Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems                (EN1600)                Lecture08
Summary of Shockley model                               polysilicon                                  gate                 ...
Ideal vs. non-ideal            ideal                                  Non-ideal   Saturation current does not increase qu...
Ideal vs. non-ideal    There is leakage current when the transistor is in cut off    Ids depends on the temperature
Velocity saturationAt high electric field, drift velocity rolls                                               υ n (m /s )o...
Alpha model        0              Vgs < Vt        cutoff                     VI ds =  I dsat ds     Vds < Vdsat      l...
Channel length modulation                                   VDD      VDD                                                  ...
Leakage current: subthreshold           Tunnel current                            polysilicon                             ...
Leakage current: junction leakage andtunnelingJunction leakage: reverse-biased p-n junctions have                         ...
Impact of temperature  • Increases in temperature increases leakage current  • Increases in temperature decreases leakage ...
Body effect Vt is sensitive to Vsb -> body effect   Vt = Vt 0 + γ      (   φs + Vsb − φs   )                 NA   φs = 2v...
Process variations          Both MOSFETs have 30nm channel with 130          dopant atoms in the channel depletion region ...
Summary    Ideal transistor characteristics    Non-ideal transistor characteristics    Inverter DC transfer characteris...
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Lecture08

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Lecture08

  1. 1. Design and Implementation of VLSI Systems (EN1600) Lecture08
  2. 2. Summary of Shockley model polysilicon gate W tox L SiO2 gate oxide n+ n+ (good insulator, εox = 3.9) p-type body   0 Vgs < Vt cutoff  I ds =  β Vgs − Vt − ds V V < V V   ds linear 2 ds dsat     β ( Vgs − Vt ) 2  Vds > Vdsat saturation  2 for nMOS for pMOS
  3. 3. Ideal vs. non-ideal ideal Non-ideal  Saturation current does not increase quadratically with Vgs  Saturation current lightly increases with increase in Vds
  4. 4. Ideal vs. non-ideal  There is leakage current when the transistor is in cut off  Ids depends on the temperature
  5. 5. Velocity saturationAt high electric field, drift velocity rolls υ n (m /s )of due to carrier scattering υsat= 105 Constant velocity Constant mobility (slope = µ) ξc = 1.5 ξ (V/µm)Empirically:
  6. 6. Alpha model  0 Vgs < Vt cutoff   VI ds =  I dsat ds Vds < Vdsat linear  Vdsat  I dsat  Vds > Vdsat saturation β = Pc ( Vgs − Vt ) α I dsat 2 Vdsat = Pv ( Vgs − Vt ) α /2 Pc, Pv and alpha are found by fitting the model to the empirical modeling results
  7. 7. Channel length modulation VDD VDD GND Source Gate Drain Depletion Region Width: Ld• The reverse-bias p-n junction between drain and body forms a depletion region with a width n+ L Leff n+ Ld that increases with Vdb p GND bulk Si • Increasing Vds  increases depletion width  decreases effective channel length  increases current Channel length modulation factor (empirical factor)
  8. 8. Leakage current: subthreshold Tunnel current polysilicon gate W t ox L n+ n+ p-type body Subthreshold conduction Junction leakage Subthreshold leakage isthe biggest source inmodern transistors 180nm process Vgs −Vt  −Vds  I ds = I ds 0e nvT 1 − e T v      I ds 0 = β vT e1.8 2 n = 1.4-15
  9. 9. Leakage current: junction leakage andtunnelingJunction leakage: reverse-biased p-n junctions have  VD some leakage. I D = I S  e − 1 vTIs depends on doping levels and area and perimeter    of diffusion regions p+ n+ n+ p+ p+ n+ n well p substrate 109 tox VDD trend 0.6 nmTunneling leakage: 106 0.8 nm J (A/cm ) 1.0 nm 103 2 Carriers may tunnel thorough very thin gate oxides 1.2 nm 100 1.5 nm G Negligible for older processes 10-3 1.9 nm(and future processes with high-k dielectrics!) 10-6 10-9 0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 VDD
  10. 10. Impact of temperature • Increases in temperature increases leakage current • Increases in temperature decreases leakage current
  11. 11. Body effect Vt is sensitive to Vsb -> body effect Vt = Vt 0 + γ ( φs + Vsb − φs ) NA φs = 2vT ln ni tox 2qε si N A γ = 2qε si N A = ε ox Cox• What is the impact on Vt if we increase/decrease the body bias?
  12. 12. Process variations Both MOSFETs have 30nm channel with 130 dopant atoms in the channel depletion region threshold voltage 0.97V threshold voltage 0.57V Process variations impact gate length, threshold voltage, and oxide thickness
  13. 13. Summary  Ideal transistor characteristics  Non-ideal transistor characteristics  Inverter DC transfer characteristics  Simulation with SPICE and integration with L-Edit

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