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  1. 1. Kuchala‐A Poison into Ambrosia An effect of Shodhana BY Dr. SANGAMESH.I.P 3rd YEAR P.G SCHOLAR Under the guidance of  Dr Shobha G Hiremath Professor & HOD P.G DEPT OF RASASHASTRA GOVT. AYURVEDIC MEDICAL COLLEGE BANGALORE‐09
  2. 2. CASE STUDY:-Age- 45 yrs maleC/O- Pain in squatting position since unable to walk for longer time 5 mths Diagnosis:- Vatarakta Treatment – A.V R,1 tid Kaishora Guggulu, 1 tid Later - Vishatinduka Vati, 1 tid since 1 month. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 2
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  7. 7. Visha Sthavara JaangamaVatsanabhadi Tindukadi visha Upavisha ( R. T.) P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 7
  8. 8. Poisonous plants –their toxic principles and important poisonous effectSl POISONOUS PLANTS IMPORTANT POISONOUS EFFECTSNo AND USEFUL PARTS TOXIC PRINCIPLES1. Vatsanabha(root) Aconitine, CARDIAC POISON,Nausea, Vomiting, (Aconitum ferox) Pseudoaconite Abdominalpain, Muscular twitching2. Dhattura (leaves & Daturine, CEREBRAL POISON. Headache, seeds) Atropine, Dysphagia, Giddiness, Photophobia,. (Dhat ura Hyoscine, stromonium) Hyosciamine etc.3. VISHAMUSHTI STRYCHNINE, SPINAL POISON. STIFFNESS OF (SEEDS) BRUCINE NECK, MUSCLE TWITCHING, (STRYCHNOS CHOKING SENSATION NUXVOMICA)4. Jayapala (seeds) Croton oil, Tiglic IRRITANT POISON. Irritates mucosa (Croton tiglium) acid, Crotonic acid, of GIT, Vomiting, Loose motions, Crotonol etc. Spasmodic pain,Dehydration,Death5 Gunja (seeds) Abrin, Abrussic IRRITANT POISON. Affects as above (Abrus precatorious) acid, Locally putrefies tissues. Haemoglutinin etc. 08/03/2012 P.G Dept of Rasashastra 8
  9. 9. Contd_Sl POISONOUS IMPORTANT TOXIC POISONOUS EFFECTSN PLANTS AND PRINCIPLESo USEFUL PARTS6. Bhallataka (fruits) Irritant oil IRRITANT POISON. GIT irritant, local (Semicarpus inflamation, Blisters etc. anacardium)7. Karaveera (seeds) Thevetin CARDIAC POISON. Vertigo, Giddiness, (Thevetia nerifolia) Burning sensation, Hallucination, Vomiting etc.8. Bhanga (leaves) Cannabinone, CEREBRAL POISON. Unconsciousness, (Cannabis sativa) Cannabinol, Hallucination, Vomiting etc. cannabidiol, cannabinolic acid etc.9. Snuhi (latex) Euphorbon. IRRITANT POISON. GIT irritant, (Euphorbia Destroys sight if falls in eye. nerifolia)10 Ahiphena Morphine, Codeine, NARCOTIC POISON. Euphorbia, (Papaver Narcotine, Deep sleep, Necrosis. somniferum) Papaverine, Thebine etc. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 9
  10. 10. उिद्दष्टॆरौषधॆ: साद्ध्र्ं िबयते पेषणािदकम ् ! मलिविच्छत्तये यत्तु शोधनं तिदहोच्यते !!र.त २/५३ The processes like peshana,mardana, kshalana, swedana etc., karmas done with a specified shodhana dravya to remove the mala (dosha/visha) of a dravya is called shodhana. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 10
  11. 11.  Sthapana or nimajjana Swedana Bharjana AYUR PHARMACOPOIEA COMMITTEE 2000. Processing method such as treatment of the seeds firstly with cow’s urine (7 days), then boiling in cow’s milk (3 h) and finally frying the seeds in cow’s ghee, has been described as an official method P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 11
  12. 12. PREVIOUS WORK DONEVaranasi (1983) – Department of R.S.Katiyar C.K. – Study on Kupeelu Sattva. Pharmaceutical Chemical and Pharmacological Study. (M.D. thesis)Katiyar Chandrakant (1988) – Neuro clinical and neuro pharmacological studies on Shuddha Kupeelu. (Ph.D. thesis)Tewari O.P. (1979) – Sarvanga Gata Vata (peripheral neuritis) and its management by an indigenous drug Karaskara (S.nuxvomica).Tripathi S.K. (1983) – Evaluation of Shuddha Kupeelu in the management of Amavata (Rheumatoid Arthritis).Lucknow (1984)Yadav R.S. – Kupeelu Bheshajika evam Dravya Gunatmaka Adhyayana.Bangalore (Koppa) (2000)Pradeep H.R. – Effect of Shodhana on toxicity (Purification) of Kupeelu.Shimla (H.P.) (2003)Saharan Dipti - A comparative clinical study on the role of Simhanada Guggulu and Shuddha Kupeelu in management of Amavata w.s.r. Rheumatoid arthritis.Nagpur (2000)Thakare P.G. – Vanaspatika Visha – Kupeelu Beeja Ka Sanskara Poorva Evam Sanskara Paschat Prayogashaleeya Adhyana.Ujjain (2005-2006)A pharmacotherapeutic study of Kupeelu as a Vatahar w.s.r. katisoola (low back12 P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 pain).
