Medical Tranducers

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Medical Tranducers

  1. 1. ADVANCEDAPPLICATIONS OF TRANSDUCERS IN BMI TRANDUCERS BY: LOKENDRA YADAV
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TRANDUCERS
  3. 3. An Introduction to Sensors and TransducersThe words sensor and transducer are both widelyused in the description of measurement systems The word sensor is derived from entire meaning to perceive and transducer is from transducer meaning to lead across. TRANDUCERS
  4. 4. A dictionary definition of sensor is `a devicethat detects a change in a physical stimulus andturns it into a signal which can be measured orrecorded; A corresponding definition of transducer isa device that transfers power from one systemto another in the same or in the different form. TRANDUCERS
  5. 5. A sensible distinction is to use sensor forthe sensing element itself and transducerfor the sensing element plus any associatedcircuitry.All transducers would thus contain a sensor andmost (though not all) sensors would also betransducers. TRANDUCERS
  6. 6. A transducer is a system that converts a physicalchemical or any natural quantity into a desired formof energy as an indicator. TRANDUCERS
  7. 7. HOW TRANSDUCERS WORKS? TRANDUCERS
  8. 8. The sensing process in terms of energyconversion. TRANDUCERS
  9. 9. BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TRANSDUCERINPUT CONVERTOR OUTPUT FEEDBACK TRANDUCERS
  10. 10. TYPE OF STIMULUS TYPE OF TRANSDUCERS TRANDUCERS
  11. 11. 7 =TYPES OF STIMULUS TRANDUCERS
  12. 12. MOST IMPORTANT STIMULUS FOR US……… 7 th STIMULUS IS BIO- STIMULUS TRANDUCERS
  13. 13. 8 TYPE OF TRANSDUCERSElectromagneticElectrochemicalElectromechanicalElectro acousticPhotoelectricElectrostaticThermoelectricRadio acoustic TRANDUCERS
  14. 14. Electromagnetic…Antenna - converts electromagnetic waves into electric current and viceversa.Cathode ray tube (CRT) - converts electrical signals into visual formFluorescent lamp, light bulb - converts electrical power into visible lightMagnetic cartridge - converts motion into electrical formPick up (music technology) - converts motion into electrical formPhotodetector or Photoresistor (LDR) - converts changes in light levels intoresistance changesTape head - converts changing magnetic fields into electrical formHall effect sensor - converts a magnetic field level into electrical form only. TRANDUCERS
  15. 15. Electrochemical…. pH probes Electro-galvanic fuel cell TRANDUCERS
  16. 16. Electromechanical…Electroactive polymersGalvanometerMEMSRotary motor, linear motorVibration powered generatorPotentiometer when used for measuring positionLoad cell converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gaugeAccelerometerStrain gaugeString PotentiometerAir flow sensor TRANDUCERS
  17. 17. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanicalelements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substratethrough microfabrication technology. TRANDUCERS
  18. 18. Electro acoustic…Geophone - convert a ground movement (displacement) into voltageGramophone pick-upHydrophone - converts changes in water pressure into an electrical formLoudspeaker, earphone - converts changes in electrical signals into acousticformMicrophone - converts changes in air pressure into an electrical signalPiezoelectric crystal - converts pressure changes into electrical form (andelectrical signals into acoustic/mechanical form)Sonar transponderTactile transducer TRANDUCERS
  19. 19. WHAT IS ACOUSTIC?Acoustics is the interdisciplinaryscience that deals with the study ofsound, ultrasound and infrasound (allmechanical waves in gases, liquids, andsolids). TRANDUCERS
  20. 20. Photoelectric….Laser diode, light-emitting diode - convert electrical power into formsof lightPhotodiode, photoresistor, phototransistor, photomultiplier tube -converts changing light levels into electrical form TRANDUCERS
  21. 21. Electrostatic….Electrometer:An electrometer is an electrical instrument formeasuring electric charge or electrical potential difference. Thereare many different types, ranging from historical hand-mademechanical instruments to high-precision electronic devices. ... TRANDUCERS
  22. 22. Thermoelectric…. RTD Resistance Temperature DetectorThermocouplePeltier cooler :A peltier cooler is a coolerthat uses a peltier element (TEC). Peltiercoolers consist of the peltier element itself,and a powerful heatsink/fan combination tocool the TEC.TRANDUCERS
  23. 23. Radio acoustic….Geiger-Müller tube used formeasuring radioactivity.Receiver (radio) TRANDUCERS
  24. 24. why there is no specific transducer for bio-stimulus? TRANDUCERS
  25. 25. TRANSDUCERS IN BIO- MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION TRANDUCERS
  26. 26. Peltier cooler IN BIO-MEDICALINSTRUMENTATION TRANDUCERS
  27. 27. PROBLEM: Department ofhistology in a major hospitalneeded a peltier cold plate tofreeze tissue samples forexamination. TRANDUCERS
