Your Wellbeing, LLC Pregnancy Guide
The following are a list of educational material available to Your Wellbeing, LLC patients. This
information (including diet plans) can be found on Your Wellbeing’s health portal under the
Diet section tab. Please note that each educational listing is speciﬁcally designed to assist a
patient’s eating habits based off the correlating condition speciﬁed in the diet. These diets may
not be used by anyone and everyone. If you have other health related issues that might be
affected by our diet plans please contact a doctor for further guidance.
DIET DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
Purpose: The diet in pregnancy and lactation is designed to promote optimal nutrition for the
woman and fetus in pregnancy and for the mother and infant during lactation
Use: It is used to meet the increased nutritional needs of the pregnant or lactating woman.
Research indicates that well-nourished women are more likely to produce healthy, normal
During pregnancy, your body requires additional calories and nutrients to nourish you and your
baby. After pregnancy, nutrition remains important, especially if you plan to breast-feed your
baby. Also, make sure to drink plenty of ﬂuids to prevent constipation; try juice, milk, or water.
Check with your doctor about taking a multi-vitamin with iron.
Dietary Guidelines During Pregnancy
• A healthy diet for a pregnant woman should be nutrient-dense and will require more
calories, protein, iron, calcium, folate and, for some women, vitamin D.
• Maintain a steady rate of weight gain. Aim for about three to four pounds total during
the ﬁrst trimester and then about three to four pounds each month during the second
and third trimesters. An average-sized woman can expect to gain between 25 and 40
• Excessive use of salt should be restricted in order to avoid high blood pressure.
• Avoid food that has raw and rarely cooked ingredients. Foods such as soft cheese (feta
and Brie) and unpasteurized milk and juices (these foods have not been pasteurized,
meaning they have not gone through the process to kill the germs present) and raw
cookie dough (salmonella can be present in the eggs).
• Wash all fruits and vegetables before preparing. This removes the pesticides and
bacteria that may be present on them.
• Avoid shark, swordﬁsh, king mackerel, tileﬁsh, and most fresh ﬁsh. They contain high
levels of mercury, which may cause birth defects.
• Excessive caffeine should be avoided. You should drink no more than one cup of coffee
GENERAL MEAL PLAN FOR PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (1/2 cup, 1 piece) 5-9 servings each day
Include at least 1 vitamin C rich source and 1 vitamin A rich source- See list below for rich
sources of vitamins C and A in fruits and vegetables
Vitamin C Rich Foods Each serving provides 30 milligrams vitamin C. In addition, many of
these foods are also good sources of vitamin B6 and folate, as well as vitamin A and ﬁber.
Fresh, frozen, or canned forms may be used.
Choose at least 1-2 servings/day
• 6 oz. orange, tomato, vegetable, lemon, or grapefruit juice
• 6 oz. fruit juices enriched with vitamin C
• 1 orange, kiwi, guava, or lemon, mango, papaya,
• 1/2 cup strawberries
• ½ cup cubed cantaloupe
• 1 medium sapote
• 1/2-cup broccoli, cauliﬂower, cabbage, snow peas, or Brussels sprouts, cooked
• ½-cup sweet, hot or chili peppers, cooked,
• 2 medium tomatoes
• 1/2 cup tomato puree, or paste
• 2 medium tangerines
• 1/2 grapefruit
• 2 tbsp. hot peppers, raw
Vitamin A Rich Foods
Each serving provides 2000 IU vitamin A. In addition to vitamin A, all these foods contain ﬁber,
and the dark leafy vegetables are also generally good sources of vitamin B6, folate, and
Choose at least 1-2 servings/day
• 6 oz. apricot nectar or vegetable juice
• 3 medium or ¼ cup dried apricots
• 1/4 cup cantaloupe or mango
• 1/2 cup carrots
• ½ cup cooked Swiss chard, bok choy
• 3/4 cup raw or 1/2 cup cooked spinach or bok choy
• 2 medium tomatoes
• 1/2 cup cooked greens, dandelion, kale, mustard, turnip, collards
• 1/2 cup sweet potato, winter squash, or pumpkin
• 1/2 papaya
BREADS & GRAINS (1 slice, 1 oz. or 1/2 cup) 6 (7 for lactation) -11 servings each day
• Whole-grain or enriched breads, bagels, tortillas, English muffins, crackers, hamburger/
hot dog buns, dinner rolls, and pita bread
• Whole-grain or enriched ready-to-eat cereals and cooked cereals such as oatmeal, grits,
• Whole-grain or enriched rice, spaghetti, macaroni, or other type of noodles
• Pancakes, waffles, pretzels, and rice cakes
