Global ayurveda scenario


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Global ayurveda scenario

  1. 1. Technoayurvedas Global Ayurveda Scenario IndexPreamble:1. Background and Rationale2. Indian Trends in Ayurveda Education 2.1. Ayurveda in pre Independence India 2.1.1. Government Reports 2.1.2. Government Acts 2.2. Ayurveda during Post Independent India 2.2.1. Government Reports 2.2.2. Government Acts 2.3. Reforms offered to Ayurveda development 2.3.1. Bhore Report, 1946 2.3.2. Chopra Report, 1948 2.3.3. Pandit Report, 1951 2.3.4. Dave Report, 1956 2.3.5. The Udupa Report, 1959 2.3.6. The Mudaliar Report, 1962 2.3.7. Vyas Report, 1963 2.3.8. Ramalinga swami Report, 1981 2.4. Governing Bodies of Ayurveda 2.4.1. CENTRAL COUNCIL OF INDIAN MEDICINE THE INDIAN MEDICINE CENTRAL COUNCIL ACT, 1970 Achievements Updating of syllabus: Starting of new Post-graduate Diploma Course: Action against substandard existing colleges of ISM: Revision of Regulations Revision of Minimum Standards & Requirements 1 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Index
  2. 2. 2.4.2. AYUSH Objectives:3. Global Trends in Ayurveda 3.1. Indian Continent 3.1.1.Herbs 3.1.2. Ayurvedic Herbal Industry 3.2. World Scenario 3.2.1 Status of Ayurvedic Medicine in the U.S 3.2.2. Organizations / Schools AAPNA California College of Ayurveda (CCA) Ayurveda Courses Ayurveda Schools around World 1. AYURVEDIC SCHOOLS IN THE U.S.A.4. Future Strategies of Ayurveda Medicine 4.1. Future Strategy for Medicinal Plants 4.2. Sculpting for a Global Market 4.3. Features of Present Global Demand for Ayurvedic Products 4.4. World Bank role in Ayurveda 4.5. Development of Medicinal Plant Sector 4.6. Products Standardization 4.7. Globalization of Ayurveda and Medicinal Plant Sector 4.8. Trends in Ayurvedic Pharmacy Education 4.9. Reverse Pharmacology 4.10. Teaching reforms 4.11. MOU for Globalization5. Ayurveda software6. Conclusion 2 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Index
  3. 3. Global Ayurveda Scenario Report by Dr. K.S.R. PrasadIt is the tremendous experience of becoming conscious, which nature has lain upon mankind, and which unites the most diverse cultures in a common task.Preamble: Ayurveda is a Medical Science developed from Indian heritage for the ailed people tomake healthy in natural way. The antiquity of this Medical science to carbon date is difficult, butthe references push its development is long ago even 100 million years i.e. when the Indiancontinent is an Island. This prime science of the Medical Knowledge has taken different shapesby ethnic practices and postulated the new theories by observation. The science of result orientedAyurveda spread not only in the Indian continent but also globally. History reveals that the majorportion of the over sea trade is with condiments and Herbs. Today Ayurveda is institutionally trained by the governance of CCIM and AYUSH.There are around 250 Ayurveda Institutions in India produce around 13000 Ayurveda graduatesevery year. Out of this picture the major portion is occupied by the Maharastra and Karnatakaalong with Kerala. The number of Institutions placed in these provinces covers 50% of thegraduates (approx. 8000) and the next major part is taken by Gujarat. The rest of India is lookingtowards Ayurveda as this branch seems to be a flawless and reaction free.Recently even the commercial banks also interested in funding the Ayurveda researches. EXIMbank (Export-Import Bank of India) has offered a loan of 4.62 crore to Traditional Ayush Clusterof Tamilnadu to set up infrastructure and products promotion and export deals.A composite herbal formulation named ‘Perfomax’ has been developed by DRDO and found toimprove physical and mental performance in High Altitude and Hypoxic Conditions. TheMinister of State for Defense Dr M M Pallam Raju launched this product at a function held inLeh, Ladakh. This is an example how Ayurveda can help mankind in different and difficultsituations.1. Background and Rationale Ayurveda is self sufficient with 8000 plant species, 189 * animal specimens, 80 # metalsthat form 10000 ** formulations. *Unnikrishnan, P.M. (1998) [1]. Even though each and everypart of globe is having their ethnic Medicines, the most regulated and conceptual based Ayurveda 1 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  4. 4. made them to incline towards Ayurveda. The world can be divided in to two major areas as theEast and West. The eastern world accepts the Ayurveda long back and included it in to theirhealth promotion. Western world is more commercialized and seek the balance of their healththrough alternative remedies and invites the Ayurveda as Alternative Medicine. Ayurvedacharya, the present course, began in Jaipur under the name, Ayurveda Shastra,in 1870. In 1906 the Maharaja of Mysore started the first official college (including Unani). Afterups and downs of policy reversals by various government committees following independence,the Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM) was constituted by Act of Parliament in 1970.Minimum qualifications for admission to Ayurveda courses were fixed, as were the requirednumber of courses of study and practical training; [2].2. Indian Trends in Ayurveda Education2.1. Ayurveda in pre Independence India The pre Independence state of Ayurveda is depicted through various Reports and actsmade by the Government. The rural population of India mostly dependent on Ayurveda and theFamily Physician system was prevalent.2.1.1. Government Reports [3]Prior to the Independence all the reports made are of individual to the state and consider theindigenous system as one [4]. The recorded reports of the state are -  1923 Madras: The Committee on Indigenous Systems of Medicine (“The Usman Report”) [§§44–58].  1925 Bengal: The Ayurvedic and Tibbi Committees [§§59–69].  1926 United Provinces: Ayurvedic and Unani Committee [§§70–73].  1927 Ceylon: a Government Committee [§§104–106].  1928 Burma: Committee to Enquire into the Indigenous Systems of Medicine [§§74–75].  1939 Central Provinces and Berar: The Committee to Examine the Indigenous Systems of Medicine [§§76–83].  1941 Punjab: The Indigenous Medicine Committee [§§84–92].  1942 Mysore: Committee “to go into the Question of Encouraging the Indigenous Systems of Medicine” [§§100–103]. 2 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  5. 5. 2.1.2. Government Acts Legal provisions regarding health matters preceding Indian independence are to be foundscattered dealing with diverse subjects. Some examples include [5]:  1825 The Quarantine Act  1859 The Indian Merchants’ Shipping Act  1860 The Indian Penal Code  1880 The Vaccination Act  1886 The Medical Act  1890 The Indian Railways Act  1896 The Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act  1897 The Epidemic Diseases Act  1898 The Code of Criminal Procedure  1899 The Glanders and Farcy Act  1911 The Indian Factories Act  1917 The Indian Steam Vessels Act  1922 The Indian Red Cross Act  1923 The Indian Mines Act  1924 The Cantonments Act  1933 The Indian Medicine Council Act  1938 The Bombay Medical Practitioners Act2.2. Ayurveda during Post Independent India2.2.1. Government Reports [6] The post Independence reports dealt according the need of target systems and reported. Someof the reports such as - the Chopra Report of 1948 can be seen as a direct reaction to theBhore Report of 1946.  1947 Bombay: The Indian Systems of Medicine Enquiry Committee [§§93– 95].1947 Assam: The Scheme Committee to Report on Steps to be Takenfor the Development of Ayurveda [§§96–97].  1947 Orissa: The Utkal Ayurvedic Committee [§§98–99].1947 Ceylon: Commission on Indigenous Medicine, Ceylon [§§107–108].In the period after Independence, the following reports on Ayurveda were published under the auspices of the Ministry of Health of the Government of India (Brass 1972:454): 3 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  6. 6.  1948 The Report of the Committee on Indigenous Systems of Medicine (“The Chopra Report”).  1951 Report of the Committee Appointed by the Government of Indiato Advise Them on the Steps to be taken to establish a Research Centre in the Indigenous Systems of Medicine and Other Cognate Matters (“The Pandit Committee Report”).  1956 Interim Report of the Committee Appointed by the Government of India to Study and Report on the Question of Establishing Uniform Standards in Respect of Education & Practice of Vaidyas, Hakims and Homoeopaths (“The Dave Report”).  1959 Report of the Committee to Assess and Evaluate the Present Status of Ayurvedic System of Medicine (“The Udupa Commit-tee Report”).  1963 Report of the Shuddha Ayurvedic Education Committee (“The Vyas Committee Report”).  1981 Health for All: an Alternative Strategy (“The Ramalingaswami Report”)2.2.2. Government Acts Efforts to regulate teaching, practice, and research specifically in indigenousmedicine continued after Independence with many more government acts, such as: [7]  1956 The Madras Registration of Practitioners of Integrated MedicineAct  1961 The Mysore Homoeopathic Practitioners Act, and  1962 The Mysore Ayurvedic and Unani Practitioners Registration Act  1970 The Indian Medicine Central Council Act [8]  1984 The Central Council was reconstituted  1995 The Central Council was reconstituted again  2002 The Central Council Amendment [9] The most important of these Acts, from the point of view of present-day Ayurvedicpractice, were those of 1938 and 1970. The former established the first professionalregister for Ayurvedic (and Unani) practitioners, effectively creating a pan national professionfor the first time. The 1970 Act, with its later Amendments, established the Central Councilof Indian Medicine, whose objects were as follow: 1. To prescribe minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medi-cine, i.e., Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Tibb, 2. To advise Central Government in matters relating to recognition and with- drawal of recognition of medical qualifications in Indian Medicine, 4 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  7. 7. 