copyright@2013 Teddysoft handle declare
  • 34. 程式如果違反Handle-or- Declare Rule將被Java Compiler 視為語法錯誤
  • 35. 例外處理的4+1觀點 Usage (用途) Design (設計) Handling (處理) Tool-Support (工具支援) Process (流程)
  • 36. 為什麼例外處理這麼難?
  • 37. Usage View (例外用途觀點) Exception, 真的只是用來代表 「例外狀況」嗎?
  • 38. 練習:分組討論要如何處理 EOFException與 InterruptedException?
  • 39. EOFException範例 public void readDataFromFile(String aFileName){ try (DataInputStream input = new DataInputStream (new FileInputStream(aFileName))) { while (true) { System.out.print(input.readChar()); } } catch (EOFException e) { // How to "handle" this exception? } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 40. InterruptedException範例 public void sleepMillisecond(int ms){ try { Thread.sleep(ms); } catch (InterruptedException e) { // How to "handle" this exception? } } Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 41. Usage View • Failure • Notification – EOFException – InterruptedException Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 42. 案情沒有那麼單純,請看另一個 EOFException範例 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void fetchRawBytesAndSetupMessage(DataInputStream aIS) throws IOException, InvalidPacketException { int length = aIS.readInt(); setMessageLength(length); byte[] messageBody = new byte[length]; try { aIS.readFully(messageBody); } catch (EOFException e) { throw new InvalidPacketException("Data Underflow"); } setMessage(new String(messageBody)); }
  • 43. Context 決定 exception的用途
  • 44. Design View (例外設計觀點)
  • 45. Design View • Declared: – 例外有宣告在元件的介面規範中 – 又稱為anticipated或expected例外 – 代表component fault • Undeclared: – 例外沒有宣告在元件的介面規範中 – 又稱為unanticipated或unexpected例外 – 代表design fault Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 46. Declared Exception Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void fetchRawBytesAndSetupMessage(DataInputStream aIS) throws IOException, InvalidPacketException { int length = aIS.readInt(); setMessageLength(length); byte[] messageBody = new byte[length]; try { aIS.readFully(messageBody); } catch (EOFException e) { throw new InvalidPacketException("Data Underflow"); } setMessage(new String(messageBody)); }
  • 47. Undeclared Exception (1/2) Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public Hamburg createHamburger(String type) { Hamburg ham = null; switch (type) { case "pork": ham = new SweetPorkHamburger(); break; case "beef": ham = new SweetBeefHamburger(); break; default: throw new RuntimeException ("Unsupported hamburger type:" + type); } return ham; }
  • 48. Undeclared Exception (2/2) Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void deposit(int value) { if (value < 0 ) { throw new IllegalArgumentException ("存款金額不得為負數."); } // doing normal deposit logic }
  • 49. 你在做例外處理還是容錯設計? (1/2) Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void deposit(int value) throws llegalArgumentException { if (value < 0 ) { throw new IllegalArgumentException ("存款金額不得為負數."); } // doing normal deposit logic } public void deposit(int value) { if (value < 0 ) { throw new IllegalArgumentException ("存款金額不得為負數."); } // doing normal deposit logic } D UC UCUD
  • 50. 你在做例外處理還是容錯設計? (2/2) public String execute(String cmd) throws IOException, NullPointerException, IllegalArgumentException; Copyright@2013 Teddysoft UCD CD
  • 51. Design View小結 撇開程式語言是否區分checked與 unchecked例外,唯有將例外宣告在介面 上(或以某種形式存在程式或文件中), 在設計階段程式設計師才有機會知道要 如何來因應可能會遭遇到的異常狀況。 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 52. Handling View (例外處理觀點)
  • 53. Handling View • Recoverability (可恢復性) – recoverable, unrecoverable(irrecoverable) • Exception handling constructs in languages and utilities – Roles, responsibilities, and collaborations (e.g., try, catch, finally in Java) Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 54. Handling View之 Recoverability
  • 55. Recoverability:爽到你,艱苦到我 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft Thanks Linda
  • 56. Recoverability:Callee與Caller都要負責任 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft Thanks Linda
  • 57. public void sleepMillisecond(int ms){ try { Thread.sleep(ms); } catch (InterruptedException e) { // How to "handle" this exception? } } Recoverability思考練習1 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft Callee Caller: InterruptedException是一 個可以被修復的例外狀況嗎?
