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10 pengantar jaringan komputer dan kom dat
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10 pengantar jaringan komputer dan kom dat


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  • 2. Telecommunications Systems Overview  Data Communication : High speed data exchange between computers and/or other electronic devices via cable or wireless. (  Telecommunications can be defined as communication of data and information by electronic means such as telephone, radio, television, and computer, usually over some distance  Computer communications : a process in which one computer transfers data, information and instructions to another computer  Telecommunications system is a collection of compatible hardware and software arranged to communicate data, information and instructions from one location to another  Telecommunications systems can transmit text, graphic images, voice, and video information through communications channel
  • 3. Overview Telecommunications Systems(cont.) Contoh sistem telekomunikasi
  • 4. Overview Telecommunications Systems(cont.) Model telekomunikasi
  • 5. Telecommunications Systems(cont.) Overview  The telecommunications model consists of the following:  A sending device that initiates an instruction to transmit data, information, or instructions. It can be a computer system, a terminal, a cellular telephone, a WebTV, a GPS receiver, an Internet-enabled PDA, or another device that originates the message.  A communications device that connects the communications channel to a sending device.  A communications channel or transmission media on which the data, instructions, or information travel.  A communications device that connects the communications channel to a receiving device.  A receiving device that accepts the transmission of data, information, or instructions.  A communications software that controls and manages the activities and functions of the communications network.
  • 6. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components  Devices that handle the movement of data in a computer network include:  modem  Router  Hub  Network interface cards  Multiplexer  Front-end processor  Host computer
  • 7. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  MODEM (Modulation/Demodulation)  Connects a communications channel to a sending or receiving device  Computers process data as digital signals.  Data, instructions, and information travel along a communication channel in either analog or digital form  Modem converts analog to digital signals and digital to analog signals  Converting signal from digital to analog is called modulation  converting signal from analog to digital is called demodulation
  • 8. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 1. Dial-up modem • usually is in the form of an adapter card that you insert in an expansion slot on a computer's motherboard • One end of a standard telephone cord attaches to a port on the modem card and the other end plugs into a telephone outlet 2. Cable modem • a digital modem that sends and receives digital data over the cable television (CATV) network • A cable modem usually is an external device, in which one end of a cable connects to a CATV wall outlet and the other end plugs in a port in the system unit
  • 9. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 3. wireless modem • allows access to the Internet wirelessly from a notebook computer, a PDA, a smart phone, or other mobile device • Wireless modems, which have an external or built-in antenna, typically use the same waves used by cellular telephones
  • 10. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  DEVICES CONNECTING NETWORKS 1. bridge  Network bridging provides an easy way to connect 2 or more network to become a single big network without using router in order to share file, printer or Internet connection.  Please note that all computers in different network that needs to be bridged must sit in same logical IP network.
  • 11. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 2. gateway  a communications processor that connects networks that use different protocols by providing the translation from one set of protocols to another 3. router  an intelligent bridge for large networks  connect multiple networks and routs communications traffic to the appropriate network using the fastest available path  many routers are protected by a built-in firewall
  • 12. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 4. front-end processor  a small computer dedicated to communications management and is attached to the main, or host, computer in a large computer system  The front-end processor is largely responsible for collecting and processing input and output to and from terminals and grouping characters into complete messages for submission to the CPU of the host computer 5. network card/network interface card (NIC)  is an adapter card, that enables the computer or device that does not have built-in networking capability to access a network
  • 13. 1. Communications Devices Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 6. repeater  a device that accepts a signal from a transmission medium, amplifies it, and retransmits it over the medium  As a signal travels over a long distance, the signal undergoes a reduction in strength, an occurrence called attenuation 7. hub or switch  a device that provides a central point for cables in a network  receives data from many directions and then forwards it to one or more destinations
  • 14. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Communications Channels  communications path between two devices.  composed of one or more transmission media  The amount of signals that can travel over a communications channel sometimes is called the Bandwidth  Baseband transmission media can transmit only one signal at a time  broadband media can transmit multiple signals simultaneously
  • 15. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Transmission media are one of two types:  physical or  wireless  Physical transmission media use wire, cable, and other tangible materials to send communications signal  Wireless transmission media send communications signals through the air or space using radio, microwave, and infrared signals  Physical transmission media used in communications include  twisted-pair cable,  coaxial cable, and  fiber-optic cable  These cables typically are used within building or underground between buildings
