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BY TECNOCRATSINFOTECH @ 9540854414              Embedded Systems                    Theory and Design                     ...
Course overview (contd)Tentative contents:2. Introduction to Embedded Computing3. Embedded System Hardware4. Embedded Comp...
Course Overview• Evaluation criteria:       • Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20%         will be clubbed with end...
What is an Embedded System     An Embedded System is a microprocessor based     system that is embedded as a subsystem, in...
Application areas• Automotive electronics• Aircraft electronics• Trains• Telecommunication BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @       ...
Application areas• Medical systems• Military applications• Authentication BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @            6        954...
Application areas • Consumer   electronics• Fabrication equipment• Smart buildings BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @            7  ...
Essential Components•   Microprocessor / DSP•   Sensors•   Converters (A-D and D-A)•   Actuators•   Memory (On-chip and Of...
Embedded System Structure                   (Generic)                A-         Processor &   D-   Actuator   Sensor      ...
Essential Considerations•   Response Time -- Real Time Systems•   Area•   Cost•   Portability•   Low Power (Battery Life)...
Design Issues     (Hardware-Software Co-design)• System Specification    – Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and     ...
ES, MS and RTS• All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems,  but all microprocessor based systems may not be am...
General Characteristics of Embedded                Systems• Perform a single task   – Usually not general purpose• Increas...
General Characteristics of Embedded               Systems (contd.)                                       Analog           ...
Classification of Embedded               Systems• Distributed and Non distributed• Reactive and Transformational• Control ...
Application Specific               Characteristics• Application is known before the system is designed• System is however ...
DSP Characteristics•   Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of    samples•   ADCs are moving...
Distributed Characteristics• Components may be physically distributed• Communicating processes on multiple processors• Ded...
Design Metrics• Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development  cost• NRE cost: $ cost for design and developm...
Design Metrics (contd.)• Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine +  Time to produce in bulk• Correctness: Test...
Major Subtasks of Embedded System                  Design•   Modeling the system to be designed and constraints     – Expe...
What is Co-design?• Traditional design   – SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and     development henceforth pr...
CAD for Embedded Systems• Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize  design metrics• Co-synthesis: Synthesize...
A Mix of Disciplines•   Application Domain (Signal processing, control …)•   Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an impo...
Importance of Embedded Software          and Embedded Processors“... the New York Times hasestimated that the average     ...
Views on embedded System• It is estimated that each year embedded software is  written five times as much as regular softw...
Some problems• How can we capture the required behaviour of complex  systems ?• How do we validate specifications?• How do...
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Buy Embedded Systems Projects Online

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  • This lecture is intended to introduce the basic concept of embedded systems. At the end of this lecture the student will be able to define embedded systems identify embedded systems differentiate embedded systems with non-embedded systems and non-embedded real time systems
  • Highlight the interaction with the environment Input output communications require proper transduction and actuation So A/D conversion requirements can also be mentioned here A very important aspect that should be mentioned is that the design of the hardware and software of the ES derives its specifications from the environment with which it will interact
  • Transcript of "Buy Embedded Systems Projects Online "

    1. 1. BY TECNOCRATSINFOTECH @ 9540854414 Embedded Systems Theory and Design 1
    2. 2. Course overview (contd)Tentative contents:2. Introduction to Embedded Computing3. Embedded System Hardware4. Embedded Computing Platform5. Programming Embedded Systems6. Embedded System Development6. Case Study and Assignments for Designing a Complete SystemBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 2 9540854414
    3. 3. Course Overview• Evaluation criteria: • Term papers / Seminars/ Projects : 40% (20% will be clubbed with end term marks and 20% will contribute as Teachers Assessment) • Mid Term (written): 20% • End Term (written): 40%BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 3 9540854414
    4. 4. What is an Embedded System An Embedded System is a microprocessor based system that is embedded as a subsystem, in a larger system (which may or may not be a computer system). I OBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 4 9540854414
    5. 5. Application areas• Automotive electronics• Aircraft electronics• Trains• Telecommunication BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 5 9540854414
    6. 6. Application areas• Medical systems• Military applications• Authentication BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 6 9540854414
    7. 7. Application areas • Consumer electronics• Fabrication equipment• Smart buildings BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 7 9540854414
    8. 8. Essential Components• Microprocessor / DSP• Sensors• Converters (A-D and D-A)• Actuators• Memory (On-chip and Off chip)• Communication path with the interacting environmentBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 8 9540854414
    9. 9. Embedded System Structure (Generic) A- Processor & D- Actuator Sensor ASICs D A MemoryBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 9 9540854414
    10. 10. Essential Considerations• Response Time -- Real Time Systems• Area• Cost• Portability• Low Power (Battery Life) Fault ToleranceBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 10 9540854414
    11. 11. Design Issues (Hardware-Software Co-design)• System Specification – Functions, Real Time Constraints, Cost and Power Constraints• Hardware Software Partitioning• Hardware Synthesis• Software Synthesis and Code Generation• Simulation• ImplementationBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 11 9540854414
    12. 12. ES, MS and RTS• All embedded systems are microprocessor based systems, but all microprocessor based systems may not be amenable to embedding (Area, Power, Cost, Payload parameters).• Most of the embedded systems have real time constraints, but there may be ES which are not hard RTS (for example off line Palm tops)• There may be RTS which are not embedded (e.g. Separate Process Control Computers in a network)• Embedded Systems are not GPS; they are designed for dedicated applications with specific interfaces with the sphere of controlBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 12 9540854414