  • 58. public void readDataFromFile(String aFileName){ try (DataInputStream input = new DataInputStream (new FileInputStream(aFileName))) { while (true) { System.out.print(input.readChar()); } } catch (EOFException e) { // How to "handle" this exception? } catch (IOException e) { e.printStackTrace(); } } Recoverability思考練習2 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft Callee Caller: EOFException與 IOException的recoverability?
  • 59. public void fetchRawBytesAndSetupMessage(DataInputStream aIS) throws IOException, InvalidPacketException { int length = aIS.readInt(); setMessageLength(length); byte[] messageBody = new byte[length]; try { aIS.readFully(messageBody); } catch (EOFException e) { throw new InvalidPacketException("Data Underflow"); } setMessage(new String(messageBody)); } Recoverability思考練習3 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft Callee Caller: EOFException與 IOException的recoverability?
  • 60. Handling View之 Exception Handling Constructs and Utilities
  • 61. 不同的程式語言有不同的例外處理構件 • Java/C# – try-catch-finally • C++ – try-catch – destructor • Eiffel – Exception handlers in Eiffel are attached at the method level and all exceptions are caught by one handler. 61 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 62. 重新思考try-catch-finally的責任與分工 • Try – Implement requirements (can have alternatives) – Prepare state recovery (e.g., make a check point) • Catch – Perform error and fault handling – Report exceptional conditions – Control retry flow • Finally – Release resources – Drop check points if any 62 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 63. 例外處理也是一種程式設計,需要程式 設計能力與軟體元件支援 • 設計技巧 – Memento、Smart pointer、Check point、etc. – Exception hierarchy – EH best practices and patterns • 工具 – Logging (e.g., Log4j) – Common error formats and dialogs – EH smell detection – Marker & resolution 63 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 64. Handling View小結 要判斷一個例外是否為一個可修復的狀 況,是例外處理「設計」的第一個步驟, 但這個判斷依據並不是一件容易的事。 確定了例外的recoverability之後,接著 可利用程式語言構件與軟體元件的協助 來實作例外處理程式碼。 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 65. Tool-Support View (例外工具支援觀點)
  • 66. Tool-Support View • Java語言的tool-support – 區分Checked與unchecked例外 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 67. Java與C#程式比較 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 68. Java語言的Tool-Support所造成的後遺症 • Interface evolution problem • Ignored checked exception 68 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 69. Tool-Support View小結 為了提高軟體的強健度,開發人員 需要一個提醒機制,告知那些操作 有可能產生例外,否則開發人員更 容易忽略例外處理,只能等runtime 發生錯誤時再回頭修補。 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 70. Process View (開發流程觀點)
  • 71. Process View • Waterfall VS. IID (iterative and incremental development) • 如何在IID流程中規劃例外處理? – I will handle this exception when I have time.  Never happens! Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 72. 以Scrum為例 • Story – Normal scenarios – Failure scenarios • 這個sprint先做normal scenarios,下個 sprint再做failure scenarios Copyright@2013 Teddysoft 敏捷開發讓例外處理變得好簡單啊! 才怪
  • 73. 「先做normal scenarios,再做failure scenarios」實務上有何問題? Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 74. 做normal scenarios的時候遇到例外 怎麼辦? Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void fetchRawBytesAndSetupMessage(DataInputStream aIS) throws IOException, InvalidPacketException { int length = aIS.readInt(); setMessageLength(length); byte[] messageBody = new byte[length]; try { aIS.readFully(messageBody); } catch (EOFException e) { throw new InvalidPacketException("Data Underflow"); } setMessage(new String(messageBody)); }
  • 75. Process View小結 IID或敏捷開發法不會讓例外處理變 得更簡單。若團隊沒有一套例外處 理設計規範,則很有可能反而會降 低系統的強健度。 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 76. 例外處理的4+1種觀點結論
  • 77. 例外處理…好難…Orz
  • 78. 建立例外處理中心思想— Staged Robustness Model 例外處理的目標
  • 79. 例外處理的目標