MILK & DAIRY (1 cup or 1 oz.) 4 cups or more each day
• Milk and milk products like yogurt, cheese and cottage cheese
MEAT (1 oz. or 1 egg) 7 servings or 1-4 servings of Meat Substitutes each day
• Beef such as sirloin, round, chuck
• Pork such as tenderloin
• Lamb such as chops or leg
• Veal, chicken and turkey
• Canned light tuna; salmon (farm raised or wild salmon)
(Or) MEAT SUBSTITUTES (1-4 servings each day)
Bean and Soy Products (3 to 4 servings/day)
• 1/2 cup cooked beans and peas, tofu, tempeh (3/4-1 cup)
• 4 ounces tofu or tempeh
• 8 ounces soymilk
Nuts, Seeds, Wheat Germ (1 to 2 servings/day)
• 2 tablespoons nuts or seeds
• 2 tablespoons peanut butter
• 2 tablespoons wheat germ
FATS & SNACKS 3 servings a day
Foods in this group add ﬂavor and pleasure to eating but provide mostly calories with few or no
Include moderate amounts occasionally: bacon, butter, candy, cream, cream cheese, frosting,
fruit drinks, gelatin desserts, honey, jam, jelly, lard, margarine, mayonnaise, molasses,
popsicles, salad dressings, shortening, soft drinks, sour cream, sugar, syrup, vegetable oil
While all nutrients are important at these times, your body has increased needs for folate (a
vitamin), iron, and calcium. You need to plan your diet to include foods rich in these nutrients.
Iron Rich Foods:
A high intake of vitamin C will help increase iron absorption
• Liver, beef, pork, veal, Lamb, turkey
• Iron enriched breads and cereals
• Dried beans, brewer’s yeast, green leafy vegetables raisins, dried prunes, apricots
• Blackstrap molasses
• Nuts and seeds
Women in the second half of pregnancy have very high iron needs and may need to take a
supplement regardless of the type of diet they follow. Your health care provider will discuss
iron supplements with you.
Folacin Rich Foods:
• Green leafy vegetables (spinach, beet, and turnip greens), kidney, liver, beef, brewer’s
yeast, wheat products, eggs.
Calcium Rich Foods:
• Milk group (milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, cheese).
• Fish with bones (canned salmon), tofu
• Dark leafy vegetables, bok choy, broccoli, beans
• Figs, sunﬂower seeds, tahini, almond butter
• Calcium fortiﬁed soymilk, juices and cereals
NAUSEA & VOMITING DURING PREGNANCY
Nausea or vomiting, sometimes called morning sickness, may occur during the early months of
pregnancy. It usually disappears after the third month. These suggestions are not to be
followed if you have diabetes.
If you have this problem, try the following:
• Before you get out of bed in the morning, eat a few crackers, a handful of dry cereal, or
a piece of toast or dry bread or a slice of ginger. Put these within reach of your bed the
• Try a snack (e.g., yogurt, milk, juice, bread, a small sandwich) before going to bed or
during the night
• Avoid brushing your teeth immediately after eating and the ﬁrst thing in the morning
• Get up slowly in the morning. Avoid sudden movements.
• Try drinking mint tea
• Eat 5 or 6 small meals a day. Never go for long periods without food
• When you feel nauseated between meals, drink small amounts of apple juice, grape
juice, nectars, or carbonated beverages
• Avoid greasy and fried foods. These include butter, margarine, mayonnaise, bacon,
gravies, piecrusts, pastries, fried meats, and French fries
• When you cook, open windows or use the exhaust fan to get rid of odors
• Be sure to have plenty of fresh air in the room when you sleep
• Drink ﬂuids, including soups, one hour before or after eating. Avoid liquids with meals.
• Eat foods that are simple to prepare such as broiled, baked, or boiled meals
• Eat unseasoned and mild-ﬂavored foods. Avoid foods cooked with pepper, chili and
• Eat slowly and chew food well
• Rest after meals, but do not lie down for at least two hours after eating
• Try frozen fruit-juice bars, or ice cubes made from clear fruit juices since they can be
• Try freezing favorite beverages in ice cubes
• Try pudding pops, puddings, custards, and gelatin desserts
• Sip beverages through a straw to avoid overpowering aroma
• Try chilled foods such as cottage cheese with fruit, chicken or tuna salad
• When you are feeling good, eat complete meals to help tide you over during the periods
when you do not feel like eating
• Drink clear, cool beverages (such as ginger ale, lemon-lime soda, Kool-Aid, punch, and
apple juice) and try clear soups (such as broth) and gelatin, particularly between meals.
LEG CRAMPS DURING PREGNANCY
Leg cramps are very common among pregnant women in the second and third trimesters.