3. To maintain the Central Register of Indian Medicine and revise the Register from time to time, and 4. to Prescribe standards of professional conduct, etiquette and code of ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Act included the following important “schedules” which are frequently referred to in later legislation and documentation, and which are regularly updated (at least 60 times between 1970 and 2002): [10]The Second Schedule:  “Recognized medical qualifications in Indian medicine [Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani] granted by Universities, Boards or other medical institutions in India”. [11]The Third Schedule:  “qualifications granted by certain medical institutions before 15th August, 1947 in areas which comprised within India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935”. [12]The Fourth Schedule:  “Qualifications granted by Medical Institutions in Countries with which there is a scheme of reciprocity [Only Sri Lanka]” [13].2.3. Reforms offered to Ayurveda development Out of above said reports, the important are - The Bhore Report, 1946, ChopraReport, 1948, Pandit Report, 1951, Mudaliar Report, 1962 and Ramalinga swami Report,1981. All these reports have made remarkable suggestions and contributed reforms toupdate and develop Ayurveda and indigenous systems of medicine.2.3.1. Bhore Report, 1946 The times of Bhore committee’s work is before independence and the modern medical facilities were restricted mostly to India’s metropolitan and capital cities. The Bhore Report is robustly scientist in its views and unreflective about the hegemonic nature of what it calls “scientific medicine.” But it has been decisively demonstrated for Ayurveda that from its very earliest roots, the tradition of medical thought and practice was in constant flux and tension, with different schools vying for their own theories, different physicians using different therapies, and in more recent time’s traditionalists exchanging medical therapies and ideas with foreigners. [14] Bhore Report was silent on the subject of India’s indigenous culture and medical traditions. 5 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  8. 8. He added further, the undoubted part that these systems have played in the long distant past in influencing the development of medicine and surgery in other countries of the world has naturally engendered a feeling of patriotic pride in the place they will always occupy in any world history of the rise and development of medicine. He continued as – The indigenous medical systems are associated with “illiterate masses”, over which they have a “hold”. The pejorative use of language here already discloses the Report’s presuppositions: The knowledge of Materia Medica accumulated in the indigenous medical traditions, so highly valued in today’s world of bio-piracy and patent protection, is reduced to a mere claim by un specified persons that this knowledge may be only of “some” value. Indigenous medicine is projected in to the historic all past of global medicine, where no doubt the authors of the Report felt it rightly belonged. Indigenous medicine is also associated with patriotic pride, and this, rather than any intrinsic medical merit, is given to account for the value which some, perhaps otherwise intelligent people, find in these systems.2.3.2. Chopra Report, 1948 Sir Ram Nath Chopra (1882–1973) was a distinguished Indian pharmacologist [16]. The Chopra Report consisted of the following chapters: 1: Introductory. The history and development of Ayurveda and Unani or Arabian systems of medicine—their past achievements—the cause of decline and their present position—Attempts at their revival. 2: The appointment and personnel of the committee and the procedure adopted by it. 3: Progress of work of the committee. 4: Previous committees on indigenous systems of medicine set up by provincial and other governments. Madras (1923) - Ceylon (1927 and 1947) 5: Existing conditions of medical relief. 6: Integration of Indian and Western medicine leading to their ultimate synthesis. 7: Education and medical institutions 8: The organization of rural medical relief 9: State control of medical practice and education 10: Research 11: Drugs and medicinal preparations 6 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  9. 9. 12: Administration and finance 13: Summary of the recommendations 14: Conclusions. The Report’s apparent aim is to give indigenous medical systems a proper place in India’s health care structure. However, this aim is undermined in an insidious way in Chapter 6. This chapter argues that a careful study of Ayurvedic principles, for example, will show that the various humours and other traditional and non-allopathic parts of the body will eventually be found to coincide with modern medical categories as revealed by science. Thus, the Report’s aim is not to integrate traditional and modern sciences, but rather for modern medicine to absorb traditional medicine by re-interpreting its principle categories. Ultimately, all traditional practices and explanations will be subsumed by scientific medical ones. Never the less, chapters 10 and 11 of the Report do emphasize the importance if investigating India’s Flora and fauna for medical uses. Again, this shows the Report’s orientation towards traditional medicine as a source of potential therapies that can be absorbed and taken over by modern medicine.2.3.3. Pandit Report, 1951 The idea was that a common integrated syllabus for all medical colleges would be rejected, but that research should be undertaken into the validity of indigenous medicine from the point of view of contemporary establishment medical science. One early outcome of the Pandit Report was the establishment of the Central Institute of Research in Indigenous Systems of Medicine in and the Postgraduate Training Centre for Ayurveda, both in Jamnagar in 1952 [17].2.3.4. Dave Report, 1956 Dave Report, 1956 presented a model integrated syllabus to be used in colleges that would teach only physicians of indigenous systems of medicine (ISM).2.3.5. The Udupa Report, 1959 The Udupa Report, 1959 chief recommendation of the committee was that the Government should establish a Council of Indian Medicine (to regulate educational standards) and a Council of Ayurvedic Research. The latter Council was soon established and it sponsored further committees to investigate the question of Ayurvedic 7 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  10. 10. medicine. It arrived at the conclusion that an integrated training was appropriate (Jaggi 2000: 312–3).2.3.6. The Mudaliar Report, 1962 They prepared by Dr. Arcot Lakshmana-swami Mudaliar and his committee took the opposite approach, rejecting integrated medical education. Instead, it recommend that systems of indigenous medicine should be taught and practiced in a purely classical form, with due attention to language skills and access to original sources (Jaggi 2000:313–17,Shankar 1992: 146), Once fully trained, indigenous physicians could be separately trained in MEM. The final practical effect would be the withering away of indigenous medical practice in the face of superior MEM, which would absorb its best features, although this was not stated quite so baldly as this [18].2.3.7. Vyas Report, 1963 Vyas Report is prepared by Mohanlal P. Vyas, was the Minister for Health and Labour, Ahmedabad, Gujarat along with Pandit Shiv Sharma who was educated in medicine and Sanskrit by his father, the court physician to the Maharaja of Patiala. When Mahatma Gandhi was dying, and his wife called for an Ayurvedic physician, it was Pt. Sharma who was summoned. Committee draw up a curriculum and syllabus of study in pure (unmixed) Ayurveda extending to over four years, which should not include any subject of modern medicine or allied sciences in any form or language.2.3.8. Ramalinga swami Report, 1981 Ramalinga swami Report, 1981 r e c o m m e n d e d , t h a t t h e existing model of health care in India should be replaced by one that combined “the best elements in the traditional and culture of the people with modern science and technology. Committee recommends that the health care system of India should be given a national orientation by the incorporation of the culture and traditions of the people (Ramalingaswami 1981: 95). The Report recognizes five broad elements of traditional Indian culture which it feels are relevant to its recommendations. 1. The varnasrama concept of the stages of Hindu life, which inculcates “the right attitudes to pain, to growing old, and to death”. 8 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  11. 11. 2. A non-consumerist approach to life. 3. A devolved and distributed attitude to health service provision, and a withdrawal of centralized state intervention. 4. The use of Yoga asan instrument for physical and mental health. 5. An emphasis on “simple but effective things” such as naturopathy, the use of simple medicines and home-grown herbs for day-to-day illnesses, games and sports that require little equipment, and similar practices that oppose “a profit- motivated capitalist civilization [that] treatise encourage consumerism” (Ramalingaswami 1981:96f.).2.4. Governing Bodies of Ayurveda There are various governing bodies in Ayurveda. The description of these are here as under.2.4.1. CENTRAL COUNCIL OF INDIAN MEDICINE The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970 vide gazette notification extraordinary part (ii) section 3(ii) dated 10.8.71. Since its establishment in 1971, the Central Council has been framing on and implementing various regulations including the Curricula and Syllabi in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha and Unani Tibb at Under- graduate and Post-graduate level. THE INDIAN MEDICINE CENTRAL COUNCIL ACT, 1970 This is a revised diglot edition of the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970, as on the 1st November, 1975 containing the authoritative Hindi text thereof alongwith its English text. The Hindi text of the Act was published in the Gazette of India, Extraordinary, Part II, Section 1A, No.33, Vol.VII, dated the 9th September, 1971 on pages 285 to 318. It has cleared the time for seeking permission for certain existing medical colleges and new along with withdrawal of recognition terms and conditions. It cleared what are minimum standards of education in Indian medicine. In addition the act added a body for registration in the Central Register of Indian Medicine for AYUSH doctors. Achievements Translation of the syllabus of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha: For the past 37 years (since establishment of the Council) the syllabus of Under-Graduate and Post Graduate courses of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha were in Sanskrit, Urdu and Tamil languages 9 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  12. 