  • 80. Robustness Levels (強健度等級) 80 Undefined Error- Reporting State- Recovery Behavior- Recovery 0 1 2 3 Robustness unpredictable All exceptions are reported State is correct under the presence of exceptions Service is delivered under the presence of exceptions Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 81. Robustness levels of components Element RL G0 RL G1 RL G2 RL G3 name undefined error-reporting state-recovery behavior-recovery service failing implicitly or explicitly failing explicitly failing explicitly delivered state unknown or incorrect unknown or incorrect correct correct lifetime terminated or continued terminated continued continued how- achieved NA (1) propagating all unhandled exceptions, and (2) catching and reporting them in the main program (1) error recovery and (2) cleanup (1) retry, and/or (2) design diversity, data diversity, and functional diversity also known as NA failing-fast weakly tolerant and organized panic strongly tolerant, self-repair, self- healing, resilience, and retry Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 82. Upgrading and degrading exception handling goals 82 fail-fast; keep user informed G0 G1 G2 restore state, clean up, and keep programs alive G3 attempt retries all retries fail state restoration or cleanup fail Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 83. Applicability for the robustness levels 83 RL Applicability G1  In the early stage of system development  Prototyping  Applying an evolutionary development methodology  Time-to-market G2  Outsourcing  Designing utility components used in different application domains  Behavior-recovery actions should be administered by the user G3  Developing mission critical systems  Designing components having sufficient application context to recover from behavioral failures, e.g., application controllers  Behavior-recovery actions are inappropriate to be administered by the user Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 84. 強健度等級小結
  • 85. Consequences • Robustness without costly up-front design • Guiding exception handling implementation • Independent of languages Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 86. Bad Smells and Refactorings Refactoring基本觀念 Bad Smells and Refactorings
  • 87. Refactoring基本觀念
  • 88. What is Refactoring • Improving the internal structure of a software system without altering its external behavior [fowler] • Steps to perform refactoring: – Identifying code smells – Applying refactorings to remove the smells – Verifying satisfaction Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 89. Refactoring and EH Refactoring 89 Normal Behavior Exceptional Behavior Refactoring EH Refactoring Behavior Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 90. EH Smells, Refactorings, and RL 90 EH smell Refactoring RL Return code Replace Error Code with Exception G1 Ignored checked exception Replace Ignored Checked Exception with Unchecked Exception G1 Unprotected main program Avoid Unexpected Termination with Big Outer Try Block G1 Dummy handler Replace Dummy Handler with Rethrow G1 Nested try block Replace Nested Try Block with Method G2 Careless Cleanup Replace Careless Cleanup with Guaranteed Cleanup G2 Ignored checked exception Dummy handler Introduce Checkpoint Class G2 Spare handler Introduce Resourceful Try Clause G3Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 91. Smell: Return Code 91 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public int withdraw(int amount) { if (amount > this.balance) return -1; else { this.balance = this.balance – amount; return this.balance; } }
  • 92. Refactoring: Replace Error Code with Exception 92 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public int withdraw(int amount) throws NotEnoughMoneyException { if (amount > this.balance) throw new NotEnoughMoneyException (); this.balance = this.balance – amount; }
  • 93. Smell: Ignored Checked Exception 93 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void writeFile(String fileName, String data) { Writer writer = null; try { writer = new FileWriter(fileName); // may throw IOException writer.write(data); // may throw IOException } catch (IOException e) { // ignoring the exception } finally { // code for cleanup } }
  • 94. Replace Ignored Checked Exception with Unchecked Exception public void writeFile(String fileName, String data) { Writer writer = null; try { writer = new FileWriter(fileName); /* may throw an IOException */ writer.write(data); /* may throw an IOException */ } catch (IOException e) { /* ignoring the exception */ } } ↓ public void writeFile(String fileName, String data) { Writer writer = null; try { writer = new FileWriter(fileName); /* may throw an IOException */ writer.write(data); /* may throw an IOException */ } catch (IOException e) { throw new UnhandledException(e, “message”); } } 94 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 95. Smell: Unprotected Main Program 95 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft static public void main(String[] args) { MyApp myapp = new MyApp(); myapp.start(); }
