Advanced grammar:major complementation & valency


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Advanced grammar:major complementation & valency

  1. 1. MAJOR COMPLEMENTATIONPATTERNS AND VALENCYBy: Teddy Fiktorius (F5221 2025)Postgraduate Study of English Language EducationTeacher Training and Education FacultyUniversity of TanjungpuraPontianak2013
  2. 2. 1. IntroductionComplementation of the verbsyntactic patternsa Subject and a PredicatorIntransitive,Copular, andtransitive.
  3. 3. Type ofcomplementationStructuralpatternIllustrationIntransitive S-P Paijo criedThey sleptCopular S-P-C The solution is illogicalIt was greatTransitiveMonotransitive S-P-O He sold his carShe sang a songDitransitive S-P-O-O Surti gave Tejo the bookThey wrote me a letterComplex-transitive S-P-O-C They find the idea crazyI considered the risk toogreat
  4. 4. Some verbs (get, turn and make )more than one type of complementationdifferent types of situation/meaningsLet’s take “make” as an example…..
  5. 5. SITheyPwill makeare makingOdsome tea.soup.SIShePwill makemadeOiyouhimOda juice.SHeWePmademadeOdthe coffeethe meatCotoo strong.over-cooked.STheyHePmakewould makeCsa good couple.a good husband.SItItPmakesmakesOpfor good relations.for a happy marriage.
  6. 6. semantic valency- The potential number of participants- the subject (the number of ‘places’ in the clause that theverb controls)Different classes of verbsdifferent semantic valenciesLet’s take “eat” as an example…..
  7. 7. “eat”a two-place verba semantic valency of twoan eater and a thing eatenin any event of eating
  8. 8. One-place verba subject only (the SP pattern)Two-place verba subject and one other element(the SPC and SPO patterns)Three-place verba subject and two other elements(the SPOO and SPOC patterns)Compare:1. They came.2. She eats the cake.3. We gave them the book.
  9. 9. MODULE 9:INTRANSITIVE AND COPULAR PATTERNSintransitiveverbs with no complementation (S-P)compare:1. She arrived2. It snows3. The cats blink4. We eat. ----We eat some bread.5. I drove. ---- I drove a car.6. She was reading. ---- She was reading a novel.
  10. 10. intransitive verbs(position: live, lie) or (movement: go, walk)a Locative or Goal Complementcompare:1. I live. ---- I live in the jungle.2. They went . ---- They went to the zoo.
  11. 11. The S-P-Cs patterna copular verb that links the subject to a Complementcopula:- bee.g. You are insane; She is mad.- Some verbs(look, feel, smell, sound, taste, become, get, go, grow,)Compare:1. She is tired. ----She is feeling tired.2. They are ill. ---- They become ill.
  12. 12. 9.1. SUBJECT – PREDICATOR (S-P)a one-place verba subject but no complementTypes of intransitive verb:1. verbs of behaviour:laugh, smile, cry, blink, blush, cough, sneeze, sigh, tremble, yawn; wait, stay; die,collapse, faint, fall,e.g. They all laughed, someone yawned, one soldier fainted.2. verbs of weather: rain, snowe.g. It’s raining. It’s snowing. The sun rose.3. verbs of occurrence: appear, disappear, go, come, arrive, depart, vanish, fade,happen:e.g. Has everyone arrived?Hopes of avoiding war are now fading.
  13. 13. 9.2. SUBJECT–PREDICATOR–LOCATIVE COMPLEMENT (Cloc)Complement of place, direction or destination• Location in place or time: be, stand, live, lie, remaine.g. 1. The National Theatre stands near the river.2. The amusement park is just over there.3. She is lying in a hammock.4. Lunch was at one o’clock.• Movement + manner of movement: walk, run, stroll, crawl, flye.g. 1. We walked home.2. The soldier crawled under the wire fence.Compare:He is lying in a hammock vs He is lying to me.…pure intransitive or with a Locative/Goal Complement?
