• 40 crash tests >25mph: all ruptured fuel
tank without modification
• Ford owned a patent on a safer fuel tank
• Cost-benefit analysis:
– Life = $200,000
– Cost of modification = $11
– 180 deaths/180 burn injuries: $49.5M
– 11M cars, 1.5M trucks: $137M
Ethics: How do we know what is
Religion: The Golden Rule
conflict of interest
Generally: when someone is involved in
multiple interests, one of which could
possibly corrupt the motivation for an act
in the other
Specifically: any situation in which someone
is in a position to exploit a professional or
official capacity in some way for their
Entitled to own opinion but not
• Use the facts given in the case
• Do not change facts to suit your
• Conclusion must follow from facts
Holland Hardware Case
1. What decision does Matt have to make?
2. Who are the stakeholders?
3. Do their interests conflict?
4. What externalities are involved?
5. What duties does Matt have?
6. Does Matt have a conflict of interest?
7. What is it?
8. What system of ethical reasoning should
10. What decision should Matt make, and why?