Practical Training Seminar                              onBy: Tecnocrats Infotech95408544414                Tecnocrats Inf...
“ An embedded system can be defined as those control systems which aredesigned either by microprocessor or microcontroller...
Important Units Ofmicroprocessor/controller •   CPU: Central Processing Unit •   I/O: Input /Output •   Bus: Address bus &...
Block Diagram of an Embedded System              Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
Digital clockMoving message display    DVD player                            Traffic Light                 Tecnocrats Info...
General-purpose microprocessor• CPU for Computers• No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself• Example--Intel’s x86: 8086,8088,80...
Microcontroller• A smaller computer.• On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...• Example:- Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051 and PIC 16X ...
Microprocessor v/s           MicrocontrollerMicroprocessor                          Microcontroller• CPU is stand-alone, R...
Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
The 8051 Microcontroller:• The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51  family introduced by Intel Corporation at ...
Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture                  Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
Pin Description of the 8051                         P1.0      1                     40   Vcc• 8051                   P1.1 ...
Pin Description                                                     Vcc(+5volt)                                           ...
Pin Description                                             Port 0 from                                             Pin-39...
Microcontroller 8051                                        Pin Description Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8Used as I/O port    ...
Pin Description                                      Port 2 from                                      Pin-21 to pin-28    ...
Microcontroller 8051                                          Pin Description     Port 3 from     Pin-10 to Pin-17 P3.0 RX...
Pin Description                                               External memory  reset                                      ...
Addressing Modes• Immediate addressing modes  o   ADD A, #23h (Add immediate data to Acc)• Register addressing modes  o   ...
Timers/counters • The 8051 has 2 timer/counter .   They can be used either as timers   to generate delay or as counters   ...
Timers/Counters• General 8051 has 2 timer:  o Two 16-bit timer  o The counters are divided into two 8-Bit registers called...
TMOD Register:   • Gate : It controls the way by which timer/counter will      start.   (set when gate is controlled by ha...
Interrupts              Definition of ‘Interrupt’ “Event that disrupts the normal execution of a program and causes the ex...
Interrupts                   Program                                               time t             Tecnocrats Infotech ...
Interrupts             Interrupt                               Program                                                    ...
Interrupts               Interrupt     Program                                                 Program                    ...
Interrupts • Internal or External • Handling can be   enabled/disabled • Prioritized • General 8051:   o 3x timer interrup...
Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
External Interrupts Pins for external interrupts      P3.2 IN T0      P3.3 IN T1                   Tecnocrats Infotech @95...
Health cardSmart card                                               Robotics   ATM             Tecnocrats Infotech @954085...
Thank You                                    Obrigado       Gracia                                                   sDank...
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B tech Final Year Projects & Embedded Systems Training

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  • Intel ’ s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Motorola ’ s 680x0: 68000, 68010, 68020,68030,6040
  • versatility 多用途的 : any number of applications for PC
  • B tech Final Year Projects & Embedded Systems Training

    1. 1. Practical Training Seminar onBy: Tecnocrats Infotech95408544414 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    2. 2. “ An embedded system can be defined as those control systems which aredesigned either by microprocessor or microcontroller for a specific tasks. ”OR“ An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware & software,either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for aparticular kind of application device. ” Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    3. 3. Important Units Ofmicroprocessor/controller • CPU: Central Processing Unit • I/O: Input /Output • Bus: Address bus & Data bus • Memory: RAM & ROM • Timer • Interrupt Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    4. 4. Block Diagram of an Embedded System Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    5. 5. Digital clockMoving message display DVD player Traffic Light Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    6. 6. General-purpose microprocessor• CPU for Computers• No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself• Example--Intel’s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Data Bus Many chips on mother CPU board General- Purpose Serial Micro- RAM ROM I/O Timer COM processor Port Port Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    7. 