  14. 14. 9.2.1 Pragmatic inference of circumstantialmeaningsverbs of position (wait and stay)verbs of movement (go, leave, come and walk)either pure intransitives or be followed by a Locative/GoalComplement.depends on whether there is sufficient support from the context tosustain the intransitive.Compare:1. Do you want to leave or would you rather stay?2. They are asked to walk to school.Sentence 1: the intransitive verb alone is sufficient, because thelocation is pragmatically inferred as being the place where theaddressee is.
  15. 15. If the location or destination are not inferrable, a locative or GoalComplement becomes necessary as in:1. They are asked to walk to school.2. We went home.Without the specification ‘home’, the verb would carry insufficientsemantic ‘weight’ and informativeness to complete the predicate.
  16. 16. 9.3 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – ADJUNCT (S-P-A)a circumstantial Adjunct is commonly added, but it is not arequirementCompare:S-P-A S-PTom works in London. Does his sister work?We arrived late. The guests are arriving.He retired last year. He has retired.We stopped at the Equator. The clock has stopped.
  17. 17. 9.4 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR –COMPLEMENT OF THE SUBJECTCopular verbs link the subject with a complement whichcharacterises or identifies the subject referent:- A couch potato (S) is (P) someone who lies watchingtelevision all day (Cs).- This new game (S) is (P) incredibly simple andendlessly gripping (Cs).
  18. 18. 9.4.1 Verbs of being and becomingVerbs of beingstative and introduce current or existing attributese.g. 1. Lloyd George was a man of principle.2. We have to remain optimistic about the future.Verbs of becomingdynamic and introduce resulting attributes.e.g. 1. Her latest novel has become a best-seller.2. We began to grow uneasy. (grow=gradual change)3. His face went white. (went= drastic changes)
  19. 19. 9.4.2 Other linking verbsA small number of verbswithout a complement (fall, come, run)copulas with specific adjectives as Cs:e.g. 1. The child fell flat on its face.2. The soldiers all fell asleep/ fell ill.3.The label has come unstuck.
  20. 20. MODULE 10TRANSITIVE PATTERNSKey note:Monotransitive patternsa two place verb (carry, say) + one objectDitransitive patternsa three-place verb (give, offer, rob, blame)+three participants are involved (1 subject + 2 objects)complex-transitive patternsone Object +one Complement, after verbs such as appoint, name andfind.
  21. 21. 10.1 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR –DIRECT OBJECTS P OdISheTheyWeatewas wearingdon’t watchmust put awaya toasted cheese sandwichone of her father’s’ TV programmes.all this stuff
  22. 22. 10.2 VERBS USED TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY1. Verbs with an implied Objecte.g. moke (cigarettes), drive (a car), park (a car),drink (alcohol), save (money), wave (one’s hand)valency reductionnormal valency of two of these verbs is reduced to one.E.g. 1. Drinking and driving don’t match.2. It is impossible to park in the city centre.3. They are saving to buy a house.4. He waved to us from the bridge. 2. Causatives with an intransitive counterpart, constituting an ergativepairHe opened the door. (SPOd) The door opened. (SP)She clicked the camera. The camera clicked. 3 Verbs with a reflexive meaning:He shaved (himself), She dressed (herself). 4 Verbs with a reciprocal meaning:Tom and Jo met at a concert. (met each other)
  23. 23. 10.3 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – PREPOSITIONALOBJECTCommon verbs that can be followed by a prepositionfor on to at with in of afteraccountallowhopelonglookbankcallcountrelyadmitconsentkeepreferresortaimgethintlookdealreasonbelieveconfidedisposethinkhearlooktakeS P OpThe Prime MinisterWeHecan’t accountare bankingwould never resortfor the loss of votes.on everyone’s support for the cheating.