  13. 13. Ayurvedic processings of nux vomica:qualitative and quantitative determinationof total alkaloidal contents and relativetoxicity ABHISHEK KUMAR* AND B. N. SINHA Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology, MESRA, Ranchi - 835215, India Malaysian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, 83–98 (2009) P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 13
  14. 14. MATERIALS AND METHODSPlant MaterialThe dried seeds of S. nuxvomicaSHODHANA: Sample A Dipping in Kanji for three days (Sharma 1979). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 14
  15. 15. SAMPLE BSWEDANA IN DOLAYANTRA WITH GODUGDHA FOR 3HRS;. (Sharma 1979). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 15
  16. 16. SAMPLE C The seeds were soaked in cow urine for seven days (~7 L ) and kept under the sun. everyday the urine was taken freshly. On the eighth day, the seeds were properly washed. Subjected to swedana in dolayantra using milk as media. The seeds were washed, peeled, embryo removed, dried and fried in cow ghee till they turned brownish–red. They were then powdered (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoiea Committee 2000; Bhavmisra 2002). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 16
  17. 17. SAMPLE DBharjana in goghrita (q.s) till turns to reddish brown(Sharma 1979; Shashtri 1999). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 17
  18. 18. Sample EThe seeds of S. nuxvomica were steamed tofacilitate the removal of the seed coat and theembryo. The cotyledons so obtained were used asreference for further experiments. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 18
  19. 19. Percentage of total alkaloidal content (TAC) fromthe unprocessed and processed nux vomica. Sl.no sample Wt of crude % decrease in drug in gms. TAC 1 A 10 2.99 2 B 10 50.99 3 C 10 96.68 4 D 10 19.43 5 E 10 - P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 19
  20. 20. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY Swiss albino mice (20–25 g) of either sex . DOSE -200 mg/kg body weight. B C D Samples- No mortality A and E 50% mortality; No mortality or any signs of toxicity in survived animals,in 14 days observation. Samples B, C and D were further administered at 500 mg/kg body weight. Sample D-100% mortality Sample B and C- 50% mortality. No mortality or any signs of toxicity in survived animals,in 14 days observation. The study shows that the concept of shodhan/detoxification as suggested by the divine scholars brings about a change in the toxic dose of the seeds and the toxic dose varies depending on the method used for processing. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 20
  21. 21. Among all the four methods used forprocessing, the seeds processed with theofficial method and those processed withmilk proved to be equally safe compared tothe unprocessed seeds, in rodents. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 21
  22. 22. Effect of purification (Suthi) on the acute toxicity of seeds of Nux-vomicaM.S.Shree Devi1*,B.Sampath Kumar2 andM.S.Siva Shankar31. Ph.D., Scholar Vel’s University, Chennai.2. Professor, Dept of Pharmacology,Tirunelveli.3. Ph.D., Scholar IVRI Barielly, Uttarkhand. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 22
  23. 23. Plant material: The seeds of Strychnos nuxvomica. Selection of seeds: The dry seeds werefirst dropped in a beaker containing water.The seeds which float on the surface ofwater or found broken, black in color arerejected and the seeds which are foundsettled at the bottom of the beaker areselected for purification after drying in air. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 23
  24. 24.  Detoxification (Suthi) process: Suthi (detoxification) of nux-vomica seeds is performed as per the method described in siddha medicne. The book describes stepwise procedure for detoxification (suthi) of nux-vomica and it was adopted in the present study. This method is similar to the officially accepted method acc to A.F.I. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 24
  25. 25. Step 1:The clean and dried seeds are kept incow’s urine for 7 nights. The urine ischanged every day.GOMUTRA NIMAJJAN-7 NIGHTS P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 25
