4G stands for 4th Generation of cellular
wireless standards which is not one defined
technology but rather a collection of
Successor of 3G and convergence of High
4g networks are projected to provide a a
speed of 100Mbps while moving and 1Gbps
# Developed in 1970s, is an analog system.
# Based on FDMA
# AMPS –First launched by
USA allows voice calls in one
#9.6 Kbps (PEAK)
#Poor voice Quality & call drops
2G ( second generation)
#Developed in 1980s is digital system consists
of ‘0’s and ‘1’s.
#Second generation is divided in two standards
i) TDMA-time division multiple access
-GSM(global system for mobile comm.)
ii) CDMA-code division multiple
# SMS- short message service and Emails
#2.5G – channels are optimized for packet data
#No support for video transmission
#Towers have limited coverage area
#Abrupt call drops
3G ( Third Generation)
#developed in 2000,promises faster data services
#provides a speed of 384kbps while in motion and
3.1Mbps while in motion
#supports video calling and broadband capacity
#WCDMA- Wideband code division multiple access
#Faster transmission and still working good.
#first launched in 2001 in japan
Known as beyond 3G is Ultra High speed data
Based on OFDM-Orthogonal frequency
Matching the current LAN speeds, it will
provide 100Mbps on the move.
4G networks are all IP(Internet Protocol)
based heterogeneous networks which allow
to use multiple system like GPS,WLANs and
CDMA at the same time.
4G has two standards:- LTE and WiMAX
LTE- Long Term Evolution
- Based on OFDM
- use multiple orthogonal frequencies
- Higher frequency bands
- developed by 3GPP ( 3rd Generation
-in 2011, launched by major carriers in
WiMAX-Worldwide Interoperability for
-often referred as Wi-Fi on steroids.
A single carrier signal is divided into closely
spaced multiple subcarriers in the same
Each subcarrier is then modulated with a
conventional modulation scheme.
Orthogonal signals reduces FADING.
Unlike single carriers, it has ability to cope
with several channel
conditions like narrow
band interface etc.
VoIP- voice over internet protocol
MIMO antennas-multiple inputs and multiple
outputs increases effective throughput.
SDR- software defined ratio
HIGH SPEED 70Mbps
Lower cost per bit than 3G systems
Indoor and outdoors
System capacity is 10 times of 3G
Transmission delay time is 50ms or less