The passive

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Passive Voice

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The passive

  1. 1. Passive Voice
  2. 2. When do we use Passive Voice? When the agent (active subject)is unknown People speak English all over the worl English is spoken all over the world. when the agent is understood or not important.  Don Quixote was written in 1605 (by….)  Guernica was painted in 1937 (by..)
  3. 3. When do we use it?To make the object of the active verb more important Christopher Columbus discovered America subject objectAmerica was discovered by Christopher Columbus subject
  4. 4. We use the passive when: we want to make the active object more important we do not know the active subject FUNCTION SUBJECT VERB OBJECT Give President was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald importance to Kennedy active object My wallet has been ¿? Active subject robbed unknown
  5. 5. Structure of the sentenceSubject: Person or object that suffered/enjoyedSubjectthe results of an action.The verb "to be" in the tense the action ocurred. beThe Past Participle of the verb that representsthe action itself.Whatever complements that verb needs.In a few special cases we can also use by + theagent.agent
  6. 6. THE PASSIVE VERB to BE (in the active tense) + Past Participle (main verb) to BE gives us the tense of the action the principal verb is always in Past Participle ACTIVE PASSIVE She wants an ice-cream An ice-cream is wanted He sent a letter A letter was sent We will buy a new car next week A new car will be boughtThey have been cutting the grass The grass has been being cut
  7. 7. Passive Tensespassive Form ExamplesPresent Simple Am/is/ are + PP The house is cleaned everydayPast Simple Was/ Were + PP The house was cleaned yesterdayPresent/Past The house is being cleaned now.Continuous Am/are/is being + PP The house was being cleaned Was/ were being +PP yesterday at 7:00Present Perfect/ Has been+ PP  The house has been cleanedPast Perfect Had been + PP today The house had been cleaned before we arrivedWill Will be + PP The house will be cleaned tomorrow
  8. 8. Structure of the verb TENSES EXAMPLESPresent Simple Pigs are often used to find trufflesPresent Continuous My house is being redecorated at the momentPresent Perfect I have never been given flowers on my birthdayPast Simple Guernica was painted by PicassoPast Continuous When I saw him he was being followed by the policePast Perfect She was angry because she had already been told three timesFuture Simple When you get there everything will be finishedGoing to - Future They are not going to be easily convincedConditional Simple You would be punished if they found outConditional Perfect If you hadn’t told them would I have been invited?
  9. 9. The passive sentence ACTIVE VOICERobert gave a coin Active Active Direct Subject Verb Object Passive Passive Agent Subject Verb by PASSIVE VOICE was given by
  10. 10. The passive sentence (no) ACTIVE VOICERobert gave a coin to Tom Active Active Direct Indirect Subject Verb Object Object Passive Passive Direct Agent Subject Verb Object by PASSIVE VOICE was given by
  11. 11. Examples1/They built this house in 14662/ This house was built in 14661/ Swiss people speak French & German2/ French & German are spoken by Swiss people1/ This book will change your life2/ Your life will be changed by this book
  12. 12. Examples1/ They have cut the grass2/ The grass has been cut1/ They can’t answer your question2/ Your question can’t be answered
  13. 13. More examples with 2 objects1/ Someone had to take her to hospital after this2/ She had to be taken to hospital after the crash1/ They shouldn’t allow the children to do these things2/ The children shouldn’t be allowed to do these things1/ Someone must tell him if we want him to know2/ He must be told if we want him to know
  14. 14. More examples with 2 objects1/ My mother is going to give me a present2/ I am going to be given a present by my mother1/ Susan wrote an e-mail to him1/ He was written an e-mail by Susan
  15. 15. Active or Passive Quiz 1 I ate a piece of chocolate cake. 2 The librarian read the book to the students. 3 The money was stolen. 4 They are paid on Fridays. 5 The movie is being made in Hollywood. 6 I washed my car three weeks ago. 7 His hair was cut by a professional. 8 I will introduce you to my boss this week. 9 It would have been fixed on the weekend. 10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time.
  16. 16. Active or Passive Quiz ANSWERS 1 I ate a piece of chocolate cake. ACTIVE 2 The librarian read the book to the students. ACTIVE 3 The money was stolen. PASSIVE 4 They are paid on Fridays. PASSIVE 5 The movie is being made in Hollywood. PASSIVE 6 I washed my car three weeks ago. ACTIVE 7 His hair was cut by a professional. PASSIVE 8 I will introduce you to my boss this week. ACTIVE 9 It would have been fixed on the weekend. PASSIVE 10 The national anthem is being sung by Jason this time. PASSIVE
  17. 17. Links to activitieso http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises_list/passiv.htmo http://wiki-u.wikispaces.com/Passive+Voiceo http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/passivesum.html (for advanced students)
  18. 18. More passive stuffGET is used instead of BE with passivemeaning. Informal English. I got stuck in a traffic jam She is getting marriedAfter NEED/WANT the -ing form can be used NEEDwith passive meaning This job needs doing That room wants cleaning
  19. 19. More passive stuffHAVE/ GET something done: Arranging for orpaying for somebody to do something for you.(Get is more informal). HAVE + Object +He had his hair cut Past ParticipleShe got her carpet cleanedWe have had our car mendedThey had got their book translated
  20. 20. More passive stuff Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say, Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, Find 1. Introductory IT is used IT + passive verb + complete subordinate sentence without changesIt is said that he started the fireIt is thought that she doesnt live in LondonIt was known that the King is coming tomorrow
  21. 21. More passive stuff Verbs like: Believe, Think, Consider, Say, Report, Know, Expect, Feel, Understand, FindSubordinate subject + verb passive + subordinate active verb in INFINITIVE.It is said that he started the fire (action in the Past)He is said to have started the fire (Infinitive Perfect)It is thought that she doesnt live in London (Present)She is thought to live in London (Infinitive Present)

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