  24. 24. 10.4 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – INDIRECT OBJECT –DIRECT OBJECT10.4.1 Verbs of transfer (give, lend )and intended transfer (buy, get)Type: give + Od + OiType: get + Od + Oi10.4.2 Less prototypical three-place verbsType: explain + NG + Prepositional ObjectType: wish + NG + NG
  25. 25. 10.4.1 Verbs of transfer (give, lend )and intended transfer (buy, get)Three-place verbsa subject and two ObjectsType 1: give + Od + Oi ----- I gave her a gift. I gave a gift to her.Type 2: get + Od + Oi ---- I got her a gift. I got/bought a gift for her .the indirect Object has a prepositional counterpartmore verbs like ‘give’:Hand; lend; offer; owe; pass; promise; read; send; show;teach; throw ;writee.g. 1. He showed the policeman his driving licence.(He showed his driving licence to the policeman.)2. We offered our clients an opportunity. ( . . . to our clients)3. She owes them large sums of money. ( . . . to them)
  26. 26. With the ‘give’ type, two passives are usuallypossible:Active: I gave Jo a copy.Passive 1: Jo was given a copy.(Oi in active clause → S in passive clause)Passive 2: A copy was given to Jo.(Od in active clause → S in passive clause)
  27. 27. 10.4.2 Less prototypical three-place verbsprepositional object as a second object.Type: explain + NG + Prepositional ObjectCOMPARE:1. He explained the problem to us.2. He explained us the problem. (acceptable?)Typical verbs are: announce, confess, deliver, mention, return andsay.e.g. 1. What did she say to you?2. I never mentioned your name to anyone.
  28. 28. Type: wish + NG + NGWe wish you luckno prepositional counterpart with toOther verbs: allow, cost, wish, refuse and ‘light’ uses of give.Compare: They allow me a break. * They allow a break to me.He gave the door a push. * He gave a push to the door.Let’s ask someone the way. * Let’s ask the way to someone.
  29. 29. 10.5 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – DIRECT OBJECT –PREPOSITIONAL OBJECTSome verbs taking Prepositional Object as well as Direct ObjectOnly the direct object constituent can become subject in the passive clause:e.g. 1. Your skin will be protected from the sun’s rays.2. She was robbed of her watch.3. He was charged with assault.4. Janet was congratulated on her success.For from of to with onblamethankpreventprotectaccuseconvincedepriverobintroducehelpsentencechargecomparesupplyblamecomplimentcongratulateS P Od OpThis sunblockTheyTheyIwill protectrobbedchargedcongratulatedyour skinherhimJanetfrom the sun’s rays.of her watch.with assault.on her success.
  30. 30. 10.6 FRAME, PERSPECTIVE AND ATTENTIONframe perspective attentionframe conceptualises a situation from different perspectivesperspective draws on the cognitive ability to direct one’s attentione.g. Fillmore’s ‘commercial event’ frame for [BUY]four other variables, namely to a BUYER, a SELLER, GOODS and MONEY.Tom bought some old CDs from Phil for twenty euros.Other verbs with the same frame: SELL, CHARGE or PAYcompare:1. Phil sold some old CDs to Tom for twenty euros.2. Phil charged Tom twenty euros for some of his old CDs.3. Tom paid Phil twenty euros for some old CDs.
  31. 31. 10.7 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – DIRECT OBJECT – OBJECTCOMPLEMENT10.7.1 Current and Resulting Attributesstative verbs : Hold, keep, believe, consider, think, find, imagine, presume, hold, want,like and preferresulting verbs :bake, drive (mad), get, leave, make, paint, turn, wipe, appoint, elect, call,name, declare, report and certifycompare:Keep your hands steady! ---------- It wipes the windscreen dry.I imagined him much older. --------- That barking dog is driving me mad.Do you want the meal hot? ---------- The heat has turned the milk sour.