  • 96. Avoid Unexpected Termination with Big Outer Try Block 96 static public void main(String[] args) { MyApp myapp = new MyApp(); myapp.start(); } ↓ static public void main(String[] args) { try { MyApp myapp = new MyApp(); myapp.start(); } catch (Throwable e) { /* displaying and/or logging the exception */ } } Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 97. Smell: Dummy Handler 97 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void m(String aFileName) { try{ FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); } catch(IOException e){ e.printStackTrace(); } finally{ // cleanup } }
  • 98. Replace Dummy Handler with Rethrow 98 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void m(String aFileName) { try{ FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); } catch(IOException e){ e.printStackTrace(); } finally{ // cleanup } } public void m(String aFileName) { try{ FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); } catch(IOException e){ throw new UnhandledException (e, “message”); } finally{ // cleanup } }
  • 99. Smell: Nested Try Statement 99 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft FileInputStream in = null; try { in = new FileInputStream(…); } finally { try { if (in != null) in.close (); } catch (IOException e) { /* log the exception */ } }
  • 100. Replace Nested Try Statement with Method 100 FileInputStream in = null; try { in = new FileInputStream(…); } finally { try { if (in != null) in.close (); } catch (IOException e) { /* log the exception */ } } Copyright@2013 Teddysoft FileInputStream in = null; try { in = new FileInputStream(…); } finally { closeIO (in); } private void closeIO (Closeable c) { try { if (c != null) c.close (); } catch (IOException e) { /* log the exception */ } }
  • 101. Smell: Careless Cleanup 101 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void cleanup String aFileName) { try{ FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); fis.close(); } catch(IOException e){ throw new RuntimeException(e); } }
  • 102. Replace Careless Cleanup with Guaranteed Cleanup 102 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft public void cleanup String aFileName) { try{ FileInputStream fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); fis.close(); } catch(IOException e){ throw new RuntimeException(e); } } public void cleanup String aFileName) { FileInputStream fis = null; try{ fis = new FileInputStream(new File(aFileName)); } catch(IOException e){ throw new RuntimeException(e); } finally { closeIO(fis); } }
  • 103. 練習:尋找 Smells
  • 104. 練習:EH Refactoring
  • 105. Advanced Refactoring
  • 106. Introduce Checkpoint Class 106 public void foo () throws FailureException { try { /* code that may change the state of the object */ } catch (AnException e) { throw new FailureException(e); } finally {/* code for cleanup */} } ↓ public void foo () throws FailureException { Checkpoint cp = new Checkpoint (/* parameters */); try { cp. establish (); /* establish a checkpoint */ /* code that may change the state of the object */ } catch (AnException e) { cp.restore (); /* restore the checkpoint */ throw new FailureException(e); } finally { cp.drop(); } } Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 107. Smell: Spare handler 107 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft try { /* primary */ } catch (SomeException e) { try {/* alternative */} catch(AnotherException e) { throw new FailureException(e); } }
  • 108. Introduce Resourceful Try Clause 108 try { /* primary */ } catch (SomeException e) { try {/* alternative */} catch(AnotherException e) { throw new FailureException(e); } } ↓ int attempt = 0; int maxAttempt = 2; boolean retry = false; do { try { retry = false; if (attempt == 0) { /* primary */ } else { /* alternative */ } } catch (SomeException e) { attempt++; retry = true; if (attempt > maxAttempt) throw new FailureException (e); } } while (attempt<= maxAttempt && retry) Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 109. 參考資料 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 110. 複習 • 例外處理基本觀念 – EHM、fault、error、failure、exception • 例外處理的4+1觀點 • 建立例外處理中心思想—Staged Robustness Model • EH Bad Smells and Refactorings
  • 111. 泰迪軟體敏捷開發訓練藍圖 Copyright@2013 Teddysoft
  • 112. 謝謝,再見 XD

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