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Basics of ultrasound machine

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Ultrasound is a one of the most used imaging method in field of medicine & healthcare

Ultrasound is a one of the most used imaging method in field of medicine & healthcare

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  • 1. Welcome you allBY:lokendra yadav
  • 2. ULTRA SOUND A REVOLUTION INMEDICAL IMAGING
  • 3. WHAT IS MEDICALIMAGING? ?
  • 4. MEDICAL IMAGING: The techniquesand processes used to create image ofthe internal as well as external humanbody parts for clinical purpose .
  • 5. why medical imaging is required?Medical imaging provides a pictorial statusof particular organ which is to be treatedIt makes a surgical targets more clear andpreciseIt provides a pictorial status of fetusdevelopment right from 4th weak to 36th- 38thweekIt make therapeutic targets easy to detect
  • 6. TYPES OF MEDICAL IMAGING WIDELYUSEDX-RAYMAMOGRAPHYCONTRAST RADIOGRAPHYULTRA SOUNDCT SCANMRISPECT(SINGLE PHOTON EMMISIONTOMOGRAPHY)PET(POSITRON EMISSIONTOMOGRAPHY)
  • 7. HISTORY OFULTRASOUND……………..PIZOELECTRIC IS DEVELOPED BY THECURIES IN 1880 USING NATURALQUARTZSONAR was first time used inwar time 1940Diagnosis medical
  • 8. WHAT ISULTRA SOUND ?
  • 9. ULTRA SOUND : PHYSICAL DEFINATION !!!!!!!!! • Sound waves greater than 20,000 Hertz or cycles per secondInfrasoun <20 Hz (ACOUSTIC) >20 KHZ Ultrasound
  • 10. ULTRA SOUND : MEDICALDEFINATION!!!DIGNOSTIC MEDICALULTRASOUND IS THE USE OF HIGHFREQUENCY SOUND TO AID INDIGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OFPATIENT.FREQUENCY RANGES USED INMEDICAL ULTRASOUND ARE 2-15 MHZ
  • 11. Piezoelectric Effect The principle Definition: ofconverting energy by applyingpressure to a crystal .The reverse of the piezoelectriceffect converts the energy back to itsoriginal form
  • 12. piezoelectric effect Ultrasound Transducers•A transducer converts one typeof energy into another• Based upon :pulse-echo principle occurring with ultrasoundthe crystals, ultrasound transducers piezoelectric convert: – Electricity into sound = pulse – Sound into electricity = echo
  • 13.  Transducer contains piezoelectric elements/crystals which produce the ultrasound pulses (transmit 1% of the time) These elements convert electrical energy into a mechanical ultrasound wave
  • 14. PULSE• Pulse of sounds is send to softtissues•Sound interaction with soft tissues=bio effect•Pulsing is determined by transduceror probe crystal and ins not operatedor control
  • 15. ECHOECHO IS PRODUCED BY SOFT TISSUESTISSUE INTRACTION WITH SOUND =ACOUSTIC PROPAGATION PROPERTIESECHOES ARE RECEIVED BY THETRANSDUCER CRYSTALECHOES ARE INTRPRETED AND PROCESSEDBY ULTRA SOUND MACHINE
  • 16. reflective refractionScatteredechoes Incident Angle of incidence = angle of reflection
  • 17.  Reflected echoes return to the scan head where the piezoelectric elements convert the ultrasound wave back into an electrical signal The electrical signal is then processed by the ultrasound system
  • 18. FACTORS AFFECTINGULTRASOUNDFREQUENCYWAVELENGTHBANDWIDTHATTENUATIONTIME GAIN COMPENSATION
  • 19.  The thickness of the crystal determines the frequency of the scan head Low High Frequency Frequency 3 MHz 10 MHz
  • 20. FREQUENCY AND RESOLUTIONHIGH FREQUENCY = HIGH RESOLUTION 3.5 MHz(sector) 7.5 MHz(linear)
  • 21. DYNAMIC RANGEDecreased DR Increased DR
  • 22. B-MODE M-MODE
  • 23. Color Doppler Power Doppler
  • 24. MACHINE COMPONENTTransducer probe CPU(central processing unit) Transducer pulse control Display Keyboard /cursor Disk storage device Printer
  • 25. Size, design andfrequencydepend upon theexamination
  • 26. Electrical signal produces ‘dots’ on the screen Brightness of the dots is proportional to the strength of the returning echoes Location of the dots is determined bytravel time. The velocity in tissue is assumed constant at 1540m/sec  Distance = Velocity Time
  • 27. „B‟ mode
  • 28. Interactions of Ultrasound with Tissue • Acoustic impedance (AI) is dependent on the density of the material in which sound is propagated - the greater the impedance the denser the material. • Reflections comes from the interface of different AI‟s • greater  of the AI = more signal reflected Transducer • works both ways (send and receive directions) Medium 1 Medium 2 Medium 3
  • 29. Sound is attenuated by tissue More tissue to penetrate = more attenuation of signalCompensate by adjusting gain based on depth near field / far field AKA: TGC
  • 30. Gain controls receiver gain only does NOT change power output think: stereo volumeIncrease gain = brighter Decrease gain = darker
  • 31. Gain settings are important to obtaining adequate images. bad farbad near field field balanced
  • 32. Strong Reflections = White dots Diaphragm, tendons, bone „Hyperechoic‟
  • 33. Weaker Reflections = Grey dots Most solid organs,thick fluid – „isoechoic‟
  • 34. No Reflections = Black dotsFluid within a cyst, urine, blood „Hypoechoic‟ or echofree
  • 35. Beam comes out as a slice Beam Profile Approx. 1 mm thickDepth displayed – user controlled Image produced is “ 2D ” tomographic slice assumes no thickness You control the aim 1mm
  • 36. The ultimate goal of any ultrasoundsystem is to make like tissues look thesame and unlike tissues look different
  • 37. Resolving capability of the system axial/lateral resolution spatial resolution contrast resolution temporal resolution Processing Powerability to capture, preserve and display the information
  • 38. Ultrasound ApplicationsVisualisation Tool:Nerves, soft tissue massesVessels - assessment of position, size,patencyUltrasound Guided Procedures in realtime – dynamic imaging; central venousaccess, nerve blocks
  • 39. ImagingKnow your anatomy – Skin, muscle,tendons, nerves and vesselsRecognise normal appearances –compare sides!
  • 40. Skin, subcutaneoustissue Epidermis Loose connective tissue and subcutaneous fat is hypoechoic Muscle interface Muscle fibres interface Bone
  • 41. Summary • Resolution determines image clarity • Electronic Arrays may be sector or linear• Frequency & wavelength are inversely proportional • Attenuation & frequency are inversely related • Display mode chosen determines how image is registered• Diagnostic Medical Ultrasound is safe!
  • 42. conclusion•Imaging tool – Must have the knowledge tounderstand how the image is formed•Dynamic technique•Acquisition and interpretation dependantupon the skills of the operator.

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