BHASMA – AN ANCIENTINDIAN NANO MEDICINE By, Dr. Bhagyalakshmi. B. R Final year PG Scholar Under the guidance of, Dr. Shobha. G. Hiremath, Professor & HOD Dept Of PG Studies in Rasa Shastra Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College, Bangalore-09
INTRODUCTION Concept of reduction in particle size Charaka Samhita(1500 B.C) Louhadi rasayana. Concept of Bhasma preparation 7th century. Bhasmas the unique Ayurvedic metallic/mineral preparations metals or minerals are treated with herbal juices or decoctions make them into pellets exposed to certain quantum of heat as per Puta. Bhasmas the most ancient application of Nano 2 medicine.
BHASMA Shodhana Bhavana MaranaInfluence of Shodhana on Bhasma preparation: Shodhana procedures: help either in the disintegration of molecules or particles to divide into finest divisions To expose their maximum surface area for further chemical or physical reaction To help these in making organo metallic compounds make them more acceptable by the body tissues 3 and organs.
Nirvapa Heating Linear expansion Immediate cooling Decrease in tension & increase in compression force Repetition of heating & cooling Disruption in compression tension equilibriumIncreased brittleness, reduction in hardness & particle size 4
INFLUENCE OF BHAVANA (WET LEVIGATION) ON BHASMA PREPARATION Bhavana Wet grinding shodhita metals/minerals with specific liquid media for specific period convert them into more finer form. Helps in conversion of coarse powder to finer state. Impregnation of properties of media to the material which lead to unique and suitable physicochemical changes. Facilitate further processing Marana. 5
JARANA Jarana is the intermediate procedure for the metals having low melting point, between Shodhana and Marana. Metals are melted mixed with particular plant drug powders are rubbed by iron ladle until metals become complete powder form. Oxidation of metals occurs during heating at open air , which increases the melting point of the metal. Facilitates reduction of particle size. 6
CONCEPT OF MARANA The process which converts purified metals and minerals into Bhasma after subjecting them to levigation and incineration is called MaranaRole of Marana Marana responsible for feasible changes converts these industrial materials magnificent medicine. Increase in no of puta Decease in size of particle Conjugation of trace elements Elimination of impurities. Formation of desirable compounds which are biologically favorable to the body. 7
STAGES OF BHASMA PREPARATIONAshodita Shodhita Powder of Metal BhavanaChakrika Sharava samputa Puta Bhasma s 8
CHARACTERISTICS OF BHASMA Physical - Varitara, Rekhapoorna, Unama, Slakshnatwa, Sookshmatwa, Anjana sannibha, Varna, Nishchandra Chemical – Apunarbhava , NirutthaCredentials of BhasmaRasayanaYogavahiAlpa matraShighra vyaptiAgni deepana 9
NANO MEDICINE (0.1-100NM) Monitoring, repairing, construction and control of human biological systems at the cellular level by using material and structures engineered at the atomic or molecular level. Importance Target specificity Encapsulation efficiency Carry high concentration drug Efficient drug release Ability to cross blood brain barrier Reduction in peripheral side effects of drugs by decreasing over all dose of drugs 10
SYNTHESIS OF NANO PARTICLES PHYSICAL METHODS CHEMICAL METHODS BIOLOGICAL METHODSDetection of Nano particles in Bhasma Environmental Electron Microscopy Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) Transmission Electron Microscopy(TEM) Cryo TEM Fast Freeze Fracture Confocal Laser Scanning Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis(EDAX) AAS X-Ray induced Photo Electron Spectroscopy(XPS) 11
BHASMA AS NANO PARTICLE Swarna bhasma – Through TEM, SEM-EDS, AFM – 56-57nm The Swarna bhasma was analyzed qualitatively through XRD,FTIR (Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectroscopy) results showed that the final product is almost pure Au in zero valency state. Yashada Bhasma – Oxygen deficient state and are in nano meter in size. Naga Bhasma, it was found that drug contains lead in nano crystalline (60nm), lead sulphide form with organic contents. It was found to be safe in histo pathological study on rats at dose of 6mg/100g/day. 12 Vanga bhasma – Particle study in our department.
DISCUSSION BHASMA NANO MEDICINE Preparation Physical(vapor Shodhana, Jarana, deposition, solid state Bhavana, Marana, process – grinding which includes grinding, milling), milling, heating. Chemical, Characteristics Biological. Sookshmatwa, Particle size 0.1- Slakshnatva, Anjana 100nm sannibha, varitara. Targeted drug delivery, Properties Yoga efficient drug release, vahi, Rasayana, ability to cross blood Shighravyapti, Agni brain barrier, minimal deepana, Alpa matra dose. 13
CONCLUSION Bhasma preparations and Bhasmas are the best example of Nano technology & Nano medicine practiced during the ancient period. Shata puta, Sahasra puta Bhasmas are the indirect reference for the concept of conversion of drug to Nano medicine. Ancient knowledge of Bhasmeekarana may cover the currrent scientific validation of Nano Technology. Bhasma - Safe, Quick, Effective Remedial Measure. More researches are essential in this direction to establish ancient Nano Technology = BHASMA 14