12. respectively. The language barrier was hindering the path of success and popularity of these systems inside and outside the country. The present Council came forward & took steps to popularize the Indian System of Medicine and successfully completed the task of translating the whole syllabus of three systems into English language which is an globally accepted language, previous secretary AYUSH Mrs. Anita Das also advised the same. This Challenging work completed with in very short period of six months. Updating of syllabus: The syllabus of Under-Graduate and Post Graduate courses of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha were not updated since long and the present Council updated the UG and PG syllabus of all three systems, and this is applicable from this session in all over the country. Starting of new Post-graduate Diploma Course: To provide specialized services of ISM systems and to enhance the benefits of these ancient systems, the Council has designed new Ayurveda PG Diploma courses in 16 subjects. The aim of introducing new PG Diploma courses in Ayurveda is to produce specialists of Ayurveda who can practice Ayurveda more affidiantly and successfully, these entire PG Diploma courses started from Decision It is very heartening that the new Ayurveda PG Diploma courses have been implemented from this year. The provision of PG diploma Course is already exists in Unani and in Siddha system is under process. Action against substandard existing colleges of ISM: Standard of the ISM colleges is reflected from the graduates and post- graduate’s scholars before the year 2008-09, number of sub-standards colleges were running and ruining the future of the students. The present Council took the matter seriously and without making any compromise with the standard of education, it withdraws its recommendations which eventually led the stoppage of admission in such sub-standards colleges. After observing the Minimum Standards and Requirements of these college & hospital a strict scrutiny of the visitation report were carried out and 84 Ayurveda, 26 Unani and 03 Siddha colleges (2008-09) and 64 Ayurveda, 01 Siddha and 08 Unani colleges (2009-10) and 55 Ayurveda and 01 Unani colleges (2010-11) have not been permitted to take admission. It is also noteworthy to mentioned here that not a single college was denied for to take admission bu the council /GOI prior to the commencement of this present Council. 10 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  13. 13. To improve the actual assessment of teaching and practical trainingfacilities along with the teaching staff in conformity with the MinimumStandards laid down by CCIM following action have been initiated.a) Preparation of the data base of the teaching staff: The visitation report ofAyurveda, Siddha and Unani were being examined thoroughly time to time, itwas observed that name of many teachers are exist in more than one college andteachers have submitted false experience certificate. A more challenging task which was accomplished by this Council was toprepare a database of all ISM teachers. The aim of preparing the database was tokeep a record of all ISM teachers and to assess their eligibility. However, allefforts were made and prima facie data base has been prepared by the office. Thedata base of teaching staff alongwith their other details are being maintained inthe office of CCIM and being updated time to time to rule out the delicacy etc.However, the database of teachers prepared by the Council became an importanttool to stop the malpractice of teachers of ISM and colleges. The present councilidentified about 400 teachers who submitted the false teaching experiencecertificates and around 1000 teachers were found to be in duplicacy. The Councilmade them ineligible for teaching. The letters in this regard were issued to theConcern College and teacher to clarify the matter. Action in this matter is underprogress and process of the issuance of I-card is under progress.b) Appointment of teaching staff in Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha Colleges: Byobserving the Minimum Standards & Requirement of the colleges strictly and notpermitting the colleges of Government, Grant-in-aid and private colleges andcontinuous pressure of the CCIM more than 4000 teachers have been appointedin these colleges. It is also noteworthy to mention here that State Governmentshave also taken keen interest to appoint the teaching staff to bring the staffstrength at par with the Minimum Standards laid down by CCIM.c) Construction of the building of college & hospital: By observing the MinimumStandards and Requirements strictly, the Management of the private college andState Governments have constructed the building to bring the area at par with theMinimum Standards & Requirements of the CCIM. 11 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  14. 14. d) Improvement of the functioning of the Hospital: By fixing the criteria of daily average attendance of patient in OPD (100 per day) and bed occupancy (minimum 40%) in IPD, the competent authority have taken keen interest to improve the functioning of the hospital. Revision of Regulations: Present Council hold many meetings with all subject experts/eminent teachers of three systems in order to make ISM system more practically. So the qualified ISM doctors may become more skilled practitioners, researchers and scientists and can provide the best services to the community. Revision of Minimum Standards & Requirements Revision of Minimum Standards & Requirements of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha colleges & hospital: Keeping in view of the requirements of all three Indian Systems of Medicine, minimum standards for Ayuveda, Unani and Siddha systems have been reviewed as per requirement of present scenario with the consultation of department of AYUSH and this mater is awaited for approval from GOI department of AYUSH (Regulation of minimum standards and requirements is not notified till today since inception of the council) To maintain and update the Central Register of Indian Medicine as well as supply of updated as well as early submission of State Register and observance of the Professional Conduct and Etiquette, duties and oblegations by the practitioner of ISM: On account of non-submission/delay submission of the State Register, it was very difficult to update and maintain the Central Register of Indian Medicine. Therefore, to ensure the same, two meetings of the President and Registrar of the State Board/Council have been convenied to sort out the problem of the State Board/Council for updatation and supply of State Register of Indian Medicine and to strengthen the bond between the Practitioners of Indian system of Medicine and their patients so that the Practitioners may perform their duties effectively, serve the community with responsibility and the patients may not get neglected. By following the professional conduct and etiquette, ISM Practitioners may uphold the dignity of profession. During the tenure of present Council, the Central Register of Indian Medicine has been updated and revised. About 1.3 lakh names of ISM practitioners from all over country have been uploaded on website of CCIM, therefore, practitioners can ensure the 12 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  15. 15. availability of the his/her name on the Central Register of Indian Medicine and can dopractice anywhere in India. Moreover, the names of Ayurveda, Unani and Siddhapractitioners of all states of India got centrally registered and their names have beenpublished in Gazette notification. 1. Revision of Second Schedule of IMCC Act, 1970: It was observed by the council that there are 200-250 degrees/diploma courses by various Boards/Universities which have stopped conducting the courses before inception of the Central Council of Indian Medicine but the names of such degrees and diploma still appeared in the second schedule the closing year was not mentioned against them. Because of this, many such degree/diploma holders filed the case for their registration and one diploma holder from UP even got registration by the order of hon’ble high court. The Council took the matter seriously and held talk at Govt. level to stop the registration of these degree/diploma holders, collected all the relevant documents to put a closing year against the name of Boards/Universities awarding such degree/diploma courses and successfully gazette notified the same. 2. Maintaining the transperacy: to maintain the transperacy, the minutes of Executive Committee and Central Council have been uploaded on the website of CCIM since establishment of CCIM i.e. 1971 to till date. 3. Remuneration to subject Experts/specialists: It has been observed that the subject experts/ specialists have never been interested in attending the meetings/workshops whenever they have been called for important work of Council such as framing the syllabus, to draft regulations and other related academic work because they were not paid any remuneration. Taking into the consideration their important role and their academic excellence, the present Council with the approval of Govt. of India decided to pay them Rs.1500/- per day for such meetings of Council so that they may provide their specialised services to the Council without hesitation. The expenditure on the same is met by the CCIM from own sources. 4. Proposal for declaration of world Ayurveda Day, world Unani Day, world Siddha Day: It has been proposed to celebrate Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha Day each year in form of world Ayurveda Day (28th December), world Unani Day (4th October) and world Siddha Day (14th April). Proposal have been sent to Govt. of India for declaration. 13 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  16. 16. 2.4.2. AYUSH Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy (ISM&H) was created in March,1995 and re-named as Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) in November, 2003 with a view to providing focused attention to development of Education & Research in Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy systems. The Department continued to lay emphasis on upgradation of AYUSH educational standards, quality control and standardization of drugs, improving the availability of medicinal plant material, research and development and awareness generation about the efficacy of the systems domestically and internationally. Objectives:  To upgrade the educational standards in the Indian Systems of Medicines and Homoeopathy colleges in the country.  