cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Brad
2. Form teams
3 teams: count off 1 through 3
3. What is a sentence?
• a group of words that are put together to
• "complete" sentence?
• independent clause
• subject + finite verb
4. Major sentence errors
–"This sentence no verb."
–"A sentence must have a subject and
verb. Because grammar."
5. Major sentence errors
• Comma splice?
• independent clauses joined by a comma
–"I don't see the problem, am I missing
6. Major sentence errors
• independent clauses joined without
conjunctions or punctuation
–"In conclusion, Pluto is no longer a
planet no one wants to buy your comic
books glass is not a slow-moving
7. Types of sentences
compound: independent, and independent
complex: independent + dependent
independent, and independent
• punctuation pattern sheet
8. Jelly beans! Millions and billions of purples and yellows and
greens and licorice and grape and raspberry and mint and
round and smooth and crunchy outside and soft-mealy
inside and sugary and bouncing jouncing tumbling clittering
clattering skittering fell on the heads and shoulders and
hardhats and carapaces of the Timkin workers, tinkling on
the slidewalk and bouncing away and rolling about
underfoot and filling the sky on their way down with all the
colors of joy and childhood and holidays, coming down in a
steady rain, a solid wash, a torrent of color and sweetness
out of the sky from above, and entering a universe of sanity
and metronomic order with quite-mad coocoo newness.
—Harlan Ellison , "Repent, Harlequin, Said the
9. active v. passive
• Passive: grammatical
subject acted upon:
"The road was
crossed by the chicken."
• Active: grammatical
subject performs action
cc licensed ( BY ND ) flickr photo by Dee Teal: http://flic.kr/p/yEPjh
10. "Rules" about passive
• Use of the passive voice is a grammatical
• Any use of “to be” (in any form) constitutes
the passive voice.
• You should never use the passive voice.
11. What's wrong with passive?
12. BP regrets that oil was spilled.
cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by kris krüg: http://flic.kr/p/8bdR7g
13. Uses for passive
• avoiding responsibility
• being tactful/avoiding blame
• scientific writing
14. Recognizing passive?
• "by zombies"
cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by ToM: http://flic.kr/p/bjBJPj
15. Active or passive?
All men are created equal.
My taxi hit an old lady.
We have been cruelly deceived.
I am tired.
For of those to whom much is given, much is
16. What makes a good sentence?
• What makes a bad sentence?
18. It was a dark and
stormy night . . .
cc licensed ( BY NC ) flickr photo by José María Pérez Nuñez:http://flic.kr/p/7Fa24w
19. It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell
in torrents, except at occasional intervals,
when it was checked by a violent gust of
wind which swept up the streets (for it is in
London that our scene lies), rattling along
the house-tops, and fiercely agitating the
scanty flame of the lamps that struggled
against the darkness.
-Edward Bulwer-Lytton, Paul Clifford (1830)
20. Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest
"a whimsical literary
challenges entrants to
compose the opening
sentence to the worst
of all possible novels."
21. As the sun dropped below the
horizon, the safari guide confirmed
the approaching cape buffaloes
were herbivores, which calmed
everyone in the group, except for
Herb, of course.
— Ron D Smith, Louisville, KY
22. Primum non nocere, from the Latin for
“first, do no harm,” one of the principal
tenets of the Hippocratic oath taken by
physicians, was far from David’s mind (as
he strode, sling in hand, to face Goliath) in
part because Hippocrates was born about
100 years after David, in part because
David wasn’t even a physician, but mainly
because David wanted to kill the sucker.
— David Larson, San Francisco, CA
Closed book/closed notes
Put away phones until quiz is over
You may collaborate with your team
You are responsible for the answers on your
• You do not have to choose the same answers
as your team
24. 1. By this logic, Abraham Lincoln actually killed
2. I had never been in the place before, I had
difficulty in finding my way about.
3. Above all, the people of those Norfolk towns
and villages on which we descended for days on
4. The muffled tongue of Big Ben tolled nine by the
clock as the cortege left the palace, but on
history’s clock it was sunset, and the sun of the
old world was setting in a dying blaze of
splendor never to be seen again.
5. Anna went to make a strong cup of coffee she
was falling asleep at her desk.