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Introductory Teacher Training Manual
For New and Substitute Teachers
Learning the basic and essential skills that everyone...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub ...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
-------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101
©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub...
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
Introductory teacher training manual
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Transcript of "Introductory teacher training manual"

  1. 1. Introductory Teacher Training Manual For New and Substitute Teachers Learning the basic and essential skills that everyone who works with students in a classroom setting should know.
  2. 2. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 2 Completing the Online Training The manual does contain all the content taught in the Introductory Teacher Training program, however it does not contain the lesson quizzes or Exams required to complete this training program. To complete the online training you will still need to create an account with us and complete the Final Exams online to earn your printable Certificates of completion. Contacting the Sub-Hub™ Use the information below to contact the Sub-Hub™ Mailing Address: The Sub-Hub 509 N. Tampa St., Suite 2A Tampa, FL 33602 Website: www.thesub-hub.com Guide to this Manual Throughout this manual you will come across several icons (shown below) which are intended to call your attention to a particular activity or idea. Main Concept This icon draws your attention to a summary statement highlighting the main concept of a lesson or section. Reflection This icon identifies a personal reflective moment or question which you may want to take time to address. Action Step At times we will suggest that you take an action step stemming from what you’ve just learned in the lesson or section. Brain Bit This icon is used to highlight research associated with a particular concept, idea or technique.
  3. 3. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 3 Table of Contents COURSE ONE - SUBSTITUTE TEACHING 101 ...............................................................8 LESSON ONE – ASSESSING YOUR SKILLS.........................................................................8 ASSESSING YOUR SKILLS..........................................................................................9 Subject Areas............................................................................................ 10 My Skill Set - Exercise Part One ..................................................................... 11 WORKING WITH DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS ...................................................................... 12 Early Learning Group (Ages 2 – 6) ................................................................... 13 Elementary School Group (Ages 6 – 11)............................................................. 14 Middle School Group (Ages 11 – 14) ................................................................. 15 High School Group (Ages 14 – 18) .................................................................... 16 My Skill Set – Exercise Part Two ..................................................................... 17 LESSON TWO – WORKING WITH SCHOOLS ..................................................................... 18 WHAT DO I NEED TO KNOW?................................................................................... 19 Policies and Procedures ............................................................................... 20 When Things Go Wrong ................................................................................ 21 Bloodborne Pathogens ................................................................................. 23 Exposure Prevention ................................................................................... 23 Child Abuse & Neglect ................................................................................. 25 Child Abuse Reporting ................................................................................. 26 What I Need to Know Questionnaire ................................................................ 27 LESSON THREE – ESTABLISHING YOUR LEADERSHIP........................................................... 28 TO TEACH IS TO LEAD.......................................................................................... 29 Being the Leader........................................................................................ 29 Applications of Leadership Techniques............................................................. 30 Why Do I Need to Be the Leader? .................................................................... 31 TEACHER TALK................................................................................................. 32 Positive Phrasing........................................................................................ 32 Applications of Positive Phrasing.................................................................... 33 Pause Time............................................................................................... 33 Why Use Pause Time? .................................................................................. 34 I” Message................................................................................................ 35 Applications of “I” Messages ......................................................................... 35 LESSON FOUR – POSITIVE DISCIPLINE ......................................................................... 36 MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE ....................................................................................... 37 Applications of Positive Discipline Techniques.................................................... 38 Why Use Positive Discipline Techniques............................................................ 38 MANAGING YOUR STRESS....................................................................................... 39 Rituals – Importance of Structure ................................................................... 39 Applications of Rituals ................................................................................ 40 Affirmations and Visualization....................................................................... 40
  4. 4. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 4 Energy .................................................................................................... 41 Managing Student Stress .............................................................................. 42 LESSON FIVE – HONORING DIVERSITY ......................................................................... 43 HONORING DIVERSITY .......................................................................................... 44 Types of Student Diversity............................................................................ 44 DIVERSITY AND BULLYING PREVENTION ......................................................................... 45 How Kids Bully Others ................................................................................. 46 Forms of Bullying ....................................................................................... 46 Who Gets Bullied? ...................................................................................... 48 Handling Bullying ....................................................................................... 49 LESSON SIX – LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS ........................................................................ 50 CROSSING LEGAL LINES ........................................................................................ 51 DON’TS – Never Become Violent with Students ................................................... 51 DON’TS – Never Touch a Student in a Sexual Manner............................................ 52 Sub-Hub Policy – Just Don’t Touch .................................................................. 53 Positive Ways to Work Without Touch.............................................................. 55 Harassment .............................................................................................. 56 Recognizing and Handling Harassment ............................................................. 56 CROSSING LINES OF APPROPRIATENESS ......................................................................... 58 DON’TS – Avoid Discussing Students................................................................. 58 DON’TS – Avoid Parent Gossip........................................................................ 59 DON’TS – Avoid Talking to Students Like Friends................................................. 59 Keeping Your Speech Professional................................................................... 60 Minimum Necessary Rule.............................................................................. 61 COURSE TWO - ADVANCED CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT .............................................. 64 LESSON ONE – CALMING STUDENT NERVES ................................................................... 64 UNDERSTANDING STUDENT RESISTANCE ........................................................................ 65 Comforting Little Guys & Gals ....................................................................... 66 Appealing to the Mutual Respect of Older Students............................................. 66 LESSON TWO – MANAGING THE ROOM ........................................................................ 67 Global Scan .............................................................................................. 68 Developing Global Scan................................................................................ 68 Walkabout................................................................................................ 69 Using the WALKABOUT to Stop Disruption ......................................................... 69 LESSON THREE – GET AND KEEP THEIR ATTENTION .......................................................... 70 Be Quiet! ................................................................................................. 71 Attention-Getting Tricks .............................................................................. 71 Staying On-Task......................................................................................... 72 On-Task Techniques .................................................................................... 73 LESSON FOUR – POSITIVE DISCIPLINE ......................................................................... 74 BRIBERY AND COERCION: THE CARROT AND THE STICK ......................................................... 75 Alternatives to Bribery: Rewarding Positive Behavior........................................... 75 Alternatives to Coercion: Applying Consequences Calmly ...................................... 77
  5. 5. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 5 PICK YOUR BATTLES – IS THIS REALLY A PROBLEM OR IS AN EGO THING? ....................................... 79 Diffusing Argumentative Behavior .................................................................. 79 SITUATIONAL PITFALLS ......................................................................................... 80 Pitfall Preparation ..................................................................................... 81 LESSON FIVE – POSITIVE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ........................................................... 82 The Emotionally Safe Learning Environment...................................................... 83 Routine vs. Spontaneity ............................................................................... 83 Never Humiliate, Use Sarcasm or Belittle Students!............................................. 84 Respecting Physical Needs ............................................................................ 84 It’s Ok to Be Imperfect ................................................................................ 85 COURSE THREE - INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES ........................................................ 87 LESSON ONE – BEING PREPARED .............................................................................. 87 Organizational Processes.............................................................................. 88 Organizational Materials.............................................................................. 89 Establishing Expectations of Behavior.............................................................. 90 Personal Expectations of Behavior .................................................................. 90 LESSON TWO – THE UNIQUE LEARNER ........................................................................ 92 THE UNIQUE LEARNER.......................................................................................... 93 LEARNING STYLES .............................................................................................. 93 A – The Auditory Learner.............................................................................. 94 V – The Visual Learner ................................................................................. 95 K/T – The Kinesthetic/Tactual Learner............................................................. 96 Your Learning Style .................................................................................... 97 MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES ...................................................................................... 97 Characteristics of Each Intelligence ................................................................ 98 Intelligent” Lesson Plan .............................................................................. 100 LESSON THREE –.............................................................................................. 101 BRAINY” TECHNIQUE.......................................................................................... 102 MIND-MAPPING ............................................................................................... 102 Encouraging Mind-Mapping .......................................................................... 103 MUSICAL INSPIRATION ......................................................................................... 104 Suggested Music for the Classroom ................................................................ 104 COOPERATIVE LEARNING ...................................................................................... 105 Using Cooperative Learning Effectively ........................................................... 106 LESSON FOUR – CHECKING FOR UNDERSTANDING............................................................ 107 ASSESSING STUDENT UNDERSTANDING......................................................................... 108 Creative Assessment .................................................................................. 108 Fearless Assessment................................................................................... 109 Positive Critique – Grading with a Purpose ....................................................... 110 Effective Grading: Description, Correction & Encouragement................................ 111