To strengthen existing research institutions and ensure a time-bound research programme on identified diseases for which these systems have an effective treatment.  To draw up schemes for promotion, cultivation and regeneration of medicinal plants used in these systems.  To evolve Pharmacopoeial standards for Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy drugs.3. Global Trends in Ayurveda3.1. Indian Continent3.1.1. Herbs [19] Curriculum related to Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences largely bank on Dravyguna (Phytopharmacology) and Ras Shastra (alchemy or latrochemistry). Dravyaguna is essentially compilation of ancient medical knowledge based on Ayurvedic pharmacy lexicons. Charka and Sushruta lists 341 and 395 medicinal plants respectively, in treatise on Ayurveda. Bhavprakash Nighantu, the standard book on Ayurvedic perspective of medicinal plants, mentions medicinal actions and therapeutics of 470 medicinal plants. Shortage of trained manpower in Ayurvedic pharmacies, has forced the statutory bodies to introduce industry specific courses related to Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences. Introduction of maters course in Traditional Medicine by Mohali based 14 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  17. 17. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research is important landmark in the history of Ayurvedic drug industry.3.1.2. Ayurvedic Herbal Industry [20] Worldwide, alternative medicine is becoming popular and herbal medicine has become one of the most common forms of alternative therapy. The international herbal market is approximately $61 billion. Annual sales of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) are approximately $3 billion in Germany and $1.5 billion in the US [21]. Annual turnover of Indian Ayurvedic industry is $ 0.8 billion (Rs 35,000 million) [22]. The Indian market is growing at 15-20% per annum (Rs 7,000 million or $150 million). With world demand growing at 1% annually ($ 610 million), the size of export market for medicinal plants appears bigger than the Indian domestic market. The global regulatory agencies – US FDA, European Community – have made guidelines for botanicals [22]. Recently, The Australian government has backed increased regulation of the complementary health sector. These guidelines focus on documentation of the key issues - Quality, Efficacy, Safety, and Standardization. Some of these issues will also be applicable to dietary supplements. The international regulatory authorities would expect the data generated (pre-clinical, CMC and clinical) should meet the standards of GxPs (Good Practices) – good agricultural practices, good laboratory practices (GLP), good clinical practices (GCP) and good manufacturing practices (GMP). These guidelines will make licensing difficult for HMPs. Besides, the governments are likely to restrict availability of HMPs with toxic potential. WHO has also recommended that it important for governments [23] to establish regulatory mechanisms to control the safety and quality of products and of TM/CAM practice? The consumers – doctors and patients- expect innovation and effective options for chronic diseases. The industry has to 1) become creative in designing clinical trials, 2) developing consumer friendly products and 3) effective marketing communication. Table 1 and 2 suggest some innovative options for developing consumer friendly medicines. clinically Rrelevant Evaluation of Aadvantages of medicinal plants (CREAM)  Holistic therapy for disease and concomitant conditions – o Poly-herbal for Diabetes mellitus to manage - Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia  Adjuvant synergistic therapy to improve response to primary therapy o Issues in Tuberculosis treatment - Hepato-toxicity, Immune-deficiency  Niche therapy when there are contraindications or cautions against allopathic agents – o Arthritis with associated problems - Acid peptic disease, Edema, 15 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  18. 18.  Therapy to provide positive side effects o Cough suppressants and constipation Development Rationale for Enhancing Advantages of Medicinal plants (D R E A M)  Conversion of powder to tablet / capsule / liquid form  Reduction in size of tablet or capsule  Reduced frequency of dosing  Improved solubility providing a liquid alternative for elderly and children  Improved palatability  Potential for parenteral formulation3.2. World Scenario3.2.1 Status of Ayurvedic Medicine in the U.S U.S. is a growing interest in what has recently been called complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) [24]. This term marks a change in attitude regarding medical practices that are outside the standard therapies. ‘Alternative medicine’ was the previously used term for all these practices that indicated a rejection of a modern medical approach and adoption of something else. The majority of people who pursue Ayurvedic medicine show an equal or even greater acceptance in such things as Western herbal medicine, homeopathy, chiropractic therapy, and numerous other materials, health philosophies, and techniques that have no direct connection to India. As a result of this situation, Ayurvedic medicine in the U.S. has two main manifestations that are somewhat isolated from each other. On the one hand, there is a plethora of books that either describe Ayurvedic medicine (sometimes in considerable detail) or purport to do so (but, in actuality, misrepresent it). On the other hand there is the introduction of products, mainly herbal remedies that are promoted by the distributors as being highly effective. The situation facing Ayurvedic medicine in America should be compared with that of traditional Chinese medicine, because there are similarities and differences that illustrate the possibilities and problems of introducing foreign traditional medical systems. Few salient features turning the face of Ayurveda in US are - o Currently, there are five colleges or institutes that provide some training in Ayurveda, but all admit to providing only a limited aspect of the field and the main ones are located in low population states, such as New Mexico (Ayurvedic 16 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  19. 19. Institute) and Iowa (College of Maharishi Ayur-Ved) that don’t stimulate national trends as does California. o The Indian government is not involved in export of Ayurveda and few Indian writers have made an effort to have their books published for an American audience and distributed in the U.S. Few Ayurvedic practitioners have stepped forward to intensively promote the medical system here, and it has been nearly impossible, until very recently, to get Indian crude herbs or even finished products. o Still, the power of Ayurveda, in terms of the duration of its existence and the size of the country (India) that relies on it, will inevitably lead to a greater influence on America. The future direction of Ayurveda in the U.S. will depend very much on whether or not there is an increased effort on the part of the community of Ayurvedic doctors, professors, and researchers to determine and then meet the requirements of the unique American situation. o Standardization of herbal materials is extremely difficult, and usually requires development of non-traditional products that involve special extracts of individual herbs rather than the complex preparations that have a long history of use. These forces must be taken into account by proponents of Ayurvedic medicine in the U.S.; otherwise, much effort could be wasted on very limited results.3.2.2. Organizations / Schools3.2.2.1. AAPNA [25] Association of Ayurvedic Professionals of North America situated in 567 Thomas Street, Coopersburg, PA 18036 began as a discussion amongst Ayurvedic professionals in 2002. AAPNA wanted to create a community of Ayurvedic professionals with the common goal of growing the presence of Ayurveda in integrative health care. AAPNA is since grown working to unite Ayurvedic and integrative medicine health professionals, students, academic institutes, and corporations throughout North America and internationally. California College of Ayurveda (CCA) [26] The California College of Ayurveda (CCA) offers the most comprehensive curriculum in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in the United States. CCA is the first established, and longest-running, private Ayurvedic educational program in California, 17 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  20. 20. and is approved by the Bureau for Private Postsecondary Education (BPPE) as prescribed by the standards set forth in the Education Code. Ayurveda Courses [27] Ayurveda Courses offered by Indian Schools in India for the western students – at Kerala,  Basic Ayurveda Learning Programme  Basic Principles Of Ayurveda  Introduction To Kerala Ayurveda  Ayurveda Therapy  Introduction To Panchakarma  Ayurvedic Beauty Concept  Introduction To Ayurveda Products  Introduction To Ayurvedic Diagnostic Methods  Introduction To Ayurvedic Spa Designing  Diploma In International Spa Therapy3.2.2.4. Ayurveda Schools around World3.2.2.4. 1. AYURVEDIC SCHOOLS IN THE U.S.A. Interest in Ayurveda in the United States began in the 1970s, largely as the result of efforts by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi organization of Transcendental Meditation. Interest continued to grow as Indian physicians came to the United States in the 1980s. The Ayurveda schools in USA offer Institutional and also online learning of the Indian traditional system of medicine – Ayurveda. [] Ayurveda is likely to continue to grow in America and eventually take its place among the other licensed health care professions. In most States, schools require State approval to operate. State approval is based primarily upon financial stability and professional operation. Several institutions in the country have successfully by-passed State regulations by declaring themselves religious institutions or churches or by structuring their program in ways to avoid State regulation. These schools, operating illegally, are generally much less professionally run. Because of limited oversight, these schools continue to operate. Ayurvedic massage is regulated through the massage laws of most states. In five states, California, Idaho, Minnesota, New Mexico and Rhode Island, specific laws, often referred to as “Health Freedom Acts”, were passed protecting the practice of alternative medicine and the practitioners who provide those services. 