  • 16. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Physical Transmission Media 1. twisted-pair wire cable  consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together  The wires are twisted together to reduce noise, which is an electrical disturbance that can degrade communications  shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable, has a metal wrapper around each twisted-pair wire, which further reduces noise  Cables that do not have this shielding are called unshielded twistedpair (UTP)
  • 17. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 2. coaxial cable  consists of a single copper wire surrounded by at least three layers: • an insulating material, • a woven or braided metal, and • a plastic outer coating 3. fiber-optic cable  consists of dozens or hundreds of thin strands of glass or plastic that use light to transmit signals  Each strand, called an optical fiber  advantage include (1) capability of carrying significantly more signals; (2) faster data transmission; (3) less susceptible to noise from other devices; (4) better security for signals during transmission; and (5) smaller size
  • 18. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) The speeds of various physical communications media when they are used in LANs
  • 19. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Wireless Transmission Media Wireless transmission media used in communications include  broadcast radio,  cellular radio,  microwaves,  communications satellites, and  infrared 1. Broadcast radio  a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long distances  Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, UWB, and WiMAX communications technologies use broadcast radio signals
  • 20. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 2. Celular radio  a form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile communications, specifically wireless modems and cell phones  Several categories of cellular transmissions exist, defining the development of cellular networks: • 1G (first generation) transmitted analog data • 2G (second generation) transmit digital data at speeds from 9.6 kbps to 19.2 kbps • 3G (third generation) transmit digital data at speeds from 114 kbps to 2.4 Mbps • 4G (fourth generation) transmit digital data at speeds up to 15 Mbps  3G technology allows users quickly to display multimedia and graphics, browse the Web, watch television or a video, have a video conference, and transfer data on a cellular device
  • 21. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.)
  • 22. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 3. microwafe  high-frequency radio waves that are sent through the atmosphere and space  Microwaves provide a high-speed signal transmission, and can transmit data at rates up to 4,500 times faster than a dialup modem  Microwaves are limited to line-of-sight transmission, which means that microwaves must be transmitted in a straight line with no obstructions between microwave antennas  To avoid possible obstructions, such as buildings or mountains, microwave stations often sit on the tops of buildings, towers, or mountains  Microwave signals can carry thousands of channels at the same time.
  • 23. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 4. communications satellite  basically a microwave station placed in outer space  The satellite receives the signal from the earth, amplifies the relatively weak signal, and then rebroadcasts it at a different frequency to any number of earthbased stations  Transmission from an earth-based station to a satellite is an uplink  Transmission from a satellite to an earth-based station is a downlink  The advantage of satellite communications is the ability to receive and broadcast over larger geographic regions
  • 24. 2. Communications Channels Telecommunications System Components(cont.) 5. infrared  a wireless transmission media that sends signals using infrared light waves  Infrared transmission requires a line-ofsight transmission and short distances -- under a few hundred yards  Infrared transmission can be used to connect various devices and computers.  For example, infrared transmission has been used to allow handheld computers to transmit data and information to larger computers within the same room  This means of transmission can be used to establish a wireless network with the advantage that devices can be moved, removed, and installed without expensive wiring and network connections
  • 25. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Communications software  consists of programs that  help users establish a connection to another computer or network;  manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information;  provide an interface for users to communicate with one another  A set of rules and procedures governing transmission between components in a network is called a protocol  The principal functions of protocol in a network include:  identifying each device in the communication path  securing the attention of the other device  verifying correct receipt of the transmitted message  determining that a message requires retransmission if it is incomplete or has errors  performing recovery when errors occur
  • 26. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Ethernet  a network standard that specifies no central computer or device on the network (nodes) should control when data can be transmitted  each node attempts to transmit data when it determines the network is available to receive communications  If two computers on an Ethernet network attempt to send data at the same time, a collision will occur, and the computers must attempt to send their messages again  Ethernet is the popular communications protocol often used with local area networks (LAN) because it is relatively inexpensive and easy to install and maintain  A more recent Ethernet standard, called Fast Ethernet , 10-Gigabit Ethernet