  6. 6. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 6 LESSON FIVE – EFFECTIVE LESSON PLANS ................................................................... 112 Writing Effective Lesson Plans ...................................................................... 113 Create Your Own Lesson Plan! ...................................................................... 113 COURSE FOUR - EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION ...............................................114 LESSON ONE – DEFINING SPECIAL NEEDS .................................................................... 114 EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION ........................................................................... 115 Defining Special Needs ............................................................................... 115 People-First Language ................................................................................ 116 Positive Language ..................................................................................... 117 LESSON TWO – SCHOOL PROCEDURES........................................................................ 118 School Procedures and Special-Needs.............................................................. 119 Exceptional Student Educational Plans............................................................ 119 Working with Paraprofessionals .................................................................... 120 LESSON THREE – COMMON DISORDERS ....................................................................... 122 COMMON DISORDERS .......................................................................................... 123 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ............................................... 123 Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) .............................................................. 125 Conduct Disorder (CD) ................................................................................ 126 AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS ................................................................................ 127 Autism – Common Aspects ........................................................................... 128 Asperger’s Disorder ................................................................................... 128 LESSON FOUR – GENERAL STRATEGIES....................................................................... 130 STRATEGIES & TECHNIQUES ................................................................................... 131 A Balanced Approach.................................................................................. 131 Using Pictures .......................................................................................... 133 Applying Use of Pictures ............................................................................. 134 Importance of Routine................................................................................ 135 Your Changing Strategy............................................................................... 136 LESSON FIVE – NON-INSTRUCTIONAL ASPECTS............................................................... 138 NON-INSTRUCTIONAL ASPECTS ................................................................................ 139 Medications ............................................................................................. 139 Heightened Bullying................................................................................... 140 Working with Parents ................................................................................. 141 COURSE FIVE - WORKING WITH AT-RISK YOUTH ......................................................143 LESSON ONE – WHO IS AT-RISK?............................................................................. 143 Who is At-Risk?......................................................................................... 144 Recognizing At-Risk Youth ........................................................................... 145 Identifying Signs of Youth Who are At-Risk....................................................... 145 Examples of At-Risk Youth........................................................................... 146 Reflection: At-Risk Kids I’ve Known................................................................ 148 LESSON TWO – FUNDAMENTAL BUILDING BLOCKS ........................................................... 149 Fundamental Human Needs.......................................................................... 150
  7. 7. ----------------------------------------------------Introduction and Contents ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 7 Providing Building Blocks............................................................................. 150 Thinking Building Blocks.............................................................................. 152 LESSON THREE – BEST PRACTICES ........................................................................... 153 The Importance of Structure ........................................................................ 154 Being Consistent ....................................................................................... 154 Compassionate Approach............................................................................. 155 Catch Them Doing Right.............................................................................. 156 Set Challenging, Achievable Expectations ........................................................ 157 Compassion vs. Pity ................................................................................... 158 LESSON FOUR – ACADEMICS AT-RISK ........................................................................ 160 ACADEMICS AND AT-RISK STUDENTS........................................................................... 161 Putting Learning in Context ......................................................................... 161 Not Relying on Support from Home ................................................................ 163 Use Peer Support and Mentoring ................................................................... 163 Be Aware of Undiagnosed Medical Conditions.................................................... 164 LESSON FIVE – COMPASSION FATIGUE........................................................................ 166 COMPASSION FATIGUE......................................................................................... 167 Handling Compassion Fatigue ....................................................................... 167 Family and Compassion Fatigue..................................................................... 169 Preventing Compassion Fatigue..................................................................... 169 SUBSTITUTE NECESSITIES ..................................................................................170 APPENDIX......................................................................................................171 My Skill Set............................................................................................. 172 What I Need to Know - Questionnaire ........................................................... 173 10 Steps to Be Prepared ............................................................................ 174 Sample Expectations of Behavior................................................................... 175 Learning Styles Assessment.......................................................................... 176 Substitute Teacher Report......................................................................... 180 Lesson Plan Template ............................................................................... 182 Fundamental Human Needs ........................................................................ 185 Avoiding Compassion Fatigue ..................................................................... 186 Teaching Inclusively for ESOL Students......................................................... 187 My Tolerance Scale .................................................................................. 188
  8. 8. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 8 Course One – Substitute Teaching 101 This course provides substitute teachers with the essential tools and information they need in order to perform the job. This includes how to work professionally with schools and school districts, students, co-workers and parents. It also includes fundamentals of classroom management and positive discipline. Lesson One – Assessing Your Skills This lesson covers the following: Assessing Your Skills Subject Areas My Skill Set – Exercise Part One Working with Different Age Groups Early Learning Group Elementary School Group Middle School Group High School Group My Skill Set – Exercise Part Two
  9. 9. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 9 Assessing Your Skills One of the most important first steps you must take when you decide to begin working as a substitute is to make a fair and honest assessment of your own skills. By taking assignments, especially at the OUTSET of subbing, which fit within your current skills you ensure success and will gain new skills through additional subbing experiences. Skills assessment includes which subjects you are qualified to teach and what age groups you are prepared to handle. Oftentimes people feel that they are ready to teach any age group or any subject simply because they took that subject “back when they were in school,” or because they are parents, “I have 2 teenagers, how hard can it be to teach High School?” SUBJECTS The reality is that substitute teachers DO actually have to be able to teach the subjects that they say they are prepared to cover. The days of busy-work and Teacher’s Edition textbooks are behind us! Today’s teachers work extremely hard to build engaging, multi-faceted and fast-paced curricula and students cannot be led by somebody who cannot adequately teach the subject. At times substitutes will be needed to cover a teacher for the better part of a week, month or even a semester. Schools must be able to trust that you have only listed subjects which you can teach to the students. This does not necessarily mean you have to have a PhD in the topic, but it does mean you have to have either a very thorough and/or a very recent exposure to the topic. AGE GROUPS An additional reality of substitute teaching is that working with GROUPS of children and/or teens requires a vastly different skill set than working with individual or small numbers of children and teens. In other words, just being a parent or babysitting does not mean that you will be prepared to handle tens to hundreds of students. Additionally, having a lot of experience with teenagers will not prepare you to work with toddlers and vice versa. The rest of this lesson will focus on helping you to examine your current skills and tools and to accurately assess how they may best apply to being a substitute. That said, by the time you have completed this whole course, you will be better prepared to serve as a substitute for any age group and we hope that you will enjoy the opportunity to expand your skills. Many school districts offer ANY assignment to all subs in their sub pool, meaning it’s up to you to decide whether to take an assignment or not. Be sure to take the time to really consider your skills and only take those assignments which you are actually qualified to teach! This will only make you more valuable to the district.
  10. 10. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 10 Subject Areas: How much Expertise is Enough? It can be challenging to assess whether or not you know a subject area well enough to teach it to others. If you’ve taught a subject before either as a sub, teacher’s assistant, tutor, or professional teacher, it is likely that this subject area will qualify as a skill you can honestly claim. Even if you have only taught the subject on a handful of occasions, having done so will help you to decide if you feel qualified to do so again. If you have never taught a subject before it can be more difficult to assess your readiness to do so. The best way to generate an accurate list of your skills in this case is to follow these steps: Step One: Create a List Generate a list of all subjects you feel that you studied in particular depth, or over a long period of time. For example, perhaps you’ve been playing the piano for 12 years. Step Two: Prioritize Place subjects in which you have a great deal of experience or for which you have a strong passion at the top of the list. Place those subjects where you have the least experience or passion at the bottom of the list. Step Three: Qualify Next to each subject list your experience with or exposure to it. List how many years you studied the topic, and at what level. For example, “I studied math throughout high school including Geometry, Trigonometry, and Calculus. I also studied higher Calculus in college.” Or, for example, “I studied Spanish, but only through 9th grade.” List how RECENTLY you engaged in active study of the subject. Step Four: Assess Examine your list and assess it honestly. If your experience with a subject area was more than 5 years ago or was less than 1 year’s training, especially at or below the high-school level, then you may not be qualified to teach the subject. It is important to the school and your students that you try your best to list your skills as accurately as possible.