  26. 26. Step 2:The seeds after 1st step are collected andsubjected to boiling (boiling process wasdone by keeping the seeds after 1st step inmuslin cloth with banana leaf and tied. It iscompletely dipped in cow’s milk and boiledon low flame) for 3hours using dolayantra.GODUGDHA SWEDANA-3 HOURS P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 26
  27. 27. Step 3: GOGHRITA BHARJANA.The above seeds are collected and washedwith water. The seed coat and embryoremoved. The seeds are roasted with cow’sghee in low flame on iron pan. The seedsbecome dark brown and crispy. Then the seeds are immediatelypowdered. The nux vomica which isunprocessed form (UNV) and the seedsdetoxified by suthi process (PNV) weresubjected to phytochemical and acutetoxicity studies. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 27
  28. 28.  Thephytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, proteins and fixed oils in all the extracts. The presence of strychnine and brucine alkaloids was confirmed by chemical tests LD50 of unprocessed nux-vomica seed powder is256mg/kg processed seed powder LD50 is 2600mg/kg. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 28
  29. 29.  Seema Akbar1; Shamshad A Khan2; Akbar Masood*3 & M Iqbal1 1Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine, Srinagar (J&K) India 2Central Council for Research in Unani medicine, New Delhi, India 3Department of Biochemistry, Kashmir University, Srinagar (J&K) India P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 29
  30. 30. I. Detoxification using water and cow’smilk.Azaraqi seeds are immersed in excess of water for 5 dayswith change of water every day. They are then immersedin milk for 2 days, changing the milk everyday. The seeds are washed with water and boiled in milk tillthe seed coat become soft.The seed coat and the embryonic axis are removed andcotyledons are powdered. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 30
  31. 31. II. Detoxification using cow milk. Azraqi Seeds are immersed in milk for 7 days with change of milk every day. Remaining process is the same as in No I above. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 31
  32. 32. Azraqi Seeds are roasted in Roughan-a- Zard(clarified butter from cow’s milk) till the colour ofseed coat turns light reddish and seeds swell. Theseed coat is removed and cotyledons powdered.Corelated to goghrita bharjana P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 32
  33. 33. Azraqi seeds (70 grams) are buried in PeeliMatti (yellow clay) for 10 days.The clay is keptmoist throughout. The seeds are then removedand washed. The seed coat is peeled off withthe help of a sharp knife and the cotyledons areseparated after removing the embryo. The cotyledons in a cloth bag are boiled in 2litres of milk till it evaporates (the cloth bagshould not touch the bottom of the container).The water washed cotyledons are then usedsubsequently. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 33
  34. 34. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 34
  35. 35. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 35
  36. 36.  The cell wall of kupilu seed is non- lignified but contains appreciable amount of complex carbohydrates. Therefore, on coming in contact with water, it swells and facilitates leaching strychnine out of the seed cotyledons. This results in a decrease in strychnine content of shodhita kupilu . The acute toxicity of the Shodhita kupilu is significantly reduced (1/10th) when compared to Ashodhita kupilu . ). Boiling the seeds in milk further reduces strychnine content by converting it to isostrychnine (Cai et al., 1990). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 36
  37. 37.  Irrespective of system of medicine i.e siddha, unani ayurveda,concept of shodhana exists by different names like suthi in siddha and mudabbar in unani. The main motto behind shodhana is to reduce the toxicity and increase the therapeutic index of a drug . The Quantitative estimation by HPLC shows a significant decrease in strychnine and brucine after the process of shodhana. Since the LD50 value of PNV is reduced to 1/10th when compared with UNV. Thus, the toxicity of the processed sample is decreased significantly after shodhana process . Poisonous plants after purification with discrimination prove as BOON not BANE in promoting health, developing immunity, preventing aging and curing disease. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 37