  • 27. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Token Ring  another popular network standard for LANs.  Token ring is based on ring topology (although it can use a star topology)  Some token ring networks connect up to 72 devices  The data transfer rate on a token ring network can range from 4 Mbps to 1 Gbps  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)  a network standard that defines how messages (data) are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly  TCP/IP has been adopted as a network standard for Internet communications.  TCP provides transport functions, ensuring, among other things, that the amount of data received is the same as the amount transmitted  IP provides the addressing and routing mechanism that acts as postmaster
  • 28. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.) TCP/IP’s four-layer reference model:  Application layer serves as the window for users and application processes to access network services  Transport layer handles end-toend packet transportation  Internet layer formats the data into packets, adds a header containing the packet sequence and the address of the receiving device, and specifies the services required from the network.  Network interface layer places data packets on the network for transmission
  • 29. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.) The TCP/IP suite of applications includes five protocols:  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): It is TCP/IP�s own messaging system for e-mail.  File Transfer Protocol (FTP): It allows files containing text, programs, graphics, numerical data, and so on to be downloaded off or uploaded onto a network.  Telnet Protocol: It provides terminal emulation that allows a personal computer or workstation to act as a terminal, or access device, for a server.  Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP): It allows Web browsers and servers to send and receive Web pages.  Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP): It allows the management of networked nodes to be managed from a single point.
  • 30. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  802.11 (Wi-Fi)  developed by IEEE, is a series of network standards that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other  The 802.11 standard often is called the wireless Ethernet standard because it uses techniques similar to the Ethernet standard to specify how physically to configure a wireless network  The term Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity) identifies any network based on the 802.11 series of standards  Windows Vista and Windows Mobile include support for Wi-Fi. Most of today's computers and many personal mobile devices are Wi-Fi enabled.
  • 31. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  Bluetooth  a network standard that defines how two Bluetooth devices use shortrange radio waves to transmit data  The data transfers between devices at a rate of up to 3 Mbps  To communicate with each other, Bluetooth devices often must be within about 10 meters but can be extended to 100 meters with additional equipment. Windows Vista has built-in Bluetooth support.  UWB  stands for ultra-wideband, is a network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other  At distances of 10 meters (about 33 feet), the data transfer rate is 110 Mbps. At closer distances, such as 2 meters (about 6.5 feet), the transfer rate is at least 480 Mbps  Because of its high transfer rates, UWB is best suited for transmission of large files such as video, graphics, and audio.
  • 32. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  IrDA  a standard for transmitting data wirelessly to each other via infrared light waves  he devices transfer data at rates from 115 Kbps to 4 Mbps between their IrDA ports  Infrared requires a line-of-sight transmission, which means that the sending device and the receiving device must be in line with each other so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave  RFID  a standard that defines how a network uses radio signals to communicate with a tag placed in or attached to an object, an animal, or a person  An active RFID tag contains a battery that runs the chip's circuitry and broadcasts a signal to the RFID reader  A passive RFID tag does not contain a battery , can be small enough to be embedded in skin
  • 33. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.) RFID toll collection
  • 34. 3. Comm. Soft., standards, Protocol Telecommunications System Components(cont.)  WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)  also known as 802.16, is a newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area  Using the WiMAX standard, computers or devices with the appropriate WiMAX wireless capability communicate via radio waves with other computers or devices via a WiMAX tower.  Fixed wireless WiMAX has data transfer rates up to 40 Mbps, while mobile wireless WiMAX has data transfer rates up to 15 Mbps.  WAP (Wireless Application Protocol )  standard that specifies how some mobile devices can display the content of Internet services such as the Web, e-mail and chat rooms  On WAP-enabled devices, data transfer rates range from 9.6 to 153 Kbps depending on the type of service
  • 35. Data Transmission Signal Type  Signal Type: Analog or Digital
  • 36. Transmission Modes Data Transmission(cont.)  Transmission Modes: Asynchronous and Synchronous  Asynchronous transmission transmits one byte at a time over a line at random intervals, each byte framed by controls -- a start bit for marking the beginning of the byte, a stop bit for marking the end of the byte, and a parity bit for error checking. Asynchronous transmission is relatively slow and used for low-speed transmission.  Synchronous transmission transmits groups of bytes simultaneously at regular intervals, with the beginning and ending of a block of bytes determined by the timing circuitry of the sending device and receiving devices. it provides much higher speeds and greater accuracy than asynchronous transmission
  • 37. Transmission Direction Data Transmission(cont.)  Transmission Direction Simplex transmission sends data in one direction only. One example of simplex transmission is television broadcasting. Half-duplex transmission allows data transmission in either direction, but only one way at a time. Many fax machines, credit card verification systems and automatic teller machines use half-duplex transmission. Full-duplex transmission, data can flow in both directions at the same time. A regular telephone line, for example, supports fullduplex transmission, allowing both parties to talk at same time. Multiplex transmission, several different types of signals can be carried at once through the same line.
