Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens 2013 10-22

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  • The general goal of the presentation is to analyze the attitudes and values of stakeholders in environmental issues as an essential part of the stewardship of conflicting environments. New policies about environmental resources should have citizens’ support and consider public attitudes from the beginning. The Citclops European project [www.citclops.eu], based on participatory science, integrates the general public into the environmental stewardship and, specifically, uses indicators of optical properties of the water to increase people awareness of water quality. Citclops’s outreach and training activities aim at ensuring that citizens can participate in all stages of knowledge management: collection, validation, interpretation and delivery. Therefore, the following specific objectives have been established: (1) to make map-based information and alerts about water quality easily available; (2) to help citizens in decision making about marine activities, increasing the knowledge about water quality; (3) to influence decision makers, providing the public administration with access to all generated data, including the ones from Coastwatch [http://www.coastwatch.org] ejemplo de lo que ha pasado, del grupoque ha seguidoobservando; (4) to integrate participation with citizens’ professional and leisure activities; (5) to take into account users’ reputation.  Interaction with the audience will be created via the following questions:Is there a recipe for participatory science? Do it yourself, Ikea, montatuboyaWhat is the right scale for participatory science?Is participatory science within MPAs different from participatory science outside MPAs?What is the role and priority of the different elements of participatory science: technology, citizens' involvement, activities' protocols, parameters to be collected?encuesta de ciudadanosvalidación peer to peer y reputaciónevoulución hacia phones como base de la ciencia participativaW/h m2 contra un cuestionario con 5 opcionesen ambitobiologico se cogen muestras semanales o por el estilo
  • In the fields of science, engineering, industry, and statistics, the accuracy of a measurement system is the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's actual (true) value. The precisionof a measurement system, also called reproducibility or repeatability, is the degree to which repeated measurements under unchanged conditions show the same results. Although the two words precision and accuracy can be synonymous in colloquial use, they are deliberately contrasted in the context of the scientific method.A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, or both. For example, if an experiment contains a systematic error, then increasing the sample size generally increases precision but does not improve accuracy. The result would be a consistent yet inaccurate string of results from the flawed experiment. Eliminating the systematic error improves accuracy but does not change precision.A measurement system is considered valid if it is both accurate and precise. Related terms include bias (non-random or directed effects caused by a factor or factors unrelated to the independent variable) and error (random variability).The terminology is also applied to indirect measurements—that is, values obtained by a computational procedure from observed data.In addition to accuracy and precision, measurements may also have a measurement resolution, which is the smallest change in the underlying physical quantity that produces a response in the measurement.
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  • Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens 2013 10-22