18 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  21. 21. Having no formal scope of practice defined through legislation, the practice ofAyurveda is defined more by what cannot be done than by what can be legally practiced.While the laws in each state vary, there are many commonalities to these laws that restrictthe practice of Ayurveda, the medical practice acts established in each state being themost significant. The following is a list of actions that are generally considered illegal inthe United States for an India-trained Ayurvedic physician who come to the United Stateson a work visa or through immigration may practice Ayurveda within the allowablescope. 1- Ayurveda Practitioners cannot call themselves a Doctor, even if possessing a doctorate degree from India or a PhD. 2- Practitioners may not diagnose medical disease. A practitioner of Ayurveda may declare that a patient is suffering from a vitiation of pachaka pitta in the rasa dhatu of the annavaha srota but may not declare that the patient is suffering from hyperacidity or an ulcer, or the Sanskrit equivalents: Urdvarga Amlapitta and Grahani. 3- Practitioners cannot interfere with the prescriptions or recommendations made by a licensed physician. 4- Practitioners cannot invade the body or perform any other procedure that penetrates the skin or any orifice of the body. This places the practice of nasya and basti in jeopardy [28]. The National Association has not taken any action against these schools. TheNational Ayurvedic Medical Association is the major body in the United Statesrepresenting the Ayurvedic profession. A non-profit association, it was founded in 1998. According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, which included acomprehensive survey of CAM use by Americans, more than 200,000 U.S. adults hadused Ayurvedic medicine in the previous year. NCCAM supported research on therapiesused in Ayurvedic medicine includes: [29]  Herbal therapies, including curcuminoids (substances found in turmeric), used for cardiovascular conditions  A compound from the cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens), used to prevent or lessen side effects from Parkinson’s disease drugs  Three botanicals (ginger, turmeric, and boswellia) used to treat inflammatory disorders such as arthritis and asthma 19 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  22. 22.  Gotu kola (Centella asiatica), an herb - A plant or part of a plant used for its flavor, scent, or potential therapeutic properties. Includes flowers, leaves, bark, fruit, seeds, stems, and roots used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Not only NCCAM but also many Institutions spread Ayurveda all around America and Canada. The lists of the Global Ayurveda institutions are placed in the Annex -1. Online Ayurveda teaching schools are also many and listed inAnnex-2. [30]4. Future Strategies of Ayurveda Medicine4.1. Future Strategy for Medicinal Plants The global trade of medicinal- and related plant materials was estimated to be of the approx. value 62 billion US$ in 2001. China has been successful in acquiring the single largest share in this export market because of its well-designed national policy on the traditional Chinese medicine. Ginseng is the major item of the Chinese export. Extremely unorganized trading, natural absence of several species of demand in the wild, and bad harvesting/marketing practices are some of the major factors which have helped to more or less neutralise the quantitative impact of the global trend in herbal trade on the medicinal plants of Orissa. [Bikash Rath, Globalisation, Global Trend in Herbal Market, and The Impact Thereof on Medicinal Plants in Orissa, July 2005, ©VASUNDHARA, 14-E, Gajapati Nagar, Bhubaneswar-5, Orissa(India)]4.2. Sculpting for a Global Market Global competitive market sector is looking for a big leap from marginalization to dominance with the help of innovation, boosted by the modern marketing techniques and diversification of products. Two case studies from Kerala, namely Oushadhi and Pankajakasthuri are evident for this. But to reap the future prospects in the economic front, this industry has to tackle a large number of issues viz. standardization, raw material depletion, intellectual property protection etc. not on priority wise but concurrently, since these all calls for immediate attention. While from a theoretical and ideological ground, this move is very much debatable; from an economic point of view this seems to be inevitable and most importantly state have a comprehensive role in setting the way clear [31]. One of the major Research and Development activities at Central Drugs Research Institute (CDRI) is the exploration of terrestrial plants, including Indian traditional remedies for novel molecules for drug development. Several Regional Research 20 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  23. 23. Laboratories (RRL) are also involved in the regional Medicinal and Aromatic Plant (MAP) conservation and proper utilization through R&D. RRLThiruvananthapuram is involved in search for bioactive/polymer compounds from natural resources and development of new synthetic systems of technological interest; agro-processing of and value addition to spices, coconut, oil palm, cassava, etc. In short, a separate Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Technical Advisory Board (ASUDTAB), an Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani Drugs Consultative Committee (ASUDCC) Pharmacopoeial Laboratory of Indian Medicine (PLIM) are some of the government initiatives. Pharmacopoeial Committees have been constituted separately for ASU systems. It is the responsibility of these Committees to lay down standards of quality, purity and strength of drugs and approve drug formularies. So far, 326 monographs of Ayurveda drugs in 4 volumes, 45 of Unani drugs, 916 of Homeopathic drugs have been published. Another 98 monographs on Ayurveda drugs are in the pipeline. Increasing beauty consciousness of consumers, a large chunk of Ayurvedic research papers regarding properties of Ayurvedic substances to enhance beauty and the size and potential of Indian cosmetics industry of Rs.840 crores. Ayurvedic cosmetic products to capture the beauty market like Kaveri fairness cream, Kaveri milk cream, Pankajakasthuri dandruff oil etc.4.3. Features of Present Global Demand for Ayurvedic Products 1. The pure classical traditions as followed by Arya Vaidya Sala Kottakkal (AVS), Arya Vaidya pharmacy, Coimbatore, which revolve around a physician and his/ her prescription. The growth of this sector is very slow but steady. 2. The growth pattern using classical as well as patent and proprietary medicines (PP) and OTC (Over the Counter) products. Probably Dabur is the best example. Their classical side is rather slow in growth and expansion where as their PP products are popular. 3. The growth pattern of PP and OTC alone with a focus on the modern medicine practitioners as well as new ayurvedic generation physicians. Himalaya Drug Company makes such preparations and perhaps its fast growth in the last few decades is an indicative of this trend. The main issues the industry faces in terms of quality and standardization are:  Lack of Product and process validation:  Lack of Quality Control and quality assurance:  Lack of GLP and GMP:  Lack of Toxicological/ Safety Studies: 21 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  24. 24.  Inadequacies with existing patent laws and protection of Ayurvedic knowledge There is a need for vertical integration in the industry and vertical clustering. That may create growth and employment opportunities through linkage effects. The private initiatives should be encouraged regarding standardization, documentation, ideological mismatch and property rights problems, raw material depletion etc. Initiatives and incentives for more expenditure in R&D in developing new drugs and extracts other than clinical trials and standardization should be brought in as a new agenda and a national legislation for property rights and grass root innovation should be formed. Clearly there is a need to conduct trials which use not just simple, but these complex herbal compounds. The interactions between the constituents in a compound may be crucial to its modus operandi. There is an immediate need for trial promotion in the compound drugs.4.4. World Bank role in Ayurveda World Bank [32] group have several project to support the cultivation of medicinal plants through various lending and non-lending initiatives, the World Bank is assisting the countries of South Asia to address these needs. Some of these efforts are, The Kerala Forestry Project, The Sri Lanka Medicinal Plants Project, Ritigala Community Based Development and Environment Management Foundation, The India Capacity Building for Food and Drugs Quality Control Project, etc. There is a need to launch number of projects for arid region of India. Although the Bank has supported some pioneering work in the South Asia region related to medicinal plants and, more generally, natural resource management, much remains to be done. In the future, it will be important to mainstream medicinal plants and other non-timber forest products into natural resource management and development programs. To boost the quality of plant resource management and increase supplies of these resources: 1. Agricultural support agencies should strengthen extension efforts to farmers. 2. Research institutions need to improve basic knowledge about cultivation practices and dissemination of plant species. 3. Conservation agencies and NGOs should promote conservation of vulnerable species at the grass-roots level. 4. Community organizations need to adopt sustainable collection and management practices on public lands. 22 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  25. 25. 5. Profitable private enterprises for processing, transporting, and marketing must be developed. 