  11. 11. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 11 My Skill Set – Exercise Part One In the Appendix of this course you will find a document named My Skill Set. Go to the Appendix and print out this document. Complete the exercise described on the previous page and then list the Subject Areas you identify on the My Skill Set document. In the next section of this lesson you will learn how to assess your ability to work with different Age Groups as well. You may want to bring a copy of this completed document to all your school interviews or supply it to the school district during your application process and we guarantee the school will be impressed and enthusiastic to work with you. Demonstrating such preparation at the outset ensures that you will be given many opportunities to serve as a substitute teacher. Reflection We strongly suggest taking assignments in the beginning which you feel fit your current skills well so that you can set yourself up to be very successful. However, after you’ve had a chance to take several successful assignments, you may want to “branch out” to work with a new age group or in a different topic area. Take some time now to think and write about what steps you might take to ready yourself to take a different assignment. How could you increase your skills or learn more about a different age group or topic area?
  12. 12. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 12 Working with Different Age Groups As a substitute you may be asked to work with children ranging in age from 2 to 18 years old. Children of different ages vary widely in their development and needs. It is important when assessing what age groups you are qualified to work with that you examine the characteristics of these different groups and what you must be prepared to do in order to work with each of them. Early Learning The first group is often called the Early Learning or Daycare group. These children will range in age from 2 to 6 years old. You will need to understand the developmental needs of toddlers in order to work with this group. Don’t think that you won’t be teaching them, however. Even toddlers have rich curricula of topics that they will cover in your care. Elementary School Group The second group is the Elementary School group. These children will range in age from 6 to 11 years old. You will work with many other teachers in the school to provide the full range of learning topics for this group. This group will be beginning to receive grades for subject work. Middle School Group The third group is the Middle School group. These students will range in age from 11 to 14 years old. Though many people feel that middle school students are “hard to work with,” they can be great fun if you are well-prepared. High School Group The fourth group is the High School group. These students will range in age from 14 to 18 years old. Many people assume that teaching high school students will be “easiest” because they are so close to being adults. The reality is that each age group presents its own challenges and rewards. Adequate preparation is always the key to handling an age group professionally. Let’s move on to explore the specific needs and characteristics of each group in more detail.
  13. 13. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 13 Early Learning Group (Ages 2 – 6) Summary: Typically teachers working with this group have the same students all day long, often from early in the morning to the early evening. Early learners participate in a range of activities with the same teachers and often in the same room/playground space all day. Physical 2 – 3 year olds thrive on unstructured play, such as running, swinging, climbing, and playing in the sandbox or at a water table. They may be in diapers and require oversight/assistance with toileting. They will need naps. 4-6 year olds can participate in organized games and have developed better eye-hand coordination so they can roll or kick balls and play catch. They require oversight/assistance with toileting. They may need naps. Providing them with a snack or meals may be part of the daily routine. Social 2-3 year olds enjoy playing alongside another child. They may resist adult demands, are most comfortable with routine, and are not able to make decisions. 3-4 year olds like to share and engage in cooperative play, imitate adult behavior and may have an imaginary friend. 4-5-6 year olds prefer to pay with other children and becomes competitive Emotional 2-3 year olds fear separation from familiar adults, have a sense of humor and can understand facial expressions of others 3-4 year olds are affectionate and may have imaginary fears 4-6 year olds feel pride in accomplishments and can accept responsibility Intellectual/Language Development 2-3 year olds have a vocabulary of between 150 and 900 words, respond to requests such as “show me your nose (arm, hand foot), should not be expected to answer all question even though understands what is expected. 4-5 year olds follow directions even though the objects are not in sight, understand contrast, such as long/longer, talk about activities as they participate You are likely to have to deal with changing children or assisting in changing clothes. You may hold or cradle the children (if very young). For this reason you must be very aware of what constitutes APPROPRIATE TOUCH with children and be sure to follow procedures that protect you from an accusation of impropriety.
  14. 14. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 14 6 year olds can follow three commands given without interruption, understand simple time concepts (later, morning, tomorrow), can repeat sentences as long as nine words. All benefit from participation in a range of activities: art, music, pre- reading/reading, work with number concepts, computer games, nature studies Learn best by playing, hands-on activities, observing others, listening to others, and interacting with others. Elementary School Group (Ages 6 – 11) Summary: Students in this group exhibit a wide range of physical, social, emotional and intellectual development. If you are subbing in an arts or physical education position, you should expect to work with many different groups of children who come to your classroom. If you are subbing in a classroom teacher position, you may have the same group of children all day and be expected to escort them to activities, taught by other teachers, such as art, music, or physical education. Be prepared to have children in your care/room for the majority of the day. Physical With younger children oversight of toileting activities may be required. Poised for new learning experiences and have the ability to absorb new skills required for both team and individual sports quickly. Some may not like to participate in competitive sports but non-competitive activity, such as dance, swimming, walking, running should be encouraged. Social Relates to peers according to rules Progresses from free play to interactions that require teamwork Need for self-discipline increases with each year More able to sit quietly and listen Bullying occurs more frequently As puberty approaches, romantic relationships are mimicked Be prepared in ANY school setting to supervise children during lunch, recess, in the hallways, and for brief periods before and after school. Be sure to understand your responsibilities. Ask the school, “Is it the regular teacher’s turn to perform any of these additional duties?”
  15. 15. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 15 Emotional Structure and routine make this age group feel secure, 90% expected activities and 10% surprises Need adult guidance as they experience a variety of ideas, opinions and attitudes divergent from the home Sensitive to comments from others Intellectual Engages in organized, logical thought Problem-solving skills evolve and include less self-oriented solutions Can reverse quantities (4+3 is the same as 3+4) Reading, math, writing, science, social studies skills are the main focus of instruction in classrooms. Middle School Group (Ages 11 – 14) Summary: While this age group exhibits a wide range of physical development, what is more pronounced is the range in emotional development between ages at the lower and higher ends. This group is going through one of the most complicated stage of human development, puberty. Be kind but FIRM! Consistency in the application of discipline is ESSENTIAL when working with this group. Be prepared to see different groups of students throughout the day. Try to get to know them as quickly as you can. Physical Growth spurt for boys occurs 2.5 years later than for girls, onset for boys is 12.5 and the onset for girls is 10.5 Sexual maturation is the main change during puberty. Adolescents are preoccupied with their body image. Wide range of maturation, given two individuals of the same age, one may have completed puberty before the other has begun. Students may be physically larger than teachers and subs should not be intimidated by this. Social Students are a million times more interested in interacting with each other than focusing on what is being taught. Romantic relationships develop. A pecking order is important to this group.
  16. 16. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 16 Sexual harassment, bullying, and sexual overtures toward each other and sometimes toward the teacher occur. Harassment and bullying takes less obvious forms. Bullying and harassment can occur on-line or outside of school and spill over into the classroom environment. Emotional Strong emotions caused by hormonal changes create stress among this group. Girls have more negative self-images than boys. Students are exerting their independence and may challenge authority. Structure and routine are essential to feelings of security and safety. Even if adolescents act like they do not want to be told what to do, they may secretly appreciate guidance. Intellectual The level of instructional material requires a teacher trained in a specific subject area. Computer and internet access is more frequently used as an instructional tool and subs must know school policies regarding use of this technology. Adolescents are capable of solving abstract problems such as algebraic equations. Adolescents can imagine the ideal characteristics in themselves, others and their environment. Adolescents systematically test solutions to problems. High School Group (Ages 14 – 18) Summary: Though the range in age suggests a wide range in physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development of the students, in many ways this can be a less volatile group than the middle school group. They are growing into their adult selves and gaining confidence. Consistency in the application of discipline is ESSENTIAL when working with this group. Be prepared to see different groups of students throughout the day. Try to get to know them as quickly as you can. Physical Students in the early years of high school exhibit a wide range of physical development By the end of high school, most students are fully matured. Students may be physically larger than teachers and subs should not be intimidated by this. Social Romantic relationships develop Bullying is still prevalent but tends to lessen as the capacity for empathy grows.