  • 38. Networks  Network Topologies 1. Network Topologies   A network is a collection of computers and devices connected by telecommunications channels that allows users to facilitate communications, and to share data, information, software, and hardware with other users. A network topology is a description of the possible physical connections within a network  In a network topology, a component is called a node, which refers to any device connected to a network, including the server, computers, telephones, and other devices  Three commonly used network topologies are bus, ring, and star.
  • 39. Networks(cont.) 1. Network Topologies 1. Bus network  consists of a single central cable, to which all the network nodes are attached  The bus is the physical cable that connects the computers and other devices.  when a sending device transmits data, address of the receiving device is included with the transmission so that the data is routed to the appropriate receiving device  only one node can transfer items at one time  If one node in the network fails, none of the other nodes in the network is affected
  • 40. Networks(cont.) 1. Network Topologies 2. Ring network  links all nodes together in a circular chain  Data messages travel in only one direction from device to device around the entire ring  The node examines any data that passes by to see if it is the addressee; if not, the data is passed on to the next node in the ring  If a node on a ring network fails, all nodes before the failed node are unaffected, but those after the failed nodes cannot function
  • 41. Networks(cont.) 1. Network Topologies 3. Star network  all of the computers and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device, thus forming a star  Two types of devices that provide a common central connection point for nodes on the network are a hub and a switch  Star networks are fairly easy to install and maintain  if one node fails, only that node is affected  if the hub computer fails, the entire network fails
  • 42. Networks(cont) 2. LAN, MAN, and WAN  LAN, MAN, and WAN Usually, networks are classified ad a local area network, metropolitan area network, or wide area network 1. local area network (LAN)  a network that connects computers in a limited geographical area, such as a school computer laboratory, department, or closely positioned group of buildings  A local area network can be a ring, bus, or star network.  A wireless LAN (WLAN) is a LAN that uses no physical wires.
  • 43. Networks(cont.) 2. LAN, MAN, and WAN 2. Metropolitan area network (MAN)  Metropolitan area network (MAN) connects LANs in city or town  it connects local area networks in a metropolitan area  A MAN usually is managed by a consortium of users or by a single network provider who sells the service to the users 3. wide area network (WAN)  a network that covers a large geographical area using a communications channel that usually combines many different types of transmission media  A WAN can be one large network or can consist of two or more LANs connected together  The Internet is the world's largest WAN
  • 44. 2. LAN, MAN, and WAN Networks(cont.)
  • 45. 3. Network Architectures Networks(cont.)  Network Architectures The design of computers, devices, and media in a network, sometimes called the network architecture 1. client/server network  a network in which one or more computers are designated as a server(s) and other computers on the network, called clients, can request services from the server, such as providing database access or queuing print jobs  A server, also called host computer, controls access to the hardware and software on the network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information  The other computers (clients) on the network rely on the servers for these resources, such as files, devices, processing power, and storage
  • 46. Networks(cont.) 3. Network Architectures 2. peer-to-peer network  a simple, inexpensive network  All computers in a peer-topeer network have equal status; no one computer is in control  Each computer, called a peer, in the network can share the hardware, data, or programs located on any other computer in the network  Each computer stores files on its own storage devices