6. Government institutions need to be strengthened to regulate these important resources and, at the same time, foster their sustainable development and conservation. 7. Future initiatives should also link the management and conservation of medicinal plants (and other non-timber forest products) with the commercial development of these resources. In this spirit, every new forestry project should be designed to have a significant effect on the sustained use of non- timber forest products. Management and conservation must be integrated with programs in other sectors: in health, to foster better use of plant materials; in education, to build awareness of the need for protection and judicious development; and in agriculture, to strengthen farmer extension methods for plant cultivation. 8. The Banks new lending instruments-learning and innovation loans and adaptable program loans-are well suited to these efforts. They can allow for project design flexibility to incorporate lessons learned, encourage institutional reforms, and, where appropriate, foster pilot exercises to test new approaches. With the commitment of governments, local communities, and NGOs, coupled with international support, the medicinal plant resources of South Asia have a chance of surviving, thriving, and continuing to aid billions of people. 9. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) provides grant and concessional funds to developing countries and those with economies in transition for projects and activities that address four aspects of the global environment: biological diversity, climate change, international waters, and the ozone layer. Activities related to land degradation, primarily those addressing deforestation and desertification as they relate to the focal areas, are also eligible for funding. Along with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank is an implementing agency for the GEF. International Conference on Medicinal Plants and Ayurveda was held 16thDecember, 2002 at India International Centre 40, Max-Muller Marg, New Delhi. TheConference was organized by UTTHAN (Centre for Sustainable Development and 23 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  26. 26. Poverty Alleviation) in association with RIFA (Russian-Indian Federation of Ayurveda). The Chairman of UTTHAN, Dr. D. N. Tiwari, Member, Planning Commission, and Govt. of India was the Organized Secretary. On Conclusion, the conference made following Recommendation. During the conference following issues were discussed: 1. Policy and legal issues for the development of Ayurveda and medicinal Plants. 2. Development of Medicinal Plants sector. 3. Ayurvedic Drugs Development and Product Standardization. 4. Globalization of Ayurveda and medicinal plant sector. After a detailed discussion the conference made following recommendations 1. Ayurveda is a holistic health science, having diversity, flexibility, accessibility, affordability and have a potential to meet with the new challenges to human life. 2. The concept of destress and detoxification packages of Ayurveda can largely solve psychosomatic problems. 3. Panchkarma and Yogic therapy are popular and health tourists visiting India should be treated well. 4. The Ayurvedic treatments are simpler, gentler and cheaper and therefore to be popularized. 5. The Ayurveda should play the major role in national health care system. Globalization of Ayurveda should be our goal. 6. Ayurveda is the only medical science which gives equal stress to the preventive and curative aspects of health to be highlighted.4.5. Development of Medicinal Plant Sector 1. Demand for medicinal plants is rapidly increasing; therefore, organized cultivation of medicinal plant is urgently required for meeting the demand. 2. While selecting the germplasm, standardization of toxicity, self-life of the product, the potency and the concentration has to be taken care of. 3. Harvesting, drying and storage of medicinal plants must ensure the purity and safety against microbial contamination and quality deterioration. 4. There should be a linkage between growers and pharmaceutical companies to ensure marketability of raw drugs. 5. Village level cultivation of medicinal plants should ensure health, nutritional and environmental security. 24 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  27. 27. 4.6. Products Standardization 1. For popularizing ayurvedic medicine it is necessary to promote (a) standardization, (b) safety, (c) quality, (d) integrity and (e) authenticity of the practices and the products. 2. At least one drug for each major disease should be identified and the manufacturing process, standard, quality and clinical trial should be completed within stipulated period. 3. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) should be adopted while manufacturing Ayurvedic medicines. 4. There should be State Drug Testing Laboratory to check the quality and standard of Ayurvedic medicines. 5. All pharmacies should have a research and development activity at least to provide rationale to the products they want to sell in the market. 6. Ayurvedic industry should incorporate the latest advances of science and technology in the manufacturing process and clinical practices. 7. Ayurvedic industries should be given "priority industry status" and declared as "green industry". 8. Guidelines should be framed for patent and proprietary medicines and manufacture to have efficacy and safety. 9. Priority would be recorded to research covering clinical trials, pharmacology, toxicology, standardization and study of pharmacology kinetics in respect of identified drugs.4.7. Globalization of Ayurveda and Medicinal Plant Sector 1. Ayurveda community of the entire world should be brought [under the single banner of a global federation for ayurvedic practitioners. 2. India should upgrade educational centers of Ayurveda such as BHU Varanasi, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar, National Institute of Ayurveda, Jaipur and proposed Deemed University of Ayurveda, Paprola, H.P. to extend educational facility to in India and abroad interested people. 3. India should produce quality ayurvedic medicine and make it available to different countries for utilization. 4. Collaborative research should be encouraged between India and other countries for propagating Ayurveda. 5. Panchkarma and Yoga therapy should be popularized in other countries. 25 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  28. 28. 6. India should prepare a website to provide all the required data in Ayurveda such as GMP regulations, R & D findings, raw material standardization, trade and market information and other things relevant for the global community. The rapidly expanding movement to minimise the impact of full implementation of the European Union (EU) herb law, the Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products Directive (THMPD), took another major step forward on Monday 28th March at a symposium organised by the campaign group Save Herbal Medicine headed by Amarjeet Bhamra. Following the broad expression of support from a wide cross-section of European herbal interests last week, the ANH-Intl judicial review and other important initiatives were widely backed by representatives of the UK Ayurveda community. Under the fully operational THMPD, non-European medical traditions like Ayurveda will see hundreds, even thousands, of perfectly safe and effective herbal products banned from 1st May 2011 because there is no place in the Directive’s regime for them – they are simply locked out. The THMPD regulates herbal products, and the UK is unique in the EU in that the government has announced that it will regulate herbal practitioners through the Health Professions Council (HPC) [33].4.8. Trends in Ayurvedic Pharmacy Education Ayurvedic Pharmacy (AP) is emerging as an independent science largely due to global acceptance of Ayurveda. Although Ayurvedic Pharmacy is not new subject but recently it has faced drastic transition. Ayurvedic Pharmacy has roots in Dravyguna, Ras- Shastra and Bhaishjya Kalpana. Ayurvedic Pharmacy utilizes drugs of composite origin including plant, animal, mineral and marine sources. Formulation is Ayurveda are of two types: 1. Traditional formulations and 2. Patented and proprietary medicines [34]. Traditional formulations are based on methodology mentioned in ancient pharmacy lexicons related to Ayurveda. AYUSH, the prime body dealing with Ayurvedic education and regulatory affairs related to Ayurvedic drug industry has issued several guidelines related to drug manufacturing. The courses available in Ayurvedic pharmacy are in initial phase and strict master plan is required for enhancing quality education. Recently Lovely professional University in Punjab has taken the initiative of launching diploma, degree and masters programs in Ayurvedic pharmacy. Curriculum for M.S. Pharma (Traditional Medicine) issued by National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) can act as benchmark for enhancing popularity of courses related to Ayurvedic pharmaceutical sciences. J.J.S College of Pharmacy, 26 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  29. 29. Octamund has taken the initiative to bridge the gap between traditional and modern pharmaceutical sciences by introducing course in Phytopharmacy. The course gives due attention to Ayurveda or other traditional medicinal systems with stress on modern aspects. It is time to take essential steps for welfare for education in Ayurveda keeping in mind the reorganization of traditional system of medicine by World Health Organization. Traditional Chinese System (TCM) can act as role model for imparting quality education in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences. Pharmacy education in Western Herbal Medicine or phytotherapy is highly developed curriculum and recently subjects like phyto- pharmacotherapy and phyto-pharmacovigilance have been added to increase the viability of the subject.4.9. Reverse Pharmacology Typical reductionist approach of modern science is being revisited over the background of systems biology and holistic approaches of traditional practices. Scientifically validated and technologically standardized botanical products may be explored on a fast track using innovative approaches like reverse pharmacology and systems biology, which are based on traditional medicine knowledge. Traditional medicine constitutes an evolutionary process as communities and individuals continue to discover practices transforming techniques. Ayurvedic knowledge and experiential database can provide new functional leads to reduce time, money and toxicity - the three main hurdles in the drug development [35]. Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Pune, begin the search based on Ayurvedic medicine research, clinical experiences, observations or available data on actual use in patients as a starting point. Since safety of the materials is already established from traditional use track record, we undertake pharmaceutical development, safety validation and pharmacodynamic studies in parallel to controlled clinical studies. Thus, drug discovery based on Ayurveda follows a ‘Reverse Pharmacology’ path from Clinics to Laboratories.4.10. Teaching reforms “The wise regard the science of life as the supreme science, because it teaches mankind what constitutes well in both worlds, here and hereafter. That is the importance of Ayurveda.” The development of the modern system of Ayurveda education from 1870 to 1970 has been a great saga [36]. 27 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  30. 30. For 35 years, the syllabus was not translated into English. The responsible bodyis the Central Council of Indian Medicine. The translation has been done and circulatedin 2011, so that teachers have been able to look into the syllabus. Todays worldencourages evidence-based teaching and practice, another important point, which waspracticed in Ayurveda from ages. But the work is going n to show the evidence in termsof present day parameters. Teaching methods deliberately reduce factual knowledge;replace didactic teaching with problem based learning directed by the studentsthemselves. Traditional classroom teaching is old fashioned; too detailed, producingdoctors with poor interpersonal skills. Rather we must improve doctors’ interpersonalskills, so they can train students to be empathetic and relate better to patients and theirproblems. Teaching should thus be hospital-oriented, and clinically oriented; thenstudents remember well. Didactic teaching, lectures and tutorials, is outdated spoon-feeding, stifling creative thinking, keeping students inferior. Lectures are still necessary,but should be effective. Here are points to improve lectures:  Use concrete examples to illustrate abstract principles,  Give handouts of the lecture slides with space to write notes.  Allow for pauses in delivery for students to write notes.  Check for understanding by asking questions or by running mini quies.  Keep students attentive so they are able to understand.  There is an ancient Chinese proverb, “Tell me and I forget, Show me and I remember, Involve me and I understand.” A study undertaken by Kishor Patwardhan, indicates that there are someserious flaws in the existing system of the graduate level Ayurvedic education. Only agood exposure to basic clinical skills during the medical education can produce aconfident physician. Though many topics related to the essential clinical skills areincluded in the curriculum, the education system has not been able to produce skillfulclinicians. Since the Ayurvedic graduates play an important role in the primary healthcaredelivery system of the country, this study seeks the attention of governing bodies to takenecessary steps ensuring the exposure of the students to the basic clinical skills. Alongwith the strict implementation of all the regulatory norms during the process ofrecognition of the colleges, introducing some changes in the policy model may also berequired to tackle the situation. See Annex-3 for the questioners offered to students and 28 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  31. 31. teachers to draw the conclusion [37]. CCIM has issued a notification on 25th April 2012 published in the Gazette to change the syllabus and the method of curriculum.4.11. MOU for Globalization The Department of AYUSH has stepped up its activities to achieve its mandate in certain specific areas such as improvement of educational standards, strengthening of the regulatory mechanism, protection of consumers’ interests, quality control, research and for propagation of AYUSH on the international front. This was stated by Shri Anil Kumar, Secretary, AYUSH in New Delhi today. Department of AYUSH has taken a series of measures in the recent past to deal with quality control issues of ASU and H drugs. These include notification of the shelf life for the ASU (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani) medicines, amendment in the labelling and licensing provisions, imposing a legal ban on the misleading use of prefixes or suffixes in ASU medicines, initiating action for setting up of a more effective central regulatory mechanism etc. Department is now increasingly engaging with other countries in a more structured and concrete manner by entering into MoUs for cooperation in Traditional Medicine as well as for setting up of Academic Chairs in educational institutions abroad. Thus as compared to the previous years where only one MoU had been signed with China in 2008, MoUs on Traditional Medicine have already been entered into with Malaysia and Trinidad & Tobago in the recent past. An MoU with Nepal is currently under Government’s consideration. Furthermore, MoUs with Nepal and Serbia are also in the pipeline. In addition, Academic Chairs have already been set up in South Africa, and are in the process of being set up in Germany and Trinidad & Tobago. Chairs will also be set up in Nepal and Sri Lanka after the MoUs have been signed [38]. The series of MOU signed and under pipeline are enlisted in the Aneex-4. Other than AYUSH department a direct approach and MOU to the foreign Governments and institutions are made by the Ayurveda Institutions and NGOs working for Ayurveda. Some examples are here as such.  On 22nd April 2003, the R. A. Podar Ayurved Medical College, a Govt. of Maharashtra Institution has signed an MOU with Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of Natal, Durban, South Africa for setting up Ayurveda Curriculum for various courses aimed at imparting Education for the award of BAM&S Degree in South Africa. This MOU also aims at a collaborative 29 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  32. 32. research in many areas where traditional or Ayurvedic Medicines can offer better cures/management than the other conventional systems of medicine. Priority areas like HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, Bronchial Asthma etc. shall be taken up for joint funding from international agencies [39].  The Ayurveda Foundation of South Africa (TAFSA) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Shree Niramay Ayurveda Kendra (SNAK) and Beyond Horizons Health And Social circle (BHHAS), both based in Pune and International Ayurveda Association (India chapter) for promotion, learning, development and practice of ayurveda medicine with special reference to traditional healing systems of South Africa. As per the MoU, student training programmes will be conducted according to the criteria, standards and knowledge of ayurveda and traditional healing systems of South Africa [40].  Roy Padayachee, South African Minister of Communications and patron of the Ayurveda Foundation of South Africa, is eager to adapt Indias experience to his countrys circumstances [41].5. Ayurveda software Much software appears in the market to educate the common man. Few of the software targeted the physician needs and make the databases and hospital management software. The pioneer in this aspect is CDAC. They make software by name - AyuSoft is a vision of converting classical Ayurvedic texts into comprehensive, authentic, intelligent and interactive knowledge repositories with complex analytical tools. In a nutshell, AyuSoft focuses on data mining wherein several databases interact with each other through the controlling computational engine enabling the users to act upon the useful information extracted from the enormous amount of available data. It helps the Ayurveda physician with parameter modifications –  Patient Information Management System (PIMS)  Case Analysis  Disease Diagnosis and Treatment  Constitution (Physiological and Psychological) and Tissue Assessment  Assist with Multimedia based Encyclopedia  Analytical Reporting Tool to make Multidimensional complex search of signs, symptoms, causative factors, diseases, herbs, formulation, therapeutic procedures, diet, lifestyle & treatment principles and Specific treatment options could be searched 30 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  33. 33. 6. Conclusion History of Ayurveda in Japan went back to the 6th centuary, when Buddhism brought Ayurveda as Buddhism medicine to Japan. On the other hand, Ayurveda could not gain full attention until 1970. In the 21st century, Ayurveda must be an essential wisdom of life and medicine not only in Japan but also in all over the world [42]. As the American acts and rules are strict and are specific about the rudiments of pesticides and restricted herbs inclusion. Australia doesn’t allow the oils and ghee, even though they are under GMP. Governments do not allow the doctors to practice in their country and honors them as health workers [43]. As far as his therapeutics is concerned, Galen mixed empirical testing of the effects of medicines with speculation on their mode of action, namely the heating, cooling, drying and moistening effects they might have on the body. These actions are still integral to Eastern systems of natural medicine such as Ayurveda and Unani Tibb, while in Western herbal medicine their prevalence diminished after the rise of a mechanical philosophy in the later 17th century [44]. The Globe is vast to do commercialization of the Ayurveda in better way than India. The inspired Indian Vaidyas migrate and mushroomed in the west with small pockets of “Panchakarma” units. Ultimately we require a strong backup to globalize the Ayurveda technically and scientifically. To fulfill those objectives we have to start -  Offering introductory courses for Foreign Nationals  Conducting Panchakarma / Dietician certificate courses for foreigners  Introducing Distance learning programs  Number of groups from MoU institutions / GOI / WHO to traine  WHO APW / DFC projects to undertake With this we can achieve the goal of Globalization of Ayurveda by 2020.Jai Hind 31 Global Ayurveda Scenario