Fortunately, there are ways of both preventing and alleviating leg cramps. While the cause of leg
cramps during pregnancy is unknown, it is thought that they may be due to a neuromuscular
irritability caused by an excess of phosphorus and a shortage of calcium circulating in the
blood. It has also been suggested that a shortage of magnesium may be responsible.
Magnesium aids in the function of nerves, bones and muscles; muscle spasms are a classic
symptom of magnesium depletion.
Normalizing of the levels of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate in the body may thus prevent
1. Increase your intake of calcium and magnesium. If dietary intake is inadequate, taking a
calcium supplement (up to 600 mg daily) and a magnesium supplement (320 mg daily)
may be helpful. Supplements containing calcium phosphate should be avoided.
2. Eat three servings of milk products or nondairy calcium-rich foods daily to ensure
adequate intake of calcium. Additional servings should be avoided, because the extra
calcium and phosphorus provided may decrease magnesium absorption.
3. Avoid excessive intake of protein and phosphorus (phosphate) in the diet. Do not eat
more than the recommended number of servings of protein foods and of milk products
from the General Meal Plan for Pregnant Women . Decrease intake of processed foods
and carbonated beverages. Protein and phosphorus may decrease absorption and
retention of calcium and magnesium.
4. If you do get a cramps in your calf, straighten your leg and ﬂex your ankle and toes
slowly up toward your nose. Try not to point toes, particularly while lying in bed. This
should lessen the pain. Standing on a cold surface sometimes works as well. Don’t
message or apply heat.
HEARTBURN DURING PREGNANCY
Early in pregnancy your body produces large amounts of progesterone and estrogen, which
tend to relax smooth muscle tissue everywhere, including the stomach. As a result, food
sometimes moves more slowly through your system, resulting in bloating and indigestion.
Heartburn results when the ring of muscle that separates the esophagus from the stomach
relaxes, allowing food and harsh digestive juices to back up from the stomach to the
esophagus. The symptom is most likely to occur when lying down or bending over, particularly
during the last months of pregnancy when the baby puts pressure on the digestive organs.
Try the following suggestions to help prevent heartburn:
• Eat small, frequent meals (eat every few hours)
• Avoid gas-forming foods such as broccoli, cabbage, cauliﬂower, onions, green peppers,
Brussels sprouts, beans, and carbonated drinks
• Go easy on greasy, fried, and spicy foods
• Try sipping on water, milk, or eating a tablespoon of yogurt
• Eat slowly and chew foods well
• Drink liquids, including soups, one hour before or after meals rather than with meals
• Do not lie down for two hours after eating
• Go for a walk after eating
• Cut down on beverages that contain caffeine such as coffee, tea, chocolate and colas
• Avoid cigarettes
• Drink plenty of ﬂuids (at least six 8-oz glasses) daily
• Try wearing comfortable clothing that is loose around the waist
• Try sleeping and resting with the head slightly elevated
CONSTIPATION DURING PREGNANCY
Constipation is a common problem during pregnancy. Constipation refers only to bowel
movements that are hard in consistency or painful to eliminate. Infrequent bowel movements
(e.g., less than once daily) are not unusual. During pregnancy the muscles in your intestines
become more relaxed causing constipation. In the last months of pregnancy, the growing baby
puts pressure on the lower intestines and this may also cause constipation. Medication can
induce constipation such as supplemental iron and calcium. Other contributing factors include
hormonal changes that cause the intestinal tract to slow down, prolonged immobilization (bed
rest), little exercise, inadequate intake of ﬁber and ﬂuids, irregular eating habits, and possibly
stress. Suggestions for preventing or treating constipation are as follows:
• Increase your intake of high-ﬁber foods such as unreﬁned grains, fresh fruits, and
• Try softer high ﬁber foods such as oatmeal, applesauce, legumes, bran muffin, cooked
prunes, prune juice, and barley to help soften the stool.
• Try 2 tsp. of unprocessed bran with meals.
• Drink plenty of liquids (at least six 8-oz glasses daily).
• Exercise daily such as a half-hour walk after meals
• Eat small meals and chew foods well.
• Try several cups of warm-to-hot liquid in the morning to distend the stomach and
stimulate the bowels.
Constipation and straining may lead to hemorrhoids. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have
painful or bleeding hemorrhoids. They will tell you the best way to take care of yourself.
Medicines to Avoid
Do not use of any type of laxative other than bulk-producing ones unless under the supervision
of the health care provider. Some (e.g., castor oil, Ex-Lax, Cascara, Senokot, Bisacodyl
suppositories) may be too strong or may contain substances that could be harmful to the baby.