  17. 17. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 17 Believes others are as preoccupied with them as they are with themselves. Believe they are personally unique. Emotional Is developing an image of themselves and their worth Differentiate self-images in different contexts. Ex. "I am a good student and I am a poor athlete." Teacher should provide choices and the opportunity for open conversation. Intellectual Thinking becomes tied to concrete reality Can process - "if y occurs, then x will happen" Lessons should involve greater self-sufficiency Students challenge adults on an intellectual basis, be prepared to treat student opinions respectfully My Skill Set – Exercise Part Two As mentioned previously in this lesson, in the Appendix of this course you will find a document named My Skill Set. Hopefully you have already printed this document and completed the exercise to assess your skills in Subject Areas. Using the new information you have gained on the characteristics of various age groups and the responsibilities associated with teaching them, list the Age Groups you feel qualified to work with on the My Skill Set document. Bring a copy of this completed document to all your school interviews or submit it to the school during the application process and we guarantee the school will be impressed and enthusiastic to work with you. Demonstrating such preparation at the outset ensures that you will be given many opportunities to serve as a substitute teacher.
  18. 18. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 18 Lesson Two – Working with Schools This lesson covers the following: What Do I Need to Know? Policies and Procedures When Things Go Wrong Bloodborne Pathogens Exposure Prevention Child Abuse and Neglect Child Abuse Reporting When Things Go Wrong – Questionnaire
  19. 19. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 19 What Do I Need to Know? All schools have long lists of very important policies and procedures which must be followed regarding a wide range of topics. These policies and procedures are typically rooted in the LEGAL requirements laid out by the state. For this reason it is essential that you make sure you are aware of these policies and procedures. When you are going to work for a school for the first time, make sure to request information on their policies and procedures. They typically have a MANUAL or HANDBOOK which you can request that they can provide. Typical questions you should be able to answer about school policies and procedures include aspects such as: Policies and Procedures What is the daily schedule for regular classes, special classes, lunch, and transportation? What are the school rules? What are the consequences for breaking the rules? When Things Go Wrong In addition to basic policies and procedures that govern the way that everyday operations happen at the school, there are also questions you should ask regarding steps to take when something goes wrong. These could include: Who is available to assist with discipline if I need it? What are your emergency procedures? What if a student becomes ill or is injured? Though emergencies and accidents, by their very nature, are often difficult to prepare for there are typically school procedures in place to help you handle the most common of them. Being knowledgeable about these procedures will not only make you more prepared, it will reduce the risks to the students who are in your care. You will be ready to make good decisions under stressful circumstances.
  20. 20. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 20 Policies and Procedures As mentioned previously, schools have policies and procedures in place which all must follow, including you. Taking time to review the district policies and to asking the right questions will make you better prepared to perform your job in a professional manner. Keep in mind that though many school policies differ, many are the same and you will get more used to asking the right questions and finding the right answers as your experience grows. Who within the school is the sub’s liaison(s) when he/she has questions? This is probably the MOST important question for a sub to ask because you CAN’T memorize the handbook. You will have questions and probably need assistance at times. Make sure the school gives you at least 2 people (and their phone extensions) whom you can call upon for assistance. The reason you need 2 is that teachers and administrators are busy and often away from their desks. You may not get the first person right away. What are school rules? …especially regarding tardiness, attendance, dress, food, beverages and gum. These are aspects on which subs may be challenged by students seeing them as “inexperienced.” Ask the school if they have any other very serious rules that they are on the “look-out” for such as smoking on campus. What are school policies/consequences regarding violation of rules? Often you will want to know the procedures related to the rules above. These can be found in the manual or handbook provided by the school. What are the school’s reporting and documentation requirements regarding disciplinary incidents? In the modern era, it can be very important for the legal protection of both the teacher and the school to maintain clear and detailed records of disciplinary incidents, especially from older children who may pose a physical threat to the teacher or other children. Make sure that you ask the school what documentation requirements they may have for these incidents. What is school policy regarding cell phones, iPods, GameBoys, Computers and Internet use? Ah, modern gadgets. Every school has a different take on these things, but you’ll definitely need to be aware of their expectations and rules. Who other than the sub interacts with students during the day? This is a useful question because you can extend your support system by becoming aware of other teachers and administrators who work with “your kids.” For example, the music teacher may let you know that a student wasn’t feeling well in her class earlier that morning. This might give you a helpful “heads up” you wouldn’t have gotten if you’d been isolated from the students’ other teachers. Read the Instructions! Many school districts will give you a handbook or manual and expect you to review it. Though you needn’t memorize the whole thing you SHOULD read it before subbing. It will be especially important to your school district that you read any SAFETY policies or procedures as this is of major importance to schools today.
  21. 21. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 21 What is the daily schedule for regular classes, special classes, lunch, and transportation? This is the basic everyday operations stuff, but you need to know it. Make sure to keep a handy visual copy of the school’s schedule around that you can easily glance at and keep yourself on track. Otherwise, if your school doesn’t use a bell system, you could find yourself accidentally keeping students for too long or letting them leave too early! How do I handle students with medications? There are many students today who have to take prescription medications during the regular school day. Make certain to ask how this is handled and if any of the students you will be responsible for have to take medications. When Things Go Wrong Though you would no doubt like to skip thinking about things going wrong when you are “only the substitute,” the truth is that there’s no way to know when bad things are going to happen. What you can do is the best job you can to be prepared for it when it does happen. Much like the list of questions you should ask regarding Policies and Procedures, there are questions you should ask related to how to handle unexpected problems. Who is available to assist with discipline? No matter how well trained you are in positive discipline practices, there can be times when a student is more of a challenge than you feel prepared to handle. And don’t be surprised if this happens when you are working with small children! There are many reasons why children “act out.” Children can have physical, emotional and behavioral triggers or reasons for misbehaving, and the problem may be outside of your skill set. If you feel this is the case, you should ask for HELP! Make sure you know who you can turn to if you need help. What if I feel that I or my students are endangered by a student? Though this is awful to think about, it is important to address it. SAFETY in schools is paramount. A teacher and his/her classroom of students must always feel that they are safe from physical harm. If you feel that you or your student(s) may be threatened by a student or a situation you encounter, you MUST SEEK ASSISTANCE immediately. Your contact will likely be the same person as was listed for the previous question, however, make sure you bring up this scenario so that you will be PREPARED for it if it arises. What are emergency procedures? You know this basic stuff…what if there is a fire or a chemical spill or a danger of explosion (Some of you will be subbing in Chemistry, right?). What do we do in the event of an emergency? One thing to let a school know about your SKILL SETS is whether or not you are certified in First Aid and CPR. If you are fantastic…if you are not, we recommend it! It provides an extra level of comfort for you and the school knowing that you are trained in these important emergency procedures.
  22. 22. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 22 What if a student becomes ill? This will probably vary based on the severity of the illness encountered. If the student is well enough to excuse him/herself to see the school nurse, then you will probably simply have the student do this. If the student is too ill, you will need to know who to call to assist you. Also, you will need to know who to call if the student’s illness has created a risk of infection to other students (ex – regurgitation, blood, etc.). Make sure you know the policy on this. You may be asked to contact the student’s parent or guardian to make arrangements for the child’s care. SPECIAL NOTE: On a page that follows you will learn specific actions to take to protect yourself from becoming exposed to bloodborne pathogens while working. What if a student is caught with a weapon? This is an important question no matter how “safe” and “quaint” the school or town may be. The school policy on such a topic is put into place to keep as many people as possible safe. Ask about it. What if a student is caught with drugs and/or alcohol? This is important because of the legal implications. Be sure to follow the school’s procedures to ensure the safety of the students and the legal compliance of the school. What if there is an accident involving injury or blood? Accidents involving injury require adequately trained personnel. If you are not trained in First Aid, or if your training is not adequate to handle the incident, be sure you know who to contact. Additionally, you must remember that you can NEVER expose yourself or your students to another person’s blood, even if the person bleeding is a small child. You must take precautions and be sure to contact the right person at the school. All schools have policies and training regarding Bloodborne Pathogens (such as HIV). Ask them what to do. What are your policies regarding reporting of child abuse? All schools are REQUIRED BY LAW to report suspected child abuse or neglect. On a page that follows you will learn more specific information about this topic.
