B tech Final Year Projects & Embedded Systems Training

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  • Intel ’ s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Motorola ’ s 680x0: 68000, 68010, 68020,68030,6040
  • versatility 多用途的 : any number of applications for PC

Transcript

  • 1. Practical Training Seminar onBy: Tecnocrats Infotech95408544414 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 2. “ An embedded system can be defined as those control systems which aredesigned either by microprocessor or microcontroller for a specific tasks. ”OR“ An embedded system is some combination of computer hardware & software,either fixed in capability or programmable, that is specifically designed for aparticular kind of application device. ” Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 3. Important Units Ofmicroprocessor/controller • CPU: Central Processing Unit • I/O: Input /Output • Bus: Address bus & Data bus • Memory: RAM & ROM • Timer • Interrupt Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 4. Block Diagram of an Embedded System Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 5. Digital clockMoving message display DVD player Traffic Light Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 6. General-purpose microprocessor• CPU for Computers• No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself• Example--Intel’s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Data Bus Many chips on mother CPU board General- Purpose Serial Micro- RAM ROM I/O Timer COM processor Port Port Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 7. Microcontroller• A smaller computer.• On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports...• Example:- Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051 and PIC 16X CPU RAM ROM A single chip Serial I/O Timer COM Port Port Microcontroller Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 8. Microprocessor v/s MicrocontrollerMicroprocessor Microcontroller• CPU is stand-alone, RAM, • CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O and ROM, I/O, timer are timer are all on a single chip separate • fix amount of on-chip ROM,• designer can decide on the RAM, I/O ports amount of ROM, RAM and • for applications in which I/O ports. cost, power and space are• expensive critical• general-purpose • single-purpose• Ex. 8085,8086 mp, • Ex. 8051, PIC mc, Motorola Motorola 6800, Intel’s 8086, MC’s, Phillips, etc. etc. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 9. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 10. The 8051 Microcontroller:• The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s.• The 8051 family characteristics: o 4K Bytes ROM o 128 Bytes RAM o two timer/counters (16 bit) o A serial port o 32 input/output port o Interrupt controller Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 11. Microcontroller 8051 internal Architecture Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 12. Pin Description of the 8051 P1.0 1 40 Vcc• 8051 P1.1 2 39 P0.0(AD0) P1.2 3 38 P0.1(AD1) P1.3 4 37 P0.2(AD2) P1.4 5 8051 36 P0.3(AD3) P1.5 P1.6 6 7 IC 35 34 P0.4(AD4) P0.5(AD5) P1.7 8 33 P0.6(AD6) RST 9 32 P0.7(AD7) (RXD)P3.0 10 31 EA/VPP (TXD)P3.1 11 30 ALE/PROG (INT0)P3.2 12 29 PSEN (INT1)P3.3 13 28 P2.7(A15) (T0)P3.4 14 27 P2.6(A14) (T1)P3.5 15 26 P2.5(A13) (WR)P3.6 16 25 P2.4(A12) (RD)P3.7 17 24 P2.3(A11) XTAL2 18 23 P2.2(A10) XTAL1 19 22 P2.1(A9) GND 20 21 P2.0(A8) Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 13. Pin Description Vcc(+5volt) Pin - 40Ground(0 volt)Pin-20 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 14. Pin Description Port 0 from Pin-39 to pin-32 Dual functional Used to excess both data & address Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 15. Microcontroller 8051 Pin Description Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8Used as I/O port Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 16. Pin Description Port 2 from Pin-21 to pin-28 Used to excess address & as I/O port Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 17. Microcontroller 8051 Pin Description Port 3 from Pin-10 to Pin-17 P3.0 RXD P3.1 TXD P3.2 IN T0 P3.3 IN T1 P3.4 T0 P3.5 T1 P3.6 WR P3.7 RD Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 18. Pin Description External memory reset Add. Latch enablecrystal Program Store Enable Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 19. Addressing Modes• Immediate addressing modes o ADD A, #23h (Add immediate data to Acc)• Register addressing modes o ADD A, R2 (Add register to Accumulator)• Direct addressing modes o ADD A, 40h (Add data at location 40h to Accumulator)• Register Indirect addressing modes o ADD A,@R2 (Add indirect RAM to Acc) Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 20. Timers/counters • The 8051 has 2 timer/counter . They can be used either as timers to generate delay or as counters to count events happening outside the controller. o e.g., traffic light. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 21. Timers/Counters• General 8051 has 2 timer: o Two 16-bit timer o The counters are divided into two 8-Bit registers called the timer low (TL0, TL1) and high (TH0, TH1) bytes. o All counters action is controlled by bit states in the timer mode control register (TMOD), the timer/counter control register (TCON), and certain program instructions. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 22. TMOD Register: • Gate : It controls the way by which timer/counter will start. (set when gate is controlled by hardware) • C/T : Counter/Timer select bit.(set for counter) • M1 : Mode bit 1. • M0 : Mode bit 0. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 23. Interrupts Definition of ‘Interrupt’ “Event that disrupts the normal execution of a program and causes the execution of special instructions” Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 24. Interrupts Program time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 25. Interrupts Interrupt Program time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 26. Interrupts Interrupt Program Program Interrupt Service Routine time t Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 27. Interrupts • Internal or External • Handling can be enabled/disabled • Prioritized • General 8051: o 3x timer interrupts, o 2x external interrupts o 1x serial port interrupt Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 28. Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 29. External Interrupts Pins for external interrupts P3.2 IN T0 P3.3 IN T1 Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 30. Health cardSmart card Robotics ATM Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414
  • 31. Thank You Obrigado Gracia sDanke Grazie Tecnocrats Infotech @9540854414