    13. 13. General Characteristics of Embedded Systems• Perform a single task – Usually not general purpose• Increasingly high performance and real time constrained• Power, cost and reliability are important considerations• HW-SW systems – Software is used for more features and flexibility – Hardware (processors, ASICs, memory etc. are used for performance and securityBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 13 9540854414
    14. 14. General Characteristics of Embedded Systems (contd.) Analog ASIC s IO Mem Digital Processor CoresASIPs and ASICs form a significant component – Adv: customization  lower power, cost and enhanced performance – Disadv: higher development effort (debuggers, compilers etc.) and BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ larger time to market 9540854414 14
    15. 15. Classification of Embedded Systems• Distributed and Non distributed• Reactive and Transformational• Control dominated and Data dominatedBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 15 9540854414
    16. 16. Application Specific Characteristics• Application is known before the system is designed• System is however made programmable for – Feature upgrades – Product differentiation• Often application development occurs in parallel to system development – Hw-Sw partitioning should be as delayed as possible• For upgrades design reuse is an important criterion – IP reuse, object oriented developmentBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 16 9540854414
    17. 17. DSP Characteristics• Signals are increasingly being represented digitally as a sequence of samples• ADCs are moving closer to signals; RFs are also treated digitally• Typical DSP processing includes: – Filtering, DFT, DCT etc. – Speech and image: Compression, decompression, encryption, decryption etc. – Modems: Equalization, noise and echo cancellation, better SNR – Communication channel: encoding, decoding, equalization etc.BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 17 9540854414
    18. 18. Distributed Characteristics• Components may be physically distributed• Communicating processes on multiple processors• Dedicated hw connected through communicating channels• Often economical – 4 x 8 Bit controllers may be cheaper than a 32 bit microcontroller – Multiple processors can perform multiple time critical tasks – Better logistics – devices being controlled may beBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ physically distributed 9540854414 18
    19. 19. Design Metrics• Unit cost – the $ cost for each unit excluding development cost• NRE cost: $ cost for design and development• Size: The physical space reqd. – determined by bytes of sw, number of gates and transistors in hw• Performance: execution time or throughput of the system• Power: lifetime of battery, cooling provisions• Flexibility: ability to change functionality without heavy NRE costBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 19 9540854414
    20. 20. Design Metrics (contd.)• Time to market = Time to prototype + Time to refine + Time to produce in bulk• Correctness: Test and Validation• Safety:• Often these metrics are contradictory – hence calls for optimization• Processor choice, partitioning decisions, compilation knowledge• Requires expertise in hw and sw bothBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 20 9540854414
    21. 21. Major Subtasks of Embedded System Design• Modeling the system to be designed and constraints – Experimenting with different algorithms and their preliminary evaluation – Factoring the task into smaller subtasks and modeling their interaction• Refinement• HW-SW partitioning – Allocating the tasks into hw, sw running on custom hw or general purpose hw• Scheduling – allocation of time steps for several modules sharing the same resource• Implementation: Actual hw binding and sw code generation• Simulation and Validation• Iterate if necessaryBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 21 9540854414
    22. 22. What is Co-design?• Traditional design – SW and HW partitioning done at an early stage and development henceforth proceeds independently• CAD tools are focussed towards hardware synthesis• For embedded systems we need several components – DSPs, microprocessors, network and bus interface etc.• HW-SW codesign allow hw and sw design to proceed in parallel with interactions and feedback between the two processes• Evaluation of trade offs and performance yields ultimate resultBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 22 9540854414
    23. 23. CAD for Embedded Systems• Co-design: Joint optimization of hw and sw to optimize design metrics• Co-synthesis: Synthesizes designs from formal specifications• Rapid prototyping and design space exploration• Many of the tasks are interrelated• Intermediate evaluation is not easy as a later decision in one path affects the otherBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 23 9540854414
    24. 24. A Mix of Disciplines• Application Domain (Signal processing, control …)• Software Engg. ( Design Process plays an important role)• Programming Language• Compilers and Operating System• Architecture – Processor and IO techniques• Parallel and Distributed Computing• Real Time SystemsBY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 24 9540854414
    25. 25. Importance of Embedded Software and Embedded Processors“... the New York Times hasestimated that the average Most of theAmerican comes into contact functionalitywith about 60 micro- of embeddedprocessors every day....” systems[Camposano, 1996] will be implemented in software!Latest top-level BMWscontain over 100 micro-processors[Personal communication] BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 25 9540854414
    26. 26. Views on embedded System• It is estimated that each year embedded software is written five times as much as regular software• The vast majority of CPU-chips produced world-wide today are used in the embedded market ... ; only a small portion of CPUs is applied in PCs• ... the number of software-constructors of Embedded Systems will rise from 2 million in 1994 to 10 million in 2010; ... the number of constructors employed by software- producers merely rises from 0.6 million to 1.1 million.[Department of Trade and Industry/ IDC Benelux BV: Embedded softwareresearch in the Netherlands. Analysis and results, 1997(according to: www.scintilla.utwente.nl/shintabi/engels/thema_text.html)] BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 26 9540854414
    27. 27. Some problems• How can we capture the required behaviour of complex systems ?• How do we validate specifications?• How do we translate specifications efficiently into implementation?• Do software engineers ever consider electrical power?• How can we check that we meet real-time constraints?•How do we validate embedded real-time software? (large volumes of data, testing may be safety-critical) BY TECNOCRATS INFOTECH @ 27 9540854414
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