  23. 23. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 23 Bloodborne Pathogens All employers must educate their employees about ways to reduce their exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace. Bloodborne pathogens are carried in body fluids, so the risks for someone like a doctor or nurse are MUCH greater than your risk of exposure in a classroom environment. This section will provide you with the information you need to reduce your exposure risks while serving as a substitute. You may not have heard the term bloodborne pathogens before, but you do need to know what they are and how to protect yourself from exposure to them so let’s explore the words “bloodborne pathogens” to learn more. The word “bloodborne” breaks down to “blood” which you understand already, and “borne” which means to be carried by. This means something is being carried in a person’s blood. The word “pathogens” refers to something which causes infection or illness. So a bloodborne pathogen is something which is carried in a person’s blood and which causes infection or illness. Now you may be realizing that you DO know what bloodborne pathogens are if you know anything about HIV, for example. HIV is an example of a bloodborne pathogen because it is a virus that is carried in human blood and it causes the disease known as AIDS which is extremely serious and typically causes the eventual death of the person who has it. Bloodborne pathogens are “infectious” which means that they can be passed from one person to another in certain ways. All workplaces are obligated to train employees in the steps that they must take to prevent exposure to bloodborne pathogens. The purpose of this is to provide you with good information so that you feel LESS worried about this and MORE prepared than you did before training. Though we are raising topics which can cause anxiety or worry you should know that transmission of bloodborne pathogens at work is extremely rare, but training is always is a good precaution to keep everyone prepared and safe. Next you will learn how to protect yourself from exposure to bloodborne pathogens at work. Exposure Prevention Routes of Exposure You will not be exposed to bloodborne pathogens directly at work because you don’t work in medicine or research that handles human blood/fluids directly. The concern for you is exposure through INDIRECT routes including: Infected blood getting into your mucous membranes: the eyes, inside of the nose, or inside of the mouth Infected blood getting into an open cut or wound on your own skin
  24. 24. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 24 An object penetrating your skin which has infected blood on it such as a needle or other sharp object or possibly (though this risk is small) through a human bite which penetrates your skin. Obviously you only face this risk when you assist another person who is INJURED and BLEEDING. Proper Precautions You must take precautions no matter who you are helping, (even a small child), because you don’t know who may be a carrier of a BBP. There are 2 most important RULES: Rule #1 – You should ALWAYS use latex or vinyl gloves! Put the gloves on before assisting the bleeding person in stopping the bleeding or cleaning the wound. These should be in the classroom or a nearby First Aid Kit. Be sure to know where this kit is located and be sure to bring extra gloves on any field trips off campus. It is often a good idea to BRING a few pairs of gloves in your sub “goodie bag.” If you DO NOT HAVE GLOVES you can ask the bleeding individual to place his/her hand and any bandages or cloth over the wound and apply the pressure themselves to stop the bleeding. Do not touch blood without gloves as you may place yourself at risk for infection. Rule #2 – Get custodial assistance in cleanup. Custodial staff is trained in the proper cleanup of biological hazards like blood or regurgitation. They know the appropriate cleansers and processes to use to decontaminate surfaces and materials. Exposure Reporting If for any reason you ever feel that you may have been exposed to a bloodborne pathogen, you will want to report it to the school so that they can assist you in the follow-up procedures needed to assess whether infection took place. When we say reporting an “exposure,” we do NOT mean telling the school every time you assist someone who is bleeding, because if you follow the precautions above, you are not at risk of being infected. Exposure means that someone else’s blood contacted may have entered your body through your eyes, inside of the nose or mouth, an open wound on your own skin or through breaking the skin by a sharp object with blood on it (Ex – a piece of glass with the other person’s blood pierces your skin…you can see how unlikely this is). IF one of these things happened, you should report it. Bloodborne pathogens can also be carried in other body fluids and organs, so you should be cautious regarding contact with any injury. Besides HIV, the two other major bloodborne pathogens of concern are the Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses, both of which attack the human liver and can cause serious harm or even death over time. The most common exposure risks are DIRECT including: sexual contact, needles, or direct exposure to blood, fluids or organs. Employees at greatest risk of exposure to BBP work in medical and research fields.
  25. 25. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 25 Child Abuse & Neglect In 1974 the “Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)” was passed. This law made it a LEGAL REQUIREMENT for individuals working with children to REPORT ANY SUSPECTED CHILD ABUSE. In some states the law extends to ANY INDIVIDUAL who believes that a child is being abused at any time. Because you will be working in a school environment this law applies to you, meaning that as a sub you must REPORT any suspicion you have that a student is being abused. The CAPTA law defines child abuse and neglect as: Any recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caretaker (like a teacher) which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation An act or failure to act which presents an imminent (immediate/soon) risk of serious harm. Though individual states are responsible for defining child abuse and neglect specifically, most states recognize 4 major types: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. These may occur alone or in combination. GENERAL examples (which may not apply in all states, but help you know what to look for) include: Neglect, which is defined as “a failure to provide for a child's basic needs,” includes: Physical (e.g., failure to provide necessary food or shelter, or lack of appropriate supervision) Medical (e.g., failure to provide necessary medical or mental health treatment) Educational (e.g., failure to educate a child or attend to special education needs) Emotional (e.g., inattention to a child's emotional needs, failure to provide psychological care, or permitting the child to use alcohol or other drugs) These situations do not always mean a child is neglected. Sometimes cultural values, the standards of care in the community, and poverty may be contributing factors, indicating the family is in need of information or assistance. Abuse includes: Physical abuse – which is physical injury (ranging from minor bruises to severe fractures or death) as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, shaking, throwing, stabbing, choking, hitting (with a hand, stick, strap, or other object), burning, or otherwise harming a child. Sexual abuse - which includes activities by any adult such as fondling, penetration, incest, rape, sodomy, indecent exposure, and exploitation through prostitution or the production of pornographic materials. Emotional abuse - which is a pattern of behavior that impairs a child's emotional development or sense of self-worth. This may include constant criticism, threats, or rejection, as well as withholding love, support, or guidance. Emotional abuse is often difficult to prove but is almost always present when other forms of abuse are identified.
  26. 26. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 26 Child Abuse Reporting You are now aware that it is your job LEGALLY as a substitute teacher to report any suspected child abuse or neglect you observe. How to Report You may decide to report the information to the school directly to get their guidance or you may use the ANONYMOUS hotlines available in nearly every state (see links). Consequences for You – If you DO REPORT You may be worried about what happens to you if you report suspected child abuse… “What if I am wrong? Do I get in trouble?” “What if the person I am accusing tries to hurt me in some way?” What you need to know is that the law protects your privacy. As mentioned above, you can always report anonymously using the state hotlines if you wish. Even if you don’t use an anonymous method, your personal information will not be given out to anyone. Also, there is no consequence for you if social services investigates and determines that there was no abuse or neglect unless they believe you’ve made a false accusation on purpose. This is very rare and is not a concern for you if you’ve made your report in good faith. Consequences for You – If you DON’T REPORT If something happens to a child and it’s determined that you/other adults were aware of it and failed to report it, you CAN be prosecuted. This is why it’s ALWAYS best to report it. It is the LAW. District Incident Documentation Policies When you are making an accusation of this nature it can be helpful to have some clear documentation of what you have seen or discussed that makes you suspicious. Make sure you are aware of the school’s policies regarding documentation of incidents or believed incidents. An example of this might be: March 13, 2006, Susie Lindstrom showed up with a large bruise on her upper arm. When asked, she said it was from falling off her swingset. This manual does not contain legal advice. This is a rapidly changing area of the law. You should consult with your employer and/or a lawyer if you have any questions about your reporting duties. Online statutes can become out of date and are subject to legal interpretation depending on particular facts and circumstances. For more information on this topic visit the Child Welfare Information Gateway by visiting the site below. http://www.childwelfare.gov/ For state abuse reporting hotlines, visit the site below. http://capsli.org/hotlines.php
  27. 27. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 27 What I Need to Know Questionnaire In the Appendix of this course you will find a document named What I Need to Know. Bring this document to your interview or be sure to ask these questions during your application process to prepare yourself and to demonstrate your commitment to working within the school’s policies and guidelines. If your school district does not have an interview process you may need to review the school handbook to determine the answers to these questions. Print out this questionnaire and use it as a guide to go “look up” the answers to these important questions. Reflection Take a moment to think about what would be the most stressful situation you could envision facing while substituting…a challenging student, a student becoming injured, a student threatening others’ safety… Write your thoughts and compose some questions you could ask the schools to help prepare for this potential situation and lower your anxiety about it.