7. Microcontroller• A smaller computer.• On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...• Example:- Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051 and PIC 16X CPU RAM ROM A single chip Serial I/O Timer COM Port Port Microcontroller Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    8. 8. Microprocessor v/s MicrocontrollerMicroprocessor Microcontroller• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and ROM, I/O, timer are timer are all on a single chip separate • fix amount of on-chip ROM,• designer can decide on the RAM, I/O ports amount of ROM, RAM and • for applications in which I/O ports. cost, power and space are• expensive critical• general-purpose • single-purpose• Ex. 8085,8086 mp, • Ex. 8051, PIC mc, Motorola Motorola 6800, Intel’s 8086, MC’s, Phillips, etc. etc. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    9. 9. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    10. 10. The 8051 Microcontroller:• The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.• The 8051 family characteristics: o 4K Bytes ROM o 128 Bytes RAM o two timer/counters (16 bit) o A serial port o 32 input/output port o Interrupt controller Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    11. 11. Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    12. 12. Pin Description of the 8051 P1.0 1 40 Vcc• 8051 P1.1 2 39 P0.0(AD0) P1.2 3 38 P0.1(AD1) P1.3 4 37 P0.2(AD2) P1.4 5 8051 36 P0.3(AD3) P1.5 P1.6 6 7 IC 35 34 P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P1.7 8 33 P0.6(AD6) RST 9 32 P0.7(AD7) (RXD)P3.0 10 31 EA/VPP (TXD)P3.1 11 30 ALE/PROG (INT0)P3.2 12 29 PSEN (INT1)P3.3 13 28 P2.7(A15) (T0)P3.4 14 27 P2.6(A14) (T1)P3.5 15 26 P2.5(A13) (WR)P3.6 16 25 P2.4(A12) (RD)P3.7 17 24 P2.3(A11) XTAL2 18 23 P2.2(A10) XTAL1 19 22 P2.1(A9) GND 20 21 P2.0(A8) Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    13. 13. Pin Description Vcc(+5volt) Pin - 40Ground(0 volt)Pin-20 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    14. 14. Pin Description Port 0 from Pin-39 to pin-32 Dual functional Used to excess both data & address Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    15. 15. Microcontroller 8051 Pin Description Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8Used as I/O port Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    16. 16. Pin Description Port 2 from Pin-21 to pin-28 Used to excess address & as I/O port Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    17. 17. Microcontroller 8051 Pin Description Port 3 from Pin-10 to Pin-17 P3.0 RXD P3.1 TXD P3.2 IN T0 P3.3 IN T1 P3.4 T0 P3.5 T1 P3.6 WR P3.7 RD Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    18. 18. Pin Description External memory reset Add. Latch enablecrystal Program Store Enable Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    19. 19. Addressing Modes• Immediate addressing modes o ADD A, #23h (Add immediate data to Acc)• Register addressing modes o ADD A, R2 (Add register to Accumulator)• Direct addressing modes o ADD A, 40h (Add data at location 40h to Accumulator)• Register Indirect addressing modes o ADD A,@R2 (Add indirect RAM to Acc) Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    20. 20. Timers/counters • The 8051 has 2 timer/counter . They can be used either as timers to generate delay or as counters to count events happening outside the controller. o e.g., traffic light. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    21. 21. Timers/Counters• General 8051 has 2 timer: o Two 16-bit timer o The counters are divided into two 8-Bit registers called the timer low (TL0, TL1) and high (TH0, TH1) bytes. o All counters action is controlled by bit states in the timer mode control register (TMOD), the timer/counter control register (TCON), and certain program instructions. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    22. 22. TMOD Register: • Gate : It controls the way by which timer/counter will start. (set when gate is controlled by hardware) • C/T : Counter/Timer select bit.(set for counter) • M1 : Mode bit 1. • M0 : Mode bit 0. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    23. 23. Interrupts Definition of ‘Interrupt’ “Event that disrupts the normal execution of a program and causes the execution of special instructions” Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    24. 24. Interrupts Program time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    25. 25. Interrupts Interrupt Program time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    26. 26. Interrupts Interrupt Program Program Interrupt Service Routine time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    27. 27. Interrupts • Internal or External • Handling can be enabled/disabled • Prioritized • General 8051: o 3x timer interrupts, o 2x external interrupts o 1x serial port interrupt Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    28. 28. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    29. 29. External Interrupts Pins for external interrupts P3.2 IN T0 P3.3 IN T1 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    30. 30. Health cardSmart card Robotics ATM Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
    31. 31. Thank You Obrigado Gracia sDanke Grazie Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
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