  32. 32. 10.8 SUBJECT – PREDICATOR – DIRECT OBJECT – LOCATIVECOMPLEMENTVerbs with a Locative/Goal Complement:put, place, stand, lead , talk, take, bring and showe.g. 1. I put the dish in the microwave.2. Stand the lamp near the desk.3. The track led us to a farm.while keep and hold can function with bothAttributes and in Locative/Goal patterns.Compare:Keep your hands on the wheel! (Cloc) Keep your hands steady! (Co)Hold your head up! (Cloc) We hold you responsible. (Co)
  33. 33. MODULE 11COMPLEMENTATION BY FINITE CLAUSESThe four main types of dependent complement clause withmonotransitive verbs:1. finite that-clause: He believes that he’s right.2. finite wh-clause: He asked what I meant.He believed what I told him.I said how nice it was.3. non-finite to-infinitive clause:without subject He wants to stay.with subject He wants us all to stay.4. non-finite -ing clause:without dep. cl. subject He doesn’t like driving in fogwith dep. cl. subject He doesn’t like her driving in fog
  34. 34. 11.1 MEANINGS AND PATTERNS OF THAT-CLAUSECOMPLEMENTS11.1.1 Verb + that-clause11.1.2 Dropping or retaining the complementiser that11.1.3 Verb + NG + that-clause
  35. 35. 11.1.1 Verb + that-clauseFacts, beliefs, doubts, perceptions• Verbs of cognition – knowing, doubting, perceiving:think, know, believe, imagine, see, doubt; with doubt, don’t know,e.g. 1. We know that you have lived abroad for some time.2. He could see that she was not at all happy.• Verbs of expectation – expect, hope, suppose and wish –take a modalauxiliary in the indicative that clause.e.g. 1. I expect (that) you would like something to drink .2. I suppose (that) he must have lost his way.
  36. 36. 11.1.2 Dropping or retaining the complementiser that- Omission of that :(a) when think or say is the main verbe.g. I think it’s nice, Tim says it’s easy(b) when the subject refers to the same entity in the main clause and in thethat-clausee.g. Tim promised he’d do it(c) when there is a pronoun rather than a noun head in the that-clausee.g. I think I’ll have a cola, She knew he would do it- Retaining that :(d) coordinated that-clauses:e.g. Many people believe that war is right.(e) passive voice in the main clause:e.g. It is believed that peace is in sight.(f) a NG or PP (or clause containing a NG) placed between the main clauseand the that-clause:e.g. Can you prove to them that the effects are not harmful?
  37. 37. 11.1.3 Verb + NG + that-clause- verbs of communicating (tell, inform)- verbs of causing someone to think or believe or know something(convince, persuade, remind, teach)- performative verbs promise and warntake a that-clause after the direct object:e.g. 1. He finally convinced the jury that he was telling the truth.2. Experience has taught them that a back-up copy is essential.
  38. 38. 11.2 SAY AND TELL‘Say ‘monotransitivecontrolling a direct objecte.g. Say that number again; He said he was sorry‘tell ‘ditransitivewith two objectse.g. 1. Tell me your name.2. Tell me you love me.
  39. 39. 11.3 MEANINGS AND PATTERNS OF WH-CLAUSECOMPLEMENTS11.3.1. Indirect interrogatives11.3.2. Nominal relatives11.3.3. Non-finite variants11.3.4. Indirect exclamatives
  40. 40. 11.3.1 Indirect interrogativesV + wh-clause‘ask, wonder, doubt, enquire, don’t know ‘indirect interrogativescompare:1. We asked what we should do/what to do.2. The tourist enquired why the museum was closed.3. Pat wondered whether/if her friends would recognise her.
  41. 41. 11.3.2 Nominal relativesV + NG + wh-clausesGive them what they want‘advise, give, show, teach and tell ‘control nominal relative clause complementsrepresent factual informatione.g. 1. He told me what I already knew.2. Tom will show you where you can send it.3.The instructor taught the dancers how they should breathe.
  42. 42. 11.3.3 Non-finite variantsV + NG + wh + to-infinitive clauseAsk (him) how to do itThe NG recipient is obligatory with tell, show and teach,optional with ask, and not used at all with know and wonder.e.g. 1. We didn’t know where to go. (indirect interrogative)2. Tom told us what to do. (nominal relative)11.3.4 Indirect exclamativesV + (NG) + what + NG or how + AdjGI said how nice it wasverbs of communicating such as say and tellmental verbs such as believe and think.emotive quality:e.g. 1. You’ll never believe what a good time we had.2. I told her how sorry I was.