  28. 28. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 28 Lesson Three – Establishing Your Leadership This lesson covers the following: To Teach is to Lead Being the Leader Applications of Leadership Techniques Why Do I Need to “Be the Leader?” Teacher Talk Positive Phrasing Applications of Positive Phrasing Pause Time Why Use Pause Time? “I” Messages Applications of “I” Messages
  29. 29. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 29 To Teach is to Lead On the first day of your first assignment as a substitute, when you find yourself staring into the waiting eyes of your group of students you may ask yourself…will they accept me as a teacher? The more important question to ask yourself is will you behave like a teacher? All teachers are essentially leaders. Good leadership will always earn you the respect and acceptance of the students, but you may not be sure what you have to do to be a good leader. This section of the course teaches fundamental leadership skills. You will learn how to establish yourself as a leader, how to communicate effectively and how to resolve conflicts. Developing these leadership skills is essential to being recognized by the students at the authority figure and teacher. These skills will also help you to excel in any future jobs you take. Being the Leader Establishing yourself as an authority figure can be intimidating, especially if it’s the first time you have taken on such a role. In order to gain the respect of the students you must look and act the part of a confident, capable leader. This means the following things: Standing – You will spend the majority of your days on your feet. This gives you a height advantage over most students and establishes you as an authority right away. Dressing Appropriately – Look at what you wear on the job as your work clothes. If you are wearing something sloppy or inappropriate you will lose the respect of the students, your coworkers, and supervisors and parents. (Much like the old adage that it’s better to be overdressed than underdressed, arrive to school in very professional attire such as business casual. Then use the dress of your fellow teachers as a guideline in future assignments if you find you are “overdressed.”) Smiling Confidently – Even if you aren’t in a great mood or feeling confident you need to project a positive attitude. This gives the students confidence and will probably help to turn your mood around. Speaking Slowly and Clearly – Thinking before you speak is extremely important when working with children. Make sure that what comes out of your mouth is professional and it will gain you respect. Though you may not have adjusted to the idea of yourself as a leader yet, it is important to start thinking of yourself that way. In the short term, it will make your days at work easier. In the long term, these leadership skills will serve you throughout life.
  30. 30. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 30 Applications of Leadership Techniques You are working at an elementary school and are waiting for the kids to arrive in the morning. All kids meet their teachers in the gymnasium prior to adjourning to the classroom. Students arrive in groups over ½ hour period, but you can’t leave to go to your classroom until they are all there. You must entertain the kids who have already arrived while you wait for the rest. You are trying to take attendance, but are doing so while seated and without speaking to the children. Your kids run around and roughhouse while you scan the chaos for attendance and try to chase them down. Periodically, you scold or yell at one of your kids, but you aren’t really gaining control of the situation. You look around at the other teachers to see what you are doing wrong. Several of the other teacher’s kids color and play games at a table while the teacher takes attendance. These teachers obviously set out games and activities in advance and let the kids know what was expected when they arrived. They take attendance while STANDING UP, SMILING and SPEAKING CLEARLY. They scan the room with their eyes frequently to make sure that they know where all the kids are and what they are doing. This difference occurs simply because the other teachers’ kids view them as an authority figure because they are standing and speaking as if they are in charge. There is no simpler way to take charge than to act as if you are in charge! Why Modeling Good Behavior is Important It may seem like a cliché, but research has shown time and again that children do as we DO, rather than as we SAY. This means that your actions will often have more impact than your words, so be sure to be aware of both. One of the best things about using STANDING to establish your leadership is that you can then use sitting or kneeling on one knee as a way to establish a “caring” persona when a student really needs it. If a child is upset and needs you to spend a moment with him/her one-on-one you can demonstrate your caring by getting on his/her level (sitting, squatting, kneeling on one knee) and looking him/her in the eye and providing that focused, caring attention he/she needs. Such a gesture would NOT have as much impact if you were not STANDING like a LEADER most of the time.
  31. 31. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 31 Why Do I Need to Be the Leader? There are many very good reasons why, as a substitute teacher, you must behave as an authority figure or LEADER starting on your very first day. To maintain respect and discipline If the students have respect for you as an authority figure it will make your days much easier and will reduce your discipline problems. It is easier to establish yourself as a leader at the start of your tenure as a substitute, rather than being too informal with the students at the beginning, and then having to reestablish your leadership halfway through the day or week. It is not uncommon for students to seize the “opportunity” to push the boundaries of respect and proper behavior when their teacher is replaced by a substitute. Many students will believe that you don’t know what the rules are, or that you aren’t prepared to enforce them. By behaving as a LEADER on your first day you will send a message to the students that you are capable and that you are in charge! Example Leadership Skills I always arrive to work in clean, appropriate clothing. I understand that clothing plays an important role in establishing my separation from the students. When I greet the students I keep a positive tone, even when I am not feeling so cheerful myself. Reflection Which of the 4 leadership skills listed: remaining standing, dressing appropriately, speaking clearly and slowly, and projecting a positive attitude is your best skill? Which leadership skill do you probably have to work on? Take some time to record ways in which you will improve or practice your leadership skills.
  32. 32. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 32 Teacher Talk One of the most important skill sets you can develop as a teacher is communication and conflict-resolution. It is important that you always remain professional in your speech with the students, co-workers, supervisors and parents. There may be times when speech turns confrontational or when you must confront someone else. It is at these times that you will want to have specific techniques that you can call upon for clarifying issues, calming emotions and reaching a solution. Next you will learn about 3 specific skills: Positive Phrasing – communicating as clearly as possible Pause Time – listening effectively “I” messages – diffusing tension and building toward solution-finding Let’s move on to learn about and practice each of these specific skills. Positive Phrasing You will spend much of your days guiding and instructing your kids. In order to improve the chances that they will do what you ask, you must instruct them in the clearest way possible using Positive Phrasing. In order to understand why Positive Phrasing is important, let’s do a demonstration together. Follow this command: DON’T picture a gorilla! What happened? No doubt you pictured a gorilla! Why did you still picture the gorilla even though you were told not to? This happens because the human brain doesn’t easily recognize negative commands. Your mind read the command and it understood the word gorilla right away and simply pictured one immediately…it failed to notice the DON’T command in front of the word gorilla. This should give you some idea of what Positive Phrasing is and why it’s important. What do you think happens in a child’s brain when you tell her, “Don’t run?” Her brain focuses on the word RUN, exactly what you didn’t want her thinking. What you did want her thinking was WALK, and that is what you should tell her to get the behavior you want from her. Positive Phrasing is simply telling someone exactly what you want him/her to say or do.
  33. 33. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 33 Applications of Positive Phrasing As you just learned from the previous demonstration, Positive Phrasing is a very efficient way to instruct children and teens to elicit the behavior that you DO want from them. Learning to develop and use this tool will improve your students’ ability to “listen” to you. Example We all use negative commands quite frequently, but negative commands are not efficient at eliciting the behavior that we want from kids. You’ve already seen the example of using WALK instead of DON’T RUN. Take a moment to think of some other common commands for kids and how they can be reworded to be positively phrased instead. Negatively Phrased Positively Phrased Don’t run! Walk. Don’t Yell! Speak softly. Use Your Inside Voice. Don’t hit! Keep your hands to yourself. Don’t do that! Remember our agreements. Don’t’ go in the street. Stay on the sidewalk. Don’t forget your homework. Remember your homework No eating in class! Put the food away. Though this is not a complicated idea, it may take time to get used to using positive phrasing. When you are working with kids it is very helpful to be able to communicate as clearly and quickly as possible. Practice using positive phrasing in your everyday life to get used to using this skill. Pause Time Most people are under the impression that they are “good listeners,” however; many of us are not as good at listening as we think. Developing good listening skills is an essential part of communicating effectively. Have you ever found yourself in the following situation? Someone is speaking to you, and you’re so busy thinking about your response that you miss the entire second half of what they were saying. While the speaker was talking, you focused on remembering your response because you were excited about it. At that point, you stopped being a “good listener,” and you may have missed something important. Our brains have a natural tendency to make associations. When others speak, the brain brings up related information. This draws our attention to our own thoughts and away from the speaker. When having a fun conversation with a friend, this may not be such a problem, however, in a conflict situation, good listening is necessary to solving the problem.