    1. 1. Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship Luigi Ceccaroni (Barcelona Digital Technology Centre) Jaume Piera (ICM-CSIC) Carine Simon, Laia Subirats, Julia Busch, Karin Dubsky and the Citclops Consortium 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress, Marseille (France), October 22, 2013
    2. 2. Which one will you drive? Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    3. 3. Which one will you use? ultraviolet photometer ultraviolet photometer Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    4. 4. Monitoring: resolution, accuracy μM = 10−6 mol/dm3 = 10−3 mol/m3 High accuracy Temporal and spatial variability? In situ ultraviolet spectrophotometer to measure nutrients Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    5. 5. Monitoring: frequency 1 sample every month (at 10 am on the first day of the month) 1 sample every week (at 10 am on the first day of the week) 25 20 Nitrate (μM) 15 10 Monterey Bay, California 5 0 80 90 100 110 120 Julian days 130 Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship 140 150
    6. 6. The sunlight cycle 250 Day 200 Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 150 100 50 Night 0 30 Julian days 35 40 Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    7. 7. Monitoring: frequency 1 sample every week (at 4 pm on the first day) 250 200 Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 150 100 This is a typical frequency in biological domains 50 0 30 Julian days 35 40 Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    8. 8. Monitoring: frequency 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) 250 200 Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 150 100 50 0 30 Julian days 35 40 Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    9. 9. Monitoring: frequency 2 samples every day (at 4 pm and 4 am) 250 200 Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 150 100 50 0 30 Julian days 35 40 Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    10. 10. Monitoring: resolution Questionnaire to citizens vs. 1.very high 2.high 3.low 4.very low 5.no sunlight Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    11. 11. Monitoring: resolution Sunlight intensity 1 sample every day (at 4 pm) 250 very high 200 high Sunlight intensity (W/m2h) 150 low 100 very low 50 0 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 Julian days Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship no sunlight 41
    12. 12. From current monitoring to "participatory environmental science" • Not (only) resolution, but… • • • • • Mobile devices as sensor platforms Georeferencing Education through citizens’ effective participation Community involvement Internet-distribution and social platforms to share observations: • • • • Photos (ocean color, transparency) Oil spills Algal blooms Jellyfishes • Or interpretations of observations: • Recommendations • Decision support Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    13. 13. From current monitoring to "participatory environmental science" • Before: Citizens as environmental-data consumers • Monitoring tackled by scientists or policy makers alone • • • • Expensive Hard to use technology High resolution, high accuracy, high precision Low temporal and spatial coverage • Now: Citizens as environmental-data creators and consumers • Monitoring tackled by scientists, policy makers and citizens • • • • Low cost Easy to use technology Low resolution, average accuracy, average precision Potentially high temporal and spatial coverage Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    14. 14. The Citclops European project: the convergence of three trends The Citclops European project [www.citclops.eu] • Proliferation of cheap, powerful sensors to measure optical properties of the water • Participatory science integrating the general public into the environmental stewardship and increasing people awareness of water quality • People firmly connected on social networks Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    15. 15. Citizens’ participation via “smart” devices • Outreach and training activities • Ensuring that citizens can participate in all stages of knowledge management: • Collection • Validation / Interpretation • Delivery • “Smart“: Leaving complete control of the situation and enhancing decision-making by providing more information: • Example: Contribution to ocean-color research, coupling color to phytoplankton, and informing about the ocean’s health • What’s in it for me? Education, info on pollution… Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    16. 16. Citizens’ participation Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    17. 17. Citizens’ participation via “smart” devices • What about participatory science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (scuba diving, on the beach) in data collection? Tall Ship Regatta 21st Sept. - 4th October 2013: Barcelona - Toulon - La Spezia Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    18. 18. Citizens’ participation via “smart” devices • What about participatory science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (scuba diving, on the beach) in data collection? Barcelona World Race 4th November 2013: training in the Canary Islands of the around the world sailboat race Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    19. 19. Citizens’ participation via “smart” devices • What about participatory science involving people on training cruises, on sailing races, on holiday (scuba diving, on the beach) in data collection? Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    20. 20. Applications, applications • Water-color, oil-spill, river-status measurement • Water transparency via phone pictures and Secchi disc • Retrieval of sensor measurements from lowcost moorings Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    21. 21. Information acquisition: UVindeSir: The UV Index Meter Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    22. 22. Information acquisition Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    23. 23. Information acquisition Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    24. 24. Citizens’ participation Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    25. 25. Information processing • Standardization, interoperability • GIS and satellite-data processing, integration and interpretation • Data-quality validation in real-time • Taking into account position, orientation, temperature… • Context-awareness • Data provided in a more or less voluntary, active or conscious way • Metadata and context data: time, location, name, instrument • Personalisation • Location • Social environment • Profile and personal history Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    26. 26. Monitoring: validation Peer-to-peer validation based on Reputation system (experience level) Challenges – – – – – Time to complete validation Set up Skill demonstration Managing time for validation Busy experts Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    27. 27. Information processing • Standardization, interoperability • GIS and satellite-data processing, integration and interpretation • Data-quality validation in real-time • Taking into account position, orientation, temperature… • Context-awareness • Data provided in a more or less voluntary, active or conscious way • Metadata and context data: time, location, name, instrument • Personalisation • Location • Social environment • Profile and personal history Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    28. 28. Citizens’ participation Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    29. 29. Information delivery Objectives: 1. To make map-based information and alerts about water quality easily available 2. To help citizens in decision making about marine activities, increasing knowledge about water quality and taking into account users’ reputation 3. To keep citizens engaged in monitoring (example: Coastwatch in the Ebro Delta) 4. To provide the public administration with access to all data generated via citizen participation 5. To integrate participatory science with professional and leisure activities of citizens Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    30. 30. Applications, applications • Improvement of scuba-diving activities • Best beaches’ ranking • Early-warning systems for HABs and biochemical hazards Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    31. 31. Information delivery Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    32. 32. Information delivery Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    33. 33. Information delivery: decision support Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    34. 34. Information delivery: decision support Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    35. 35. Acquisition, processing, delivery: a new way Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    36. 36. Conclusions, open questions (1/2) • Participatory science as a more efficient way to carry out monitoring • Resolution, temporal and spatial coverage • Smart phones, currently, as the preferred technological substrate • No standard recipe for participatory science • Smart-phone apps • Do it yourself, Ikea-style: build your own buoy (or any other instrument) Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    37. 37. Conclusions, open questions (2/2) • What is the right scale for participatory science? • 500 m? Beach? Municipality? Region? • How to engage a critical mass of citizens? • MPAs are especially suitable to engage citizens in participatory science • Role and priority of different elements of participatory science? • Technology, citizens' involvement, activities' protocols, parameters to be collected Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    38. 38. Resources http://www.citclops.eu/ http://www.coastwatch.org/ http://creekwatch.researchlabs.ibm.com/ http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/fw_riv/rv_main.html http://projectbaseline.org http://crowd.cs.umass.edu/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_science http://senseable.mit.edu/ http://research.cens.ucla.edu/aquatic/ http://www.secchidipin.org/ http://www.earthobservations.org/geo_me_201211_geo9_ec.shtml http://www.nurp.noaa.gov/Spotlight/Observatory.htm http://marine.rutgers.edu/mrs/LEO/LEO15.html http://www.indiegogo.com/projects/uvindesir-the-tiny-uv-index-meterfor-iphone-and-android Luigi Ceccaroni - Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship
    39. 39. Citclops: new water-quality monitoring strategies and participation of citizens in environmental stewardship Luigi Ceccaroni (Barcelona Digital Technology Centre) Jaume Piera (ICM-CSIC) Carine Simon (ICM-CSIC) Laia Subirats (Barcelona Digital Technology Centre) Julia Busch (Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg) Karin Dubsky (Coastwatch Europe) and the Citclops Consortium 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress, Marseille (France), October 22, 2013

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