  34. 34. Global Ayurveda Scenario References1] Animals in Ayurveda, Amruth February Vol 1, issue 13 , FRLHT, Bangalore, India # Wele, A. (2004). A Reporton Metals & Minerals, FRLHT, Bangalore, ** FRLHT Databases (2007)2] Jayaprakash Narayan, Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda, J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2):150–157. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.65075, PMCID: PMC3151386,] Wujastyk,D. (2008). “The Evolution of Indian Government Policy on Ayur-veda in the Twentieth Century,” chapter 3 inDagmar Wujastyk and Frederi c k M . S m i t h ( e d s . ) , M o d e r n a n d G l o b a l A y u r v e d a : P l u r a l i s m a n dP a r a d i g m s .New York: SUNY Press, pp.43–76. ISBN: 97807914749074]] The Acts up to 1924 are cited from Bhore 1946: Survey, 29.6] The paragraph numbers (§) refer to discussions of these Reports byChopra 1948:25–67.7] The acts up to 1962 are cited fromStepan 1983: 302.8] Government of India 1970.9] Government of India 2002.10] The First Schedule deals with bureaucratic matters concerning regional representation on the Council.11] See] See] See] Meulenbeld (1999–2002) documents these changes extensively. See also Wujastyk in press.15] The Chopra Report’s title page says that it is Vol.1: Report and Recommendations. This is allthat isavailable in the British Library’s copy.16] See the British Medical Journal obituary (P.N.C. & G.R.McR. 1973).17] Jaggi 2000:312,Shankar 1992:146)18] Dr Udupa subsequently met the medical anthropologist, Prof. Charles Leslie, and their detailedconversations informed some of Prof. Leslie’s later writings on medicalprofessionalisation and modernization in India (Leslie 2004).19] Amritpal Singh, An Overview of Dravyguna in Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences Curriculum,Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 866-67. 2008.,] Dr Arun Bhatt MD (Med) FICP (Ind) MFPM (UK), President, ClinInvent Research Pvt Ltd, Mumbai, 1 Global Ayurveda Scenario – References
  35. 35. 21] De Smet PAGM Herbal Remedies N Engl J Med 2002 347: 2046-5622] Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy Draft National Policy 2001www.indianmedicine.nic.in23] WHO Fact Sheet N°134, Revised May 200324] Subhuti Dharmananda, AyurVijnana, Vol. 7, 200125] www.aapna.org26]]] Dr. Marc Halpern, Status & Development of Ayurveda in the United States,]]] M S Harilal, Sculpting for a Global Market: Indian Ayurvedic Manufacturing Sector in the OpenRegime Fifth Development Convention for South Indian ICSSR institutes at Dharwad, April 2006 fortheir comments on an earlier version of this article.32]] UK Ayurveda community joins movement for THMPD reform,] Amritpal Singh and S.S Bhagel, Recent Trends in Ayurvedic Pharmacy Education in India,Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 888-90.35] Bhushan Patwardhan Reverse Pharmacology and Systems Approaches for Drug Discovery andDevelopment, Current Bioactive Compounds 2008, Vol. 4, No. 436] Jayaprakash Narayan, Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda, J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2010 Apr-Jun; 1(2): 150–157. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.65075, PMCID: PMC3151386,] Kishor Patwardhan, Sangeeta Gehlot, Girish Singh, and H. C. S. Rathore, The Ayurveda Education inIndia:HowWell Are the Graduates Exposed to Basic Clinical Skills? Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2011, Article ID 197391, 6 pages,doi:10.1093/ecam/nep11338]]] 2 Global Ayurveda Scenario – References
  36. 36. 41]] Kazuo UEBABA, PRESENT STATUS AND PROSPECT OF AYURVEDAN IN JAPAN, Ancientscience of life, Vol: XX1(4) April / 2002 pages 218-22943] Ayurveda comes west – Ancient Healing Art gathering Fresh Attention, Breakthoughs in Health, Vol2 issue 4, pages 7-1044] Graeme Tobyn., The Western Herbal Tradition, Churchill Livingstone, 2011, PP 6 3 Global Ayurveda Scenario – References
  37. 37. Annex-1 Global Ayurveda Scenario Global Ayurveda SchoolsSchools in Austria School of Ayurvedic Massage, Graz affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda Dr. Sebastian Mathew, Ayurveda-und Venen-Klinik, Klagenfurt www.ayurvedaklinik.comSchools in England/UK The Manipal Ayurvedic University of Europe (a joint venture between The Manipal University and the Ayurvedic Company of Great Britain) www.ayurvedagb.comSchools in France European Vedic Institute, affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda Tapovan, www.tapovan.frSchools in Germany Ayata Ayurveda, Karlsruhe/Waldbronn, Vedaconsulting Gmbh, Kleve, affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda Seva Akademie, Muenchen, Euroved Akademie, Bell, Yoga Vidia, Bad MeinbergSchools in Greece Ultimate Health Center, Glyfada, www.ultimatehealthcenter.comSchools in Hungary Hungarian Ayurveda Medical Foundation, Budapest, University of Miskolc University of DebrecenSchools in Israel The Israel Center for Ayurveda, Broshim Campus, Tel Aviv University 1 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Annex-1
  38. 38. Schools in Italy Ayurvedic Point, SKA Ayurveda, Milano, affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda Gitananda Ashram, Liguria International Yoga and Ayurveda School, Milan, www.cysurya.milano.itSchools in the Netherlands Academy of Ayurvedic Studies, Amsterdam, www.ayurvedicstudies.nlSchools in Poland Foundation for Health, Poland, www.osrodecpomocyzwodoriu.comSchools in Spain School of Ayurvedic Culture, Barcelona, affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda, www.escueladeayurveda.comSchools in Sweden Swedish/Nordic Ayur-veda School, Skandinaviska Institutet för Hälsa och Andlig Utveckling., Stockholm Web: wwww.skand.orgSchools in Switzerland Sussane Godli, Web: www.godli.chSchools in South Africa Ananda Sanga Educational Institute, affiliated with International Academy of Ayurveda Web site: in Japan Ayurveda International Diffusing AssociationSchools in Thailand Integrated Medical Clinic, www.dreddyclinic.comSchools in Australia Australian School of Ayurvedic Acupuncture Australian College of Ayurvedic Medicine, www.ayurvedahc.comSchools in New Zealand Wellpark College of Natural Therapies, Auckland, in Brazil 2 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Annex-1
  39. 39. Suddha Dharma Mandala, Sao Paolo, www.suddha.netSchools in Argentina International Yoga Federation, Argentina, Fundacion de Salud Ayurveda Prema, Buenos Aires UniversitySchools in Chile Ayurvastu center - Vaidya Mauricio Leon, www.ayurvastu.comUnited States of America Ayurveda SchoolsAlaska  Alaska Kanyakumari Ayurveda School, 700 West 41st Ave. Suite 101, Anchorage, Alaska 99503, Web site:, Email:, Tel: 414- 755-2858California  Yoga and Ayurveda Program, Directed by Mas Vidal, Location: Dancing Shiva Yoga & Ayurveda, 7466 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, Ca 90036,, 323 934 VEDA (8332)  American University of Complementary Medicine, Los Angeles, Offers 660 hour certificate program, Master of Science and Ph.D. programs, Web site: Email:, Tel: 310-914-4116, Fax: 310-479-3376  Ayurveda Institute of America, Foster City, Directed by Dr. Jay Apte, 15 month diploma in Ayurvedic Sciences,, , Tel: 650-341-8400  California College of Ayurveda, Grass Valley, Director: Dr. Marc Halpern, Offers: 16 month full time diploma program (Clinical Ayurveda Specialist certification), 2 1/2 year part time diploma program, Both followed by a 6 month internship, , Tel: 866-541-6699  Dhanvantari Ayurveda Center, Monterey & Berkeley, Instructor/Facilitator: Vijaya Stallings, M.A., Offers 500 hour Nationally Certified Ayurvedic Practitioner Training Starts November 2005, Email:, Tel: 510-282-5282, 757- 867-6720, 831-402-9770 3 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Annex-1
  40. 40.  Ganesha Institute, Los Altos, Directed by Pratichi Mathur, Tel: 650-961-8316 Toll free: 800-924-6815  Mount Madonna Institute College of Ayurveda, Watsonville, Dean: Cynthia Copple 7 month (3-day weekend a month) diploma program, 2 year Ayurvedic Practitioner AA degree, 2 1/2 year MA degree. internship program. 445 Summit Road, Watsonville CA 95076, Tel: 408-846-4060, Email:, Web site:  Tulsi School of Ayurveda, Orange, Directed by Dr. Sneha Tilak, BAMS, Ayurvedic basics, Yoga and meditation, offers conferences, and seminars, Tel: 714-279-8680, Web site:www.tulsihealth.comColorado  Alandia Ayurveda Gurukula, Boulder, CO, Director, Alakananda Ma, MB, BS, Boulder, CO, 1000 and 1500 hours Ayurveda, Tel: 303-786-7437, Web site:, Email:  Ayurvedic Certification Course, Denver, CO, Director: Pat Hansen, M.A., Colorado state certified, approved by the Ayurvedic Institute, N.M., Tel: 303-512-0819  Rocky Mountain Institute of Yoga & Ayurveda, Boulder, CO, Director: Sarasvati Buhrman, PhD, Boulder CO, 750 hour program Yoga Therapy & Ayurveda, AyurDoula program,, Web site: ,Tel: 303-499-2910Florida  Hindu University of America Orlando, FL, Offers Masters degrees in yoga and Ayurveda. , Web site:, Email: Tel: 407-275-0013  Florida Vedic College, Sarasota, FL, Directed by Dr. Light Miller, Offers Associate, Bachelors and Masters degrees through, Florida Vedic College., mal: Tel: 941-929-0999 4 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Annex-1
  41. 41. Illinois  Chicago Kanyakumari Ayurveda School, 30 Old Deerfield Rd. Suite 208, Highland Park, IL. 60035, Web site:, Email: Tel: 414-755-2858Massachusetts  Kripalu School of Ayurveda, Lenox, MA, Dean of Curriculum:Hilary J. Garivaltis, D.Ay. Web site: Email: Tel: 800-848-8702 X3New Jersey  New Jersey Institute of Ayurveda, Director: William Courson, Chief Instructor : Dr. Aparna Bapat, Tel: (973) 783-1036, X7  Ayurveda-Yoga Institute, Directors: Gandharva Sauls and Sarah Tomlinson, Chief Ancient Ayurveda Instructor: Gandharva Sauls, Trainings and CD correspondence gandharva@earthlink.netNew York  Ayurvedic Holistic Center, Bayville, NY, Director: Swami Sada Shiva Tirtha www.ayurvedahc.comNew Mexico  The Ayurvedic Institute, Albuquerque, NM, Director: Dr. Vasant Lad, Level I Ayurvedic Studies Program, Level II Ayurvedic Studies Program, Pune Gurukula Program, Ayurvedic Correspondence Course , Tel: 505-291-9698  American Institute of Vedic Science, Sante Fe, NM, Director: Dr. David Frawley Correspondence course, Tel: 505-983-9385 5 Global Ayurveda Scenario – Annex-1