  34. 34. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 34 Pause Time So how do you get around the brain’s natural tendency to stop listening? The answer is to use Pause Time. Using Pause Time is simple. Here is an example: 1. When a child is speaking to you, listen quietly. 2. Focus all your attention on listening to what the child is saying. Your brain will race to process the information, but internally redirect your focus to listening. 3. When the child has completely finished speaking, PAUSE. Give yourself at least 2-5 seconds to thoughtfully consider what he/she has said. 4. Compose your response calmly and THEN respond verbally. 5. Continue the conversation in this manner, listening carefully to the child and allowing him/her to completely finish what he/she has to say before responding. Why Use Pause Time? Good listening skills are essential to being a good teacher. Let’s examine reasons why this is so and how you can use Pause Time on the job. To diffuse anger / avoid conflict Being a good listener is the fastest way to reduce someone’s anger. Often a person is angry simply because they felt that they weren’t being heard in the first place! Good listeners are very valuable and will always be appreciated. To improve communication and understanding When we speak to each other, we are often misunderstood. Developing good listening skills helps to improve our understanding of each other when speaking and is important to improving your overall ability to communicate. Remember, communication is not simply about what you tell others, it’s about what they share with you! Example uses of Pause Time A parent confronts you angrily about the consequences his child received in your class that day. You use Pause Time to reassure the parent that you are listening and that you care about his concerns and want to work together to reach a good solution. Another teacher is angry with you for taking the keys to the equipment closet without letting her know, so she couldn’t find them. You use Pause Time to listen and come up with a working solution – a sign-out sheet for the equipment closet keys. Pausing can be a good communication strategy in general for example, even when questioning students be sure to PAUSE for a few seconds following the question to give the respondent time to think and respond. Often we’re in such a hurry that if the respondent does not answer right away, we simply answer for them or move on to another student to answer the question. Slow down! You’ll be amazed what a difference such a simple technique can make.
  35. 35. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 35 “I” Messages So often when we are in a conflict situation, we point the finger and say, “You don’t understand!” or “You always think you’re right!” By blaming the other person and focusing entirely on what he or she is doing wrong, we immediately place the person on the defensive and a conflict begins. There is another way to handle a problem you have with someone else: use “I” messages. “I” messages are especially useful when you have a conflict with another adult such as a supervisor, colleague, or parent. When you're angry with someone but you need to discuss the problem, it is absolutely essential that you both keep your cool! An “I” message focuses on the way you feel as a result of their behavior. By focusing on yourself, the person feels less like you are attacking them, and they become less defensive. Diffusing their anger with an “I” message is the first step toward solving the problem. For example: I feel frustrated when you release your class early as I am supposed to watch them in the hall but must remain with my students and leave yours are unsupervised. How can we resolve this situation to make sure no one gets hurt? The main point of using an “I” message is to describe the way you feel when the person engages in some challenging or problematic behavior, rather than focusing on how bad he/she is. You can move more easily to finding a solution by avoiding blame. Applications of “I” Messages Using “I Messages” is most useful for diffusing anger and taking steps toward solution-finding. When you know you are going to have to address a problem with someone else, focus on how it affects you by using an “I” message. Here is an example: Challenge: A student is talking to a friend in the back of the room while you are giving directions for an assignment. “I message” would be: I feel frustrated when you talk while I am giving directions because you and the other students will not hear them and will not know how to complete the assignment. Suggested Solution: “If you have a question please raise your hand to ask me. If you’d like to discuss the directions, I’d prefer that you wait until I’ve finished giving them.” You will probably feel awkward the first few times you use this formula. That's natural. It's a new skill that requires practice. If the person still becomes defensive, remember to stick to I messages and stay calm. Always steer the conversation toward finding a solution and use Pause Time (previous part of this lesson).
  36. 36. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 36 Lesson Four – Positive Discipline This lesson covers the following: Maintaining Discipline Applications of Positive Discipline Why Use Positive Discipline Techniques? Managing Your Stress Rituals – Importance of Structure Applications of Rituals Affirmations and Visualization Energy Managing Student Stress
  37. 37. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 37 Maintaining Discipline Most people who work with groups of children or teens would say that maintaining discipline is one of the biggest challenges of the job. It is one thing to discipline one or two children; it is entirely different to maintain control over a group of 20 or more. There are some absolutely essential aspects of maintaining discipline in a relaxed and effective manner. These include: Be Consistent – This is the single most important aspect of preventing and managing discipline problems. You must establish clear guidelines for good behavior and then stick to them consistently in order to be a good, fair teacher. Appearing to favor some students over others will upset them and cause more misbehavior. Be Firm and Respectful – Just like adults, children and teens want to be treated respectfully, but that doesn’t mean that you should allow them whatever they want. Be ready to tell your students “no” firmly and respectfully when it is needed. Remember, you are responsible for their safety. Maintain Your Leadership – You absolutely cannot be your students’ friend. You do want to be friendly, but no matter what happens you must always remember that you are in charge. It is natural to want the students to like you, but it is more important that they respect you as a leader. Give Choices – No one likes to be told what to do go give your students choices whenever possible such as: working on a project or finishing their homework, painting a picture or reading a book, using the computer or writing in their journal, and so on. Use “Cooling Off” Periods – When students, even older students, are overly upset encourage them to take some time to calm down either by breathing deeply or simply resting for a minute or two. Do this before handling a complaint or argument and it will make finding a solution a lot easier and calmer. These strategies for maintaining discipline are the difference between a smooth working experience and a stressful one! In this job, it is best to be a fair, friendly teacher, rather than simply a friend. In many states a classroom teacher, including a substitute is considered in loco parentis, meaning that they are serving in the role of a parent in guiding and protecting the children in their care. This is a serious responsibility.
  38. 38. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 38 Applications of Positive Discipline Techniques It is extremely common for new teachers, or any individual who works with youth, to struggle with implementing discipline. Example When school started you wanted to be the coolest, most fun substitute teacher your students ever had, but your great intentions didn’t turn out so well. ACT ONE: Being the “Friend” - You try to be friendly and joke around with the students. You give in to their requests more frequently than you should. At first they really liked you and said you were their favorite teacher! But within hours/days they started complaining that you were playing “favorites” by letting some kids break the rules. You didn’t intend to favor anyone, but your inconsistency in applying consequences for misbehavior makes it seem that way to your students. Now they call you “unfair” and complain all the time. You are getting frustrated with their constant whining and don’t know what to do. ACT TWO: Maintaining Discipline - You must reestablish your leadership. You must stop being so casual with your students and treating them like they are your friends. You also become very consistent in what you will and will not allow. At first they won’t be pleased with the new, stricter teacher that you have become. Over time, however, their attitude towards you will soften as they realize that you are doing your job: being a firm, friendly and fair leader. They will respect you for it and will soon turn back into the sunny, happy students who began the day or week with you. Why Consistency is Necessary… It is natural for living creatures to become stressed when their routine changes (such as when they have a substitute). It’s even worse when there is no clear routine or boundaries or expectations of behavior. When children are not sure what kind of behavior is expected of them, they become stressed as they worry about “getting in trouble.” When they are given clear, consistent boundaries and expectations they will relax because they know how to avoid “getting in trouble.” Why Use Positive Discipline Techniques Positive discipline techniques not only make the day run more smoothly for the students, they make it run much more smoothly for you! To prevent discipline problems Many discipline “problems” that arise when working with kids are rooted in 2 things: unclear boundaries and stress. Unfortunately unclear boundaries add to kids’ stress, making them more likely to “act out.” The best way to prevent most discipline problems is to use clear, consistent boundaries for behavior that all the children understand.