  43. 43. MODULE 12COMPLEMENTATION BY NON-FINITE CLAUSES12.1 CATENATIVE COMPLEMENTS12.2 MEANINGS EXPRESSED BY TO-INFINITIVECLAUSES12.2.1 Type 1: V + to-infinitive12.2.2 Type 2: V + NG + to-infinitive clause withsubject12.2.3 Type 3: V + NG + to-infinitive
  44. 44. 12.1 CATENATIVE COMPLEMENTS‘Catenative’ means ‘chaining’controls a non-finite complemente.g. We decided to try to rent a house near the sea.a chain of three verbsto try to rent a house near the sea the catenative complement of decideto rent a house near the sea the catenative complement of try.Check this one out!!!We decided to try to persuade Bill to help us rent a house near the sea.
  45. 45. 12.2 MEANINGS EXPRESSED BY TO-INFINITIVE CLAUSES12.2.1 Type 1: V + to-infinitive(a) Want, wish, intend, arrange(b) like, love, prefer, can’t bear, hate(c) promise, agree, learn, forget, decide1. The boss wants to see us immediately.2. I have arranged to go to London tomorrow.3. I would have preferred to invent something which helps people.4. I promise to ring you later. (compare: I promise that I will ring you later)5. They agreed to wait a bit longer. (compare: they agreed that they would wait a bitlonger)potential situation
  46. 46. 12.2.2 Type 2: V + NG + to-infinitivewant, like, love, prefer, can’t bear, dislike, hate, wish, arrange. E.g. 1. The people want the troops to leave.2. Her mother did not like her to be out for too long.3. I only want us to be together.4. I have arranged for the students to go to London tomorrow. 
  47. 47. 12.3 MEANINGS EXPRESSED BY BARE INFINITIVECLAUSES12.3.1 Type 3: V + NG + bare infinitivelet, have, make; see, hear, feel; help. E.g. 1. we let them go, we saw them go.2. Don’t let anxiety spoil your life.3. They made the prisoners stand for hours.4. I’ll have my secretary make you a reservation.
  48. 48. 12.4 MEANINGS EXPRESSED BY -ING CLAUSES12.4.1 Type 4: V + -ing clauselike, love, avoid, dislike, hate, enjoy, miss, resent, risk, can’t, help.e.g. 1. They disliked living in a big city.2. I avoid travelling in the rush hour.3. We enjoy listening to rock music
  49. 49. 12.4.2 Type 6: V + NG + -ing clauseSee, hear, feel, smell, find, leave, catch, discover, come across, keepe.g. 1. She found the child sleeping peacefully.2. The child was found sleeping peacefully.COMPARE:I remembered to turn off the gas.(I remembered that I had to turn off the gas and I did.)I remembered turning off the gas.(I remembered that I had turned off the gas.)I forgot to turn off the gas.(I forgot that I had to turn off the gas and didn’t turn it off.)I regret telling/having told you the bad news.(I am sorry that I told you the bad news.)I regret to tell you there is some bad news.(I am sorry to have to tell you bad news.)
  50. 50. 12.4.3 Potential and factual meanings contrasted:to-infinitive and -ing clausesEmotive verbs: like, love, hate and prefer (but not enjoy, detest and dislike,which admit only -ing clauses)COMPARE:I like listening to music. ------ I’d like to buy a good stereo.Most people hate standing in queues. -----Most car-owners wouldhate to be without a car.
  51. 51. 12.5 PAST PARTICIPIAL CLAUSES12.5.1 V + NG + -en clause1. the causative verbs get and havee.g. We’ll have some repairs done to the house,2. volitional verbs: want, like, prefere.g. The boss wants these records updated;3. verbs of perception: see, hear, feele.g. I felt my arm grasped from behind; and4. verbs of finding and leavinge.g. Airport officials have found an unidentified bag abandoned in thecoffee-shop.
  52. 52. THANK YOU….