modiﬁcation, access of
Access to common
improvements to the
“2(b) You must cause any work that you distribute or
publish, that in whole or in part contains or is derived from
the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole
at no charge to all third parties under the terms of this
License.” GPL v2.
Copyleft Non-copyleft Hybrid
GNU GPL Mozilla Licence
EUPL BSD Licence
Core Licensing Suite:
Creator/Licensor chooses licence options
Attribution: Every CC licences allows the world to
copy and distribute a work provided that the
licensee credits the creator/licensor.
The author may include these other elements:
NonCommercial: licensees can use the work for
No Derivatives: the work cannot be modiﬁed.
ShareAlike: the work can be copied, modiﬁed
and distributed if the author releases the
derivative under the same licence.
If you liked CC, you may also
CCPlus: CC+ is CC license + Another agreement.
CC0: “afﬁrmer” waives all of his or her copyright and
neighboring and related rights in a work, to the fullest
extent permitted by law.
ccREL: Creative Commons standard Rights Expression
Language and machine-readable metadata.
Science Commons: Establishing CC within the scientiﬁc
“We recognise that innovation has an essential role in
economic development, but its use for the pursuit of proﬁt
should not override, and ideally should not conﬂict with,
achievement of welfare goals and scientiﬁc progress.
Scientiﬁc information, freely and openly communicated,
adds to the body of knowledge and understanding upon
which the progress of humanity depends. Information
must remain available to science and this depends on
open communication and dissemination of information,
including that used in innovation.”
Open access deﬁnition
“Open access” (OA) is free online access. OA literature is
not only free of charge to everyone with an internet
connection, but free of most copyright and licensing
restrictions. OA literature is barrier-free literature produced
by removing the price barriers and permission barriers that
block access and limit usage of most conventionally
published literature, whether in print or online.”
Open Access developments
Directive 2003/98/EC on the re-use of public sector
2005 Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and
Research Libraries Network (RLN) consultation on Open
2006 OFT report on Commercial Use of Public
2006 RCUK position on issues of improved access to
Research Councils UK
The Research Councils are committed to the guiding principles
that publicly funded research must be made available to the public
and remain accessible for future generations.
Research Councils have agreed that over time the UK Research
Councils will support increased open access, by:
building on their mandates on grant-holders to deposit research
papers in suitable repositories within an agreed time period,
extending their support for publishing in open access journals,
including through the pay-to-publish model.
Open Access success
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists 3,806
journals as of today.
High impact of OA publications: Harnard (2004) study
found no difference in impact between OA and non-OA
journals, but there is marked difference in impact from
authors who self-archive (SSRN) and those who do not.
2008 RIN Report on
The global costs of publishing and distributing articles is
The total UK contribution to all stages of the scholarly
communications process amounts to £408m.
Cash for peer review: Universities would break even.
Electronic-only publishing: Global costs would fall by £318m.
Author-Side Publication Fees: Total saving in the global costs
of publishing, distribution and access would be £561m.
2009 JISC report on OA
Author-pays models saves £93m in UK alone.
“The costs, beneﬁts and impacts of alternative scholarly
publishing models revealed in this study demonstrate that
research and research communication are major activities
and the costs involved are substantial. Preliminary analysis
of the potential beneﬁts of more open access to research
ﬁndings suggests that returns to research can also be
substantial, and that different scholarly publishing models
can make a material difference to the returns realised, as
well as the costs faced.”
Open Acess and CC
>500 journals under CC-BY
100,000,000+ digital objects on the web
Trouble with patents
Very difﬁcult to port OSS ideals to the area of patents.
Expensive R&D means that those who apply for a patent
will want to recover their costs, few will offer their
technology with an open licence.
Heavily competitive area.
The ﬁeld of patent law is more complex than copyright.
CAMBIA Plant Molecular Enabling Technology BiOS
BiOS Mutual Non-Assertion Agreement
BiOS Agreement for Health Technologies
Generic BiOS agreement for patented technologies and
CAMBIA BIOS Licences
Licensor owns or is licensee of patented materials, and retains
control over it.
Grant: global, non-exclusive, royalty-free right to make and use the
technology in order to improve technology or sell licensed products
Share-alike viral clause: licensees can sub-licence by keeping the
same rights in the licence.
Improvements are allowed, but must be communicated to owner.
Good effort, but clunky, and it does not seem viable at the
Open Access Content
Open Source Open Access
Knowledge Management Research Tools
Science Commons projects
The Biological Materials Transfer Agreement Project (MTA)
develops and deploys standard, modular contracts to lower the
costs of transferring physical biological materials such as DNA, cell
lines, model animals, antibodies and more.
The Neurocommons project is creating an Open Source
knowledge management platform for biological research. The
software is released under an open source licence (BSD).
Health Commons: Coalition members agree to share data,
knowledge, and services under standardized terms and conditions
by committing to a set of common technologies, digital
information standards, research materials, contracts, workﬂows,
Trouble with databases
Non-harmonised area of the law: U.S. copyright; EU
Copyright licences have to negotiate potential clashes in
Public sector information: Crown copyright, Ordinance
Survey, OPSI, separate licensing regimes.
Commercial and non-commercial use trickier to deﬁne.
Open Database License
Users can copy, distribute and use the database; to produce works
from the database; and to modify, transform and build upon the
database; as long as they:
Attribute: You must attribute any public use of the database, or
works produced from the database, in the manner speciﬁed in the
Share-Alike: You must also offer that adapted database under the
Keep open: If you redistribute the database, or an adapted version
of it, then you may use technological measures that restrict the
work (such as DRM) as long as you also redistribute a version
without such measures.