Being Updated• Data collection from the net – Pubmed, Cochrane adata, Chemnetbase, other publications, Google search• Popular books in science• Monthly updates • Identifying emerging concepts• New findings• Interpretation
How the brain works• Hierarchical thinking – 4th line of the verse – Truth – Russian fruit – Capitals and countries – Deepika Padukone
No research is needed• Yadi naasti tadanyatra, Yanne naasti na tat kvachit• Fundamentals: can not confront• Darshana: Only can be interpreted • Prakriti, Dosha Anubandha‐Anubandhyatwa, Arambhaka and Anugami Dosha Vikalpa…..etc can’t be embedded in a research design
Why research is needed ?• Common sense and refrigerator• Stationary and Moving objects
Why research is needed• The Barnum Effect: Occurs when people believe that general descriptions are accurate descriptions• You have a need for other people to like and admire you, and yet you tend to be critical of yourself. While you have some personality weaknesses you are generally able to compensate for them. You have considerable unused capacity that you have not turned to your advantage. At times you have serious doubts whether you have made the right decision or done the right thing.
Why research is needed• The men wrote: “Woman, without her man, is nothing.”• The women wrote: “Woman: Without her, man is nothing.”
Why research is neededउपदे शः िह मूखार्णां ूकोपाय न शान्तये | पयः पानं भुजंगानां कवलं िवषवधर्नं || े
Thinking Problems• Hierarchical nature of brain – Flower / Fruit
Micro and Macro world• “The sun has tied Earth and other planets through attraction and moves them around itself as if a trainer moves newly trained horses around itself holding their reins.” ‐ Rig Veda 10.149.1 – “Earth is flat” – Yajur Ved 32.8.1• Shleepada and Anupa desha – Did he miss the mosquito / Prasite?
Can we revert?• Deciphering Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka.• Governed by Scientific world, which has given us aero‐planes, antibiotics & surgeries.• Faith in the principles‐ Yes; Faith in the practices‐ No.• Can we demonstrate uniform & universal Amsha‐amsha parikalpana?• Have we built institutions of research?
Learning from Historians• Why west rules the rest – Competition – Science – Property rights – Medicine – Consumerism – Work‐ Ethic
Mumbo ‐ Jumbo• Conceptual conflicts (Kashaya rasa‐Coat)• Mental image and Physical image conflict (Fibroid‐ rodha)• Advocates’ reasoning (Glasses and Mani) (Kauravas and Test tube baby)
Future research; facts• Research in Fundamentals• Research in clinical conditions• Research in drug development – Enhancing plant properties – Drug design – Manufacturing techniques – Drug development (Modern medicine)
Myths about plant chemistry• There is something beyond matter in a plant• Standardization without chemistry • Thousands of chemicals in a plant• Many molecules work in conjunction in a plant• Classical v/s Patent
Plant Secondary Metabolites• Plants make a variety of less widely distributed compounds such as morphine, caffeine, nicotine, menthol, and rubber. These compounds are the products of secondary metabolism, which is the metabolism of chemicals that occurs irregularly or rarely among plants, and that have no known general metabolic role in plants.• Secondary metabolites or secondary compounds are compounds that are not required for normal growth and development, and are not made through metabolic pathways common to all plants.• Most plants have not been examined for secondary compounds and new compounds are discovered almost daily.
• Secondary compounds are grouped into classes based on similar structures, biosynthetic pathways, or the kinds of plants that make them. The largest such classes are the alkaloids, terpenoids, and phenolics. • Secondary compounds often occur in combination with one or more sugars. These combination molecules are known as glycosides. Usually the sugar is a glucose, galactose or rhamnose. But some plants have unique sugars. Apiose sugar is unique to parsley and its close relatives.
Functions of Secondary Compounds• The most common roles for secondary compounds in plants are ecological roles that govern interactions between plants and other organisms.• Many secondary compounds are brightly colored pigments like anthocyanin that color flowers red and blue. These attract pollinators and fruit and seed dispersers.• Nicotine and other toxic compounds may protect the plant from herbivores and microbes. • Other secondary compounds like rubber and tetrahydrocannabinil (THC) from cannabis plants have no known function in plants.