  39. 39. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 39 To establish effective respectful control Acting like you are one of the students, rather than the leader, will end with them treating you as such. In order to make people “follow” you, you must LEAD. To do so, you have to set yourself apart in your behavior and act as the leader. The students will respect and appreciate a good leader more than they will a “friend.” Example Strategies for Maintaining Discipline 1. Be consistent in your application of consequences for breaking the rules or agreements. Avoiding playing favorites will help you to maintain discipline. 2. Remember that the students are not your friends. Be professional at all times in your conversation, behavior and relationships with them. This will not only reduce your discipline problems, it will keep you from making a big mistake (More on this in Crossing Legal Lines and Crossing Lines of Appropriateness). Managing Your Stress Working with kids is definitely one of the most rewarding jobs you will ever have, but it is also one of the most stressful! When you have 20 or more students to keep track of, teach and even entertain, that creates stress! Unfortunately, stress has a lot of ill-effects on your ability to do a good job. When you feel stress, your body experiences changes including a rapid heartbeat, shallow breathing, tightened muscles and a reduced ability to think analytically and make good decisions. In order to be at your best for your students, you must be able to manage and reduce your stress. It is your responsibility to lead your students in a manner that is both professional and enjoyable for them. This section of the course teaches 4 specific stress management tools: Rituals, Affirmations, Visualization, and Energy techniques. You will learn to use these tools to lower your stress on the job and create a positive working environment in which you and your students can relax and enjoy learning. Routines – Importance of Structure Purposeful, positive routines are an essential classroom management tool because they lower stress. Consider how much a child's behavior changes when his/her daily routines change such as when on vacation at a birthday party. Parents wonder why a child in this situation is more likely to "act out" when the occasion should be "happy". The reason is quite simple; change creates stress because it represents the "unknown". Whether you call it excitement or anticipation, the root emotion is actually stress. The child is thinking, "What are we doing next? Where are we going? Who are these people?" and so on. So where you see a fun time, the child can easily get nervous and behave differently than is normal for him/her.
  40. 40. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 40 Structure is Vital Routines are the most important “tool” that you can use when working with children, particularly younger or very emotional children. Despite what we tend to think, children actually prefer structured environments that offer some choices, rather than unstructured or over structured environments. When children are given no clear boundaries, they can become anxious and stressed. Using routines in your classroom lowers the students’ stress because human beings are naturally comforted by repetition. The children know "what to expect" and they feel secure as a result. In this manner, using routines smoothes the “emotional path” for the student, preparing him/her for the events to come. Using routines will also lower your stress because you will always feel prepared, making it easier for you to achieve the energy and focus that you need to do a good job. Applications of Routines It is likely that the normal classroom teacher for whom you are subbing will have established routines that he/she uses. Stick to these rituals as much as possible to maintain stability for your students. You may also want to establish some stress- reducing PERSONAL routines. Example Personal Routines In order to increase your preparedness for work, you always make sure to arrive with at least 30 – 60 minutes of extra time so that you can: Review the day’s schedule, and familiarize yourself with it Prepare all of the equipment that you will need for the day so that it is close at hand once the students arrive. Walk around the school and familiarize yourself with nearest restrooms, exits/entrances, the location of the office, and the location of other important rooms including the music room, art room, gymnasium, cafeteria and library. Example Student Routines 1. When children arrive to after-school program, they always place their “stuff” in a pre-prepared spot and sit at their table for attendance. 2. A small sub-group of children is assigned each time to do final “cleanup” after arts and crafts are over. Staying Positive It's important to successful teaching to stay positive; your attitude will affect your students for better or for worse! When you teach you have to stand up in front of a room full of expectant people and speak, direct, interact and answer questions. For many people, this is like “public speaking”, and it triggers stress and anxiety. If standing in front of your students to teach them gives you butterflies in your stomach, you will want to use positive thinking in the form of WORDS and IMAGES to build your confidence.
  41. 41. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 41 WORDS: Using words to build self-confidence is also called "affirmation". Affirmations are personal, positive phrases that you repeat to yourself over and over. An example for a new teacher is, “I am well trained and well prepared. I feel confident that I will do a great job!” Even though it may feel silly, repeating such things to yourself has been shown by scientific research to make a positive difference and to lower stress. IMAGES: Some people prefer pictures to words and will create visual "affirmations" of themselves being successful. It is like directed daydreaming. Instead of letting the daydream take you where it wants to, control the image yourself and picture yourself doing a great job! Using these little tips and skills will help you to reduce stress, increase the sense of preparedness and behave as the confidence, capable teacher you know you can be. Energy When you are stressed, you have a lot of energy, but it is unfocused. You can’t think clearly or make good decisions. In order to lower your anxiety and raise your focus, you need to use simple deep breathing, which will bring your energy under control. If you are not taking control of your breathing, it will take control of you; so, when you are stressed, just remember – take a deep breath! Next we are going to practice doing proper deep breathing or “belly breathing.” Deep breathing that uses the abdominal or belly muscles triggers nerves in your body that force you to relax even when you don’t think you can! It’s like pushing a button in the body that causes relaxation. Practice doing it correctly. Breathe in deeply and slowly, letting your belly extend naturally and then breathe out slowly, bringing your belly in as you exhale. Repeat this several times. You will feel your heartbeat slow down and your relaxation increase. This type of breathing will always help you relax. It works every time.
  42. 42. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 42 Managing Student Stress Though most of the skills listed previously were intended to help you to reduce your stress and increase your ability to do a good job, all of the skills can also be used to help reduce the kids’ stress. Why It Is Important to Reduce Stress in the Classroom One of the main reasons that reducing student stress will be of importance to you is that this will also reduce the BEHAVIORAL and DICSCIPLINARY challenges they will exhibit. Additionally, and equally importantly, reducing their stress will make it more physiologically possible for them to learn. When a human being is “stressed,” the parts of the brain which are essential for learning simply shut down, making it difficult to take in or learn new information. The 2 most important tools for use with the students are Rituals and Energy (Belly Breathing). Rituals – Everyday Stress Reduction Rituals, as you learned, are something that you build into the school day to reassure the students and provide stability. They are used on an everyday or ongoing basis to reduce overall stress levels for the entire group. Energy – Relaxation RIGHT NOW! Belly Breathing, our “Energy” technique, is fantastic as a one-time, right-now, “I have to calm down IMMEDIATELY” type of tool. Teach this tool to the students as an anger or frustration-management tool. Require younger students to take deep breaths BEFORE handling disciplinary issues to reduce the emotions involved and reach a solution more quickly and quietly. Make sure to remember to utilize these tools to reduce both your stress and the students’ stress to ensure a more enjoyable and productive learning experience for all.
  43. 43. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 43 Lesson Five – Honoring Diversity This lesson covers the following: Honoring Diversity Types of Student Diversity Diversity and Bullying Prevention How Kids Bully Others Forms of Bullying Who Gets Bullied? Handling Bullying
  44. 44. -------------------------------------------------------Substitute Teaching 101 ©2010 SIM. All Rights Reserved. The Sub-Hub is a program of SIM. 44 Honoring Diversity One of the most important jobs of the modern teacher is to honor and embrace the growing diversity of the student body. While most people think of racial, ethnic or religious differences when faced with the term, “diversity,” to an educator, the term includes these differences and many, many more! Today’s students have a wide range of needs based on physical, emotional, behavioral, and intellectual differences, as well as cultural ones. Federal laws relating to children with disabilities, such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) specify that all students who have disabilities are entitled to a free, appropriate public education, regardless of skill levels or severity of disability, in the least-restrictive environment possible. These efforts make students with disabilities more visible in every type of school setting, from the early education to the high-school classroom. When you begin work as a substitute teacher it is the school’s responsibility to inform you of the special or outstanding needs of any of your students. It is then YOUR responsibility to fulfill the obligations of the school to these student(s) and to do so with a positive and caring attitude. Let’s move on now to learn more about the different aspects of diversity you may encounter as a substitute. Types of Student Diversity As mentioned previously, the modern classroom is filled with an ever-diversifying population of students, many of whom have differing needs. While this might sound at first like a lot of “extra” work and accommodation for the teachers and schools, the beauty of it is the exposure that students gain to a variety of life experiences and perspectives. Students will differ racially, culturally, spiritually, physically, emotionally, behaviorally, and intellectually. Special plans and programs are put into place to help students who need extra assistance and to provide stimulation to those who are advanced in certain or many areas. Some terms and situations you may come across as a substitute include: IEP – Individualized Education Plan A child who has difficulty learning and functioning and has been identified as a special needs student is the perfect candidate for an IEP.

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