  28. 28. The Histology Division of the Department of Pathology places TissueSOLUTION:samples from biopsies into a small block and fills it with wax. Several of thesesamples are then placed on one of the PELTIER COOLER cold plates to "pull theheat" out of the wax so it gets really hard. The near-frozen samples are then shaveddown to the desired section (slice) using a Microtome (in picture). The thin sectionsare then placed in the water bath to warm up the remaining wax in order to remove itand then place the section on a slide for examination. TRANDUCERS
  29. 29. TRANDUCERS
  30. 30. TRANDUCERS
  31. 31. TRANDUCER IN ULTRA SOUND…..A device that produces sound waves that bounce offbody tissues and make echoes. The transducer alsoreceives the echoes and sends them to a computerthat uses them to create a picture called asonogram. Transducers (probes) come in differentshapes and sizes for use in making pictures ofdifferent parts of the body. The transducer may bepassed over the surface of the body or inserted intoan opening such as the rectum or vagina. TRANDUCERS
  32. 32. A variety of ultrasound generationmechanisms have been developedby utilizing piezoelectric,capacitive, laser- based, andelectromagnetic phenomena TRANDUCERS
  33. 33. Ultrasound operates on the same principle as theother characterization methods also based uponwave- material interaction phenomena. These are:Optical, X-ray, infra-red, Raman spectroscopy,nuclear magnetic resonance, neutron, g-ray, massspectrometry, etc. By propagating a wave in a givenmedium, useful information about the medium canbe generated by analyzing the transmitted orreflected signals. Ultrasound differs from otherwave-based methods because it does not requiresample preparation; is non-hazardous; provides themeans to determine mechanical properties,microstructure, imaging, & microscopy; is portable;and is cost-effective TRANDUCERS
  34. 34. TRANDUCERS
  35. 35. TRANDUCERS
  36. 36. TRANDUCERS
  37. 37. TRANDUCERS
  38. 38. MEASUREMENT MEASURED PARAMETERS APPLICATIONSCATEGORYTime Domain Times-of-Flight and Velocities of Longitudinal, Shear, and Surface Waves Density, Thickness, Defect Detection, Elastic and Mechanical Properties, Interface Analysis, Anisotropy, Proximity & Dimensional Analysis, Robotics, Remote Sensing, etc.Attenuation Fluctuations in Reflected and Transmitted Signals at a GivenDomain Frequency and Beam Size Defect Characterization, Surface and Internal Microstructure, Interface Analysis, etc.Frequency Domain AtFrequency-Dependence of Ultrasound tenuation, or Ultrasonic Spectroscopy Microstructure, Grain Size, Grain Boundary Relationships, Porosity, Surface Characterization, Phase Analysis, etc.Image Domain Time-of-Flight, Velocity, and Attenuation Mapping as Functions of Discrete Point Analysis by Raster C-Scanning or by Synthetic Aperture Techniques Surface and Internal Imaging of Defects, Microstructure, Density, Velocity, Mechanical Properties, True 2-D and 3-D Imaging. TRANDUCERS Table 1: Categories of Ultrasonic Measurements and their Applications.
  39. 39. TRANDUCERS
  40. 40. TRANDUCERS
  41. 41. HOW IMAGE FORMATION TAKES PLACE? TRANDUCERS
  42. 42. SPIROMETER ADVANCEMENT BASED ONTRANDUCER…… TRANDUCERS
  43. 43. WHAT IS SPIROMETER?A spirometer is an apparatus formeasuring the volume of air inspired andexpired by the lungs.The spirometer records the amount of airand the rate of air that is breathed in and outover a specified time. TRANDUCERS
  44. 44. EARLY SPIROMETER…… TRANDUCERS
  45. 45. TRANDUCERS
  46. 46. OUR TIME SPIROMETERS……. TRANDUCERS
  47. 47. ADVANCEMENTS……… TRANDUCERS
  48. 48. OUTPUT GRAPH BY SPIROMETER…… TRANDUCERS
  49. 49. MILLER,S QUADRANT……. RESTRICTIVE NORMAL 120FE INS √ 100V 60 COMBINED OBSTRUCTIVF 40 EXPVC BOTH% 20 0 20 40 80 100 120 FVC/FVCref % TRANDUCERS
  50. 50. EARLY TRANDUCERS USED INSPIROMETER….. Water bell Bellows wedge TRANDUCERS
  51. 51. PRESENT TRANSDUCER USED IN SPIROMETER…… TURBINE TRANDUCERSactually arotating vane,this spins, therevolutionsare countedas they breaka light beam TRANDUCERS
  52. 52. OTHER PRESENT TRANDUCERS USED… Fleisch-pneumotach Lilly (screen) pneumotach Turbine (actually a rotating vane, this spins, the revolutions are counted as they break a light beam) Pitot tube Hot-wire anemometer TRANDUCERS
  53. 53. BERA TEST……… AN INTRODUCTION TRANDUCERS
  54. 54. A device for electromechanical stimulation and testing ofhearing in which an electromechanical transducertransmits audiologic signals as mechanical deflections viaa coupling element from the outside, noninvasivelythrough the external auditory canal, by direct mechanicalcoupling with the manubrium of the malleus to theossicular chain. In preferred embodiments, by suitableselection of the transducer principle disruptive magneticstray fields and acoustic stimulation by soundtransmission to the contralateral ear, which is not beingexamined, are prevented. TRANDUCERS
  55. 55. TRANDUCERS
  56. 56. TRANDUCERS
  57. 57. SCREENING TEST ……… AN INTRODUCTION TRANDUCERS
  58. 58. SCREEENING INSTRUMENTATION…. TRANDUCERS
  59. 59. SCREENING GRAPH….. TRANDUCERS
  60. 60. THIS CHAPTER ISCOME TO ANEND..BUT THE STORYWILLCONTINUE…….OP-AMP
  61. 61. THANK YOUOP-AMP

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