Alkaloids• Alkaloids generally include alkaline substances that have nitrogen as part of a ring structure. More than 6500 alkaloids are known and are the largest class of secondary compounds. They are very common in certain plant families, especially:• Fabaceae – peas and beans• Asteraceae ‐ sunflowers• Papaveraceae ‐ poppies• Solanaceae – nightshade, tomato• Apocynaceae ‐ dogbanes• Asclepiadaceae ‐ milkweeds• Rutaceae ‐ citrus
Terpenoids• Terpenoids are dimers and polymers of 5 carbon precursors called isoprene units (C5 H8). • Terpenoids often evaporate from plants and contribute to the haze we see on hot sunny days. They are expensive to make; they often take 2% of the carbon fixed in photosynthesis; carbon that could otherwise be used for sugars.
Phenolics• Compounds that contain a fully unsaturated six carbon ring linked to an oxygen are called phenolics. • Salicylic acid (basic part of aspirin) is a simple phenol.• Myristicin is a more complex phenol that provides the flavor of nutmeg.• Flavonoids are complex phenolics. They are often sold in health food stores as supplements to vitamin C. The most commonly available flavonoid is rutin from buckwheat.• Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoid that give flowers red and blue pigments.
Minor Secondary metabolites• Mustard oil glycosides are nitrogen‐sulfur containing compounds that occur in cabbage, broccoli, horseradish, watercress and other members of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). They give the group its characteristic taste and odor.• Cyanogenic glycosides occur in several families of plants, but are especially common in roses (Rosaceae) and peas (Fabaceae). They are sugar containing compounds that release cyanide gas when hydrolyzed. • Cardiac glycosides effect vertebrate heart rate. Especially common in milkweeds Asclepiadaceae.• The parsley/carrot family Apiaceae is noted for having aromatic and poisonous 17 carbon polyacetylenes, though a few species have alkaloids like Coniium.
Plant Biotech• Micro propagation• Callus‐mediated organogenesis• Regeneration through somatic embryogenesis• Conservation through cryopreservation• Production of secondary metabolites from medicinal plants• Genetic Transformation – Agrobacterium‐mediated transformation
Plant Biotech• Combination bio synthesis• Genetic transformation technology and production of transgenic plants• Engineering agronomic traits in medicinal plants
New Avenues• New models – Malaria Research• Bio similars (re‐combinant therapeutic proteins)• NanoTechnology – (Prof Kuo Guo‐hwa of Kaohsiumgs medical university and anti cancer herbal drug in cancer treatment)
Recent Publications• Sida rombifolia in atherogenicity• Withaferrin‐A in herpes • Baccopa and centela in memory• Salacia chinesis in Lipid lowering• Curcumin+ St Johns’ wort in Depression• Curcumin , Silimarin and N‐acytylcysteine in ATT toxicity• Tinospora cordifolia iso quinoline‐alkaloids in lens aldose reductase
Recent Publications• Curcumin in structural and functional brain damage• Polyphenolic fraction of Pilea microphylla in radiation induced cycto‐toxicity• Murraya koenigii and Tribulus terrestris in BPH• Curcuma longa extract in UV damage to skin• Emblica officinalis in growth and anto oxidant defense of hepatoma
Recent Publications• Anti inflammatory potential of Justicia gendarussa• Butea monosperma and DM• Sida rhombifolia in arthritic rats• Citrulus colocynthes and Artemesia absinthium as Anti oxidant• Sinomenine as neuro protector• Jathyadi thaila in wound healing
Recent Publications• Bresol modulates inflammatory mediators in human monocytes• Nootropic anxiolytic and anti oxidant activities of various sources of Shankhapushpi• Serpentine as a novel anti oxidant• Gnidia glauca and Diascoria bulbifera in DM• Embelin from Emblica ribes in ischemia induced brain damage in rats
Recent publications• Quercetin‐Phospholipid complex: Improve solubility of flavonoids• Bio larvicidal compound of gymnemagenol from (Gym sylvestra) against malaria & filaria vector• Anti inflammatory compound of Emblica officinalis