Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology 2013 03 18

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  • 1. Crowdsourcing andsmartphone technologyLuigi Ceccaroni, Senior member of research staffBlue Photonics 2013, Texel (NL), March 18, 2013
  • 2. Introduction• Citizens as environmental data consumers • Monitoring tackled by scientists or policy makers alone • Expensive • Hard to use technology • Quantity, coverage? • High quality • Sustainable?• Citizens as environmental data creators and consumers • Monitoring tackled by scientists, policy makers and citizens • Low cost • Easy to use technology • Quantity, coverage? • Quality? • Sustainable Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 3. The convergence of two trends• The proliferation of cheap, powerful sensors • Commonplace objects understanding what we do with them Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 4. The convergence of two trends• The proliferation of cheap, powerful sensors • Commonplace objects understanding what we do with them• Our personal identities firmly connected to our profiles on social networks Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 5. Interaction made “social”• How to create peer pressure? • Recycle and impress your (Facebook) friends, or dont recycle and risk incurring their wrath • Share your weight with your Twitter followers; it will help you to stick to a diet • Monitor the environment and impress your friends, or dont monitor the environment and…??? • Like a videogame, with points for doing good?• Why create peer pressure?• We are not mere automatons who assist big data in asking and answering questions. Well, we shouldn’t be…
  • 6. The social-engineering context• Social engineering disguised as product engineering • From smart cars to smart sensors, "smart" as the shorthand for transforming present-day social reality • Smart technologies becoming more intrusive • Risk of undermining our autonomy by supporting behaviors that someone somewhere has deemed desirable: • Smart forks informing us that we are eating too fast • Smart toothbrushes urging us to spend more time brushing our teeth • Smart sensors in our cars telling us we drive too fast • Smartphones telling us which beach is better for us • Devices giving us useful feedback • But also sharing everything they know about our habits with institutions whose interests may be different from our own
  • 7. The social-engineering context
  • 8. “Good smart" and "bad smart"• “Good smart“: Devices leaving us in complete control of the situation and seek to enhance our decision-making by providing more information: • An Internet-jacked kettle alerting us when the national power grid is overloaded • Not preventing us from boiling yet another cup of tea, but adding an extra ethical dimension to that choice • A grocery cart scanning the bar codes of products we put into it, informing us of their nutritional benefits and country of origin • Enhancing—rather than impoverishing—our autonomy • An application to contribute to ocean-color research, coupling color to the most important life form in the water, the phytoplankton, and informing about the ocean’s health • What’s in it for me? Education, pollution, sediments… • Is it sustainable? Public, private, artists…
  • 9. “Good smart" and "bad smart"• “Bad smart“: Technologies making certain choices and behaviors impossible; smart gadgets seeking to limit, not to expand, what we can do: • Facial recognition technologies confirming we are who we say we are… • We must resist attempts to universalize this logic:
  • 10. “Good smart" and "bad smart"• “Bad smart“: Technologies making certain choices and behaviors impossible; smart gadgets seeking to limit, not to expand, what we can do: • Facial recognition technologies confirming we are who we say we are… • We must resist attempts to universalize this logic:
  • 11. “Good smart" and "bad smart"• “Bad smart“: Technologies making certain choices and behaviors impossible; smart gadgets seeking to limit, not to expand, what we can do: • Facial recognition technologies confirming we are who we say we are… • We must resist attempts to universalize this logic:
  • 12. “Good smart" and "bad smart"• Is the BinCam “good” or “bad”? • Not forced to recycle • Appealing to our base instincts: • Must earn gold bars and rewards! • Must “compete” with others! • Must win and impress friends! • Not treating us as autonomous human beings, capable of weighing the options by ourselves • Allowing a recommendation system or Facebook or the government to do our thinking for us• What about crowdsourcing systems involving people on holiday (scuba diving, on cruise, on the beach) in data collection?
  • 13. Applications
  • 14. ApplicationsSmartphones, water color and Forel-Ule
  • 15. Smart crowdsourcing• Do application designers know precisely how we should behave, so the only problem is finding the right incentive?• A truly smart crowdsourcing system should make us reflect on our environmental habits and contribute to conscious deliberation: • Letting us benchmark our usual swimming waters against other waters in our area, instead of trying to shame us with point deductions and peer pressure• The task of technology should not be to liberate us from problem-solving.• We need to enroll smart technology in helping us with problem-solving.• Maybe… in promoting problem solving with a monitoring twist
  • 16. Smart crowdsourcing
  • 17. Applications, applications• Improvement of scuba-diving activities• Ranking the best beaches• Early-warning systems for HABs and bio-chemical hazards• Monitoring swell and length of waves• Water transparency via phone pictures and Secchi disc• Retrieval of sensor measurements from low-cost moorings
  • 18. From current monitoring to "participatory environmental science"• Monitoring and… • Mobile devices as sensor platforms • Georeferencing • Education through citizens’ effective participation • Community involvement • Internet-distribution and social platforms to observe and then share: • Photos (ocean color, transparency) • Oil spills • Algal blooms • Recommendation • Decision support Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 19. Information acquisitionLuigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 20. Information acquisitionBull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2012, Vol. 33, No. 2 Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 21. Information acquisitionSensors 2011, 11, 7055-7062 Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 22. Information deliveryLuigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 23. Information deliveryLuigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 24. Information deliveryLuigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 25. Information processing• Standardization, interoperability• GIS and satellite-data processing, integration and interpretation• Data-quality validation in real-time • Taking into account position, orientation and temperature• Context-awareness • Data provided in a more or less voluntary, active or conscious way • Metadata and context data: time, location, name, instrument• Personalisation • Location • Social environment • Profile and personal history Luigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 26. Acquisition, processing, delivery: a new wayLuigi Ceccaroni - Crowdsourcing and smartphone technology
  • 27. Resourceshttp://www.citclops.eu/http://www.coastwatch.org/http://creekwatch.researchlabs.ibm.com/http://mwater.co/http://www.wasserlebnis.de/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/rv_main.htmlhttp://projectbaseline.orghttp://crowd.cs.umass.edu/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_sciencehttp://senseable.mit.edu/http://research.cens.ucla.edu/aquatic/http://www.secchidipin.org/http://www.earthobservations.org/geo_me_201211_geo9_ec.shtmlhttp://www.nurp.noaa.gov/Spotlight/Observatory.htmhttp://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/LEO/LEO15.htmlhttp://root.ew.eea.europa.eu/lltk/papers-citizen-science-and- lltk/graham_et_al_eos_2011-2-.pdf
  • 28. Crowdsourcing andsmartphone technologyLuigi Ceccaroni, Senior member of research staffBlue Photonics 2013, Texel (NL), March 18, 2013