  38. 38. Anonymous (1981). National Formularly of Unani Medicine, Ministry ofHealth & family Welfare, Govt of India, vol-Ipp 319.( Reprinted in2006) Anonymous (1987). Physicochemical standards of compoundformulation , part II ,CCRUM, Ayush, Govt of India, pp312-313. Bensky, D. and Gamble, A. (1986). Chinese Herbal Medicine, Eastlandpress, Sealtle, P. 646. Choi, Y. H.: Sohn,Y.M.; , Kim, C.: Oh, K. Y.; Kin, J. (2004). Analysisof strychnine from detoxified Strychno nux-vomicaseeds using liquidchromatography-electro spray mass spectrometry J.Ethnopharmacol. 93:109-112.Chung, B. and Shin , M.K. (1989). Dictionary of Folk Medicine, YoungLin Press, Seoul. P 972.Cai, B.C.; Hattori, M. and Namba, T.(1990). Procssing of Nux vomicaChanges in alkaloid composition of the seeds of Nux vomica ontraditional drug processing P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 38
  39. 39.  Rasatarangani, Commentary by AcharyaHariduttaShastri, Stanza, Sunder Lal Jain MotilalBanarasidas, Varanasi, 1954; 152-164,178-202,676-680. . Nadakarni AK, The Indian MateriaMedica, Popular prakashan, Mumbai, Vol.2, 1976; 1175-1180. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD, Indian medicinal plants, 2nd ed., Periodical experts book agency, New Delhi, Vol. 2, M/s BishensinghMahendrapalsingh, Dehradun, 1975;2:1645-1647. . Wu Yin., Tian-Shan Wang, Fang-Zhou Yin and Bao-Chang Cai, Analgesic and anti- inflammatory properties of brucine and brucine-N-oxide extracted from seeds of Strychnosnux-vomica, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2003; 88:205-214. Xu-Kun Deng, Wu Yin, Wei-Dong Li, Fang-Zhou Yin, Xiao-Yu Lu et al, The anti-tumor effects of alkaloids from the seeds of Strychnosnux-vomica on HepG2 cells and its possible mechanism, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006, 106:179- 186. . GricildaShoba F. and Molly Thomas, Study of antidiarrhoeal activity of four medicinal plants in castor-oil induced diarrhea, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2001; 76:73-76. Chatterjee I, Chakravarty AK, Gomes A, Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extracts of Strychnosnux-vomica Linn., Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2004;42: 468-75. Trease GE and W.C. Evans, Pharmacognosy, 15th ed., W.B. Sauders Company, 2002: 378. P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 39
  40. 40.  AYURVEDIC PHARMACOPOEIA COMMITTEE. (2000) The ayurvedic formulary of India, Part 1, pp. 367 (New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Planning). BHANU, M. N. & VASUDEVAN, T. N. (1989) Studies on sodhna of nux-vomica, Indian Drugs, 26: 150–152. BHAVMISRA. (2002) Bhavprakash, pp. 568 (Varanasi, India: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan). BISSET, N. G. & PHILLIPSON, J. D. (1976) The Asian species of Strychnos. Part IV. The alkaloids, Lloydia, 39: 263–323. BRUNETON, J. (1998) Pharmacognosy, pp. 795 (Paris: Lavoisier Publishing House). CHOI, Y. H., SOHN, Y. M., KIM, C. Y., OH, K. Y. & KIM, J. (2004) Analysis of strychnine from detoxified Strychno nux-vomica seeds using liquid chromatography- electrospray mass spectrometry, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 93: 109–112. GAO, H., SUN, W. & SHA, Z. (1990) Quantitative determination of strychnine and brucine in semen strychni and its preparations by gas chromatography, Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 15: 670–671. JIANG, Y. H., YANG, W. L. & GONG, Q. F. (2002) HPLC determination of strychnine and brucine in semen strychni and its processed products, Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 27: 899–901. KATIYAR, C. K. (1984) Study on Kupilu satva, M.D. (Ayu.) diss., Banaras Hindu University. KIRTIKAR, K. R. & BASU, B. D. (1935) Indian medicinal plants, 2nd edition, part III, pp. 1645 (Allahabad: Lolit Mohan Basu). P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 40
  41. 41. THANK YOU P.G Dept